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IT Workshop
Notes by
S.David Paul (KIET)


1. The Motherboard Form factors:

Connects to: Microprocessors via sockets Main memory via Slots Peripherals via one of o External ports

Common Manufacturers:

ATX microATX

ASUS Foxconn Intel

Internal cables

What is Mother Board? The main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.

Fig .1.3

Notes by David (KIET)

Fig 1.4 Top View of Mother Board Components of a Motherboard

Fig 1.5 Rear View

The motherboard contains many connections for all type of components. Motherboards contain expansion slots such as the ISA, PCI, AGP and DIMM sockets. It also contains external connections for your onboard sound card, USB ports, Serial and Parallel ports, PS/2 ports for your keyboard and mouse as well as network and Firewire connections. Types of Slots ? The Motherboard has connectors on it to allow you to add additional controllers to the motherboard. These were anticipated to be things like display boards, disk controllers, I/O cards, and others. To facilitate this the Motherboard is configured with connectors. The first ones of these were known as ISA bus. These connectors allowed the motherboard to be expanded by adding circuit boards to the motherboard. ISA (Industry Standard Adapter) - These are the long black slots. They are the oldest and slowest of the bunch. They support 8 and 16 bit cards (usually stuff like sound cards and modems). You usually won't even find these on newer computers.

PCI (Peripheral Connect Interface) - These are the current "standard" expansion slot. They support 32 bit cards, transfer data quickly, and take up less space on the motherboard. Usually white in color.

Notes by David (KIET)

AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port ) - This is a newer type of slot and it's designed for video cards. It bypasses the slower PCI & ISA slots and provides better / faster 3D video.

PS/2 connector

The color-coded PS/2 connection ports (purple for keyboards and green for mice) The PS/2 connector is used for connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system. Its name comes from the IBM Personal System/2 series of personal computers, with which it was introduced in 1987. The PS/2 mouse connector generally replaced the older DE-9 RS-232 "serial mouse" connector, while the keyboard connector replaced the larger 5-pin DIN used in the IBM PC/AT design. VGA Connector A VGA connector as it is commonly known (other names include RGB connector, D-sub 15, mini sub D15 and mini D15) is a three-row 15 pin

Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7

Notes by David (KIET)

RED Red video GREEN Green video BLUE Blue video N/C Not connected GND Ground RED_RTN Red return GREEN_RTN Green return

Pin 8 Pin 9 Pin 10 Pin 11 Pin 12 Pin 13 Pin 14 Pin 15


Blue return +5 V DC Ground Not connected IC data Horizontal sync Vertical sync IC clock

The common 15-pin VGA connector found on most video cards, computer monitors, and other devices, is almost universally called "HD-15". HD stands for "high-density", which distinguishes it from connectors having the same form factor but only 2 rows of pins. However, this connector is often incorrectly referred to as a DB-15 or HDB-15.[citation needed] "VGA connectors" and their associated cabling are always used solely to carry analog component RGBHV (red - green - blue - horizontal sync - vertical sync) video signals along with DDC2 digital clock and data. Where size is a constraint (such as laptops) a mini-VGA port can sometimes be found in place of the full-sized VGA connector. 3.7. Ports The PC contains a number of input/outputs known as ports. Basically a port is a communication device which formats data according to a protocol. We are going to look at hardware interfaces present in the PC. We will only discuss the protocols as they affect the hardware. 3.7.1. Serial Ports One of the early interfaces between computers was the Serial Port . This is a method of moving data one bit at a time over a wire. The serial port chip uses a protocol known as RS-232 which defines the order and timing of the bits on the communication line. The serial port is an Asynchronous port which transmits one bit of data at a time, usually connecting to the UART Chip. Serial Ports are commonly found on the majority of PC Compatible computers. Usually referred to as a DB9 or DB25 connection both of which adhere to the RS-232c interface standard and defined in ISO 2110 and ISO 4902. DB9 Serial connections are now commonly found on modern PC's where DB25 is commonly found on older computers. The serial port is not used as much any more as many of it's functions have been taken over by the USB port. In the past this port was used for Terminals, Mice, Modems, and some Printers.

3.7.3. Parallel Ports

Notes by David (KIET)

IEEE 1284

The Parallel Port has typically been used as a printer interface. This port uses a 25 pin connector and sends data 8 bits at a time. In the past this port has been used for some Tape drives. TYPES OF PARALLEL PORTS Unidirectional - 4-bit standard port which by factory default did not have the capability of transferring data both ways. Bi-directional - 8-bit standard port which was released with the introduction of the PS/2 port in 1987 by IBM and are still found in computers today. The Bi-directional port is cable of sending 8-bits input and output. Today on multifunction printers this port can be referred to as a bi-directional, Centronics, PS/2 type or standard port. EPP - The Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) was developed in 1991 by Intel, Xircom and Zenith Data Systems and operates close to ISA bus speed and can achieve transfer rates up to 1 to 2MB/sec of data. EPP version 1.7 released in 1992 and later adapted into the IEEE 1284 standard. All additional features are adapted into the IEEE standard. EPP version 1.9 never existed. ECP - The Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP) was developed by Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard and announced in 1992 is an additional enhanced Parallel port. Unfortunately with ECP it requires an additional DMA channel which can cause resource conflicts. 3.7.2. USB

Notes by David (KIET)

The serial interface which was previously handled by the serial port, is now being taken over by the USB port. One distinct advantage of USB over serial is that multiple devices can talk to the USB port as the same time, while serial can only deal with one device at a time. USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a new external bus developed by Intel, Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC and Northern Telcom and released to the public in 1996 with the Intel 430HX Triton II Mother Board. USB has the capability of transferring 12 Mbps, supporting up to 127 devices and only utilizing one IRQ. For PC computers to take advantage of USB the user must be running Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98 or Windows 2000. Linux users also have the capability of running USB with the proper support drivers installed. To determine if your computer supports USB on the back, front or sides of the computer look for a small connector with the following symbol. USB cables are hot swappable which allows users to connect and disconnect the cable while the computer is on without any physical damage to the cable. USB 1.0

USB 1.0: Released in January 1996. Specified data rates of 1.5 Mbit/s (Low-Speed) and 12 Mbit/s (Full-Speed). Did not anticipate or pass-through monitors. Few such devices actually made it to market. USB 1.1: Released in September 1998. Fixed problems identified in 1.0, mostly relating to hubs. Earliest revision to be widely adopted.

USB 2.0

USB 2.0: Released in April 2000. Added higher maximum speed of 480 Mbit/s (now called Hi-Speed). Further modifications to the USB specification have been done via Engineering Change Notices (ECN). The most important of these ECNs are included into the USB 2.0 specification package available from

USB 3.0

USB 3.0 (Future version): On September 18, 2007, Pat Gelsinger demonstrated USB 3.0 at the fall Intel Developer Forum. USB 3.0 is targeted at ten times the current bandwidth, roughly 4.8 Gbit/s, utilizing a parallel optical cable. The USB 3.0 specification is planned to be released in the first half of 2008, commercial products are expected to arrive in 2009 or 2010.[20]

USB signalling USB supports three data rates:

A Low Speed (1.1, 2.0) rate of 1.5 Mbit/s (187 kB/s) that is mostly used for Human Interface Devices (HID) such as keyboards, mice, and joysticks.

Notes by David (KIET)

A Full Speed (1.1, 2.0) rate of 12 Mbit/s (1.5 MB/s). Full Speed was the fastest rate before the USB 2.0 specification and many devices fall back to Full Speed. Full Speed devices divide the USB bandwidth between them in a first-come first-served basis and it is not uncommon to run out of bandwidth with several isochronous devices. All USB Hubs support Full Speed. A Hi-Speed (2.0) rate of 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s).

Experimental data rate:

A Super-Speed (3.0) rate of 4.8 Gbit/s (600 MB/s). The USB 3.0 specification will be released by Intel and its partners in mid 2008 according to early reports from CNET news. According to Intel, bus speeds will be 10 times faster than USB 2.0 due to the inclusion of a fiber optic link that works with traditional copper connectors. Products using the 3.0 specification are likely to arrive in 2009 or 2010. 2.4. ROM Long term storage on the motherboard is accomplished using ROM (Read Only Memory). These are typically the chips used to store the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) for the CPU. In many embedded system the only program storage is ROM.

Here is a picture of a microcontroler chip which has a build in EPROM so you can see what I am talking about.EProm showing window The second type of ROM on today's motherboards is the EEPROM, (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), also known as the Flash Memory . This allows you to erase and reprogram the memory. I would imagine some of you have a flash bios in your computer. 2.5. BIOS While we are discussing ROM, we should discuss the BIOS . When the CPU is first turned on, or reset, it needs some way to find it's first instruction. So the CPU manufactures decided that the first instruction would be hard coded. So the CPU goes to a specific location, loads the data, and executes this data. The first data is normally a jump into the initial BIOS code. This is also what happens when you press the reset button, if you have one.

The BIOS itself instructs the computer on what hardware is available on the system and usually runs the POST (Power On Self Test) to see that the motherboard is OK. Once the POST is done, the user can go into the bios setup to specify the hardware, or the system loads the basic drivers for the installed hardware.

2.6. Clock The Motherboard contains 2 clocks. The first clock is the Clock Signal. The clock signal is best thought of as the drum beat for the computer. The rising and falling edges of the signal trigger different operations on the motherboard.
Notes by David (KIET)

2.8. Jumpers

Many motherboards contain jumpers to allow modifications to some parameters. Many motherboards will accommodate more than one speed for the CPU. So there is a jumper to select which clock speed you want for your CPU. I will not go into the jumpers since they are specific to the board in question. Be careful not to change any of the jumpers unless you know what you are doing. Often if you change a jumper it will cause your computer to stop working.

2.9. Control Chips There are today many more chips on the motherboard today than originally planned for. Today it is not uncommon to find a Video controller, hard disc controller, floppy disk controller, serial interface, parallel interface, USB interface, as well as mouse and keyboard interface chips. Since I intend to discuss these chips as though they were add on boards or peripherals, I will skip them for now.

Ethernet Port

Notes by David (KIET)

An eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto a local-area networks (LAN), especially Ethernets. RJ-45 connectors look similar to the ubiquitous RJ-11 connectors used for connecting telephone equipment, but they are somewhat wider.

What is a Motherboard Chipset?

A motherboard chipset controls all the data that flows through the data channels (buses) of the motherboard. The primary function of the motherboard chipset is to direct this data to the correct area's of the motherboard, and therefore the correct components.

2.1. CPU

Notes by David (KIET)

A Central Processing Unit (CPU), or sometimes just processor, is a description of a certain class of logic machines that can execute computer programs. This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term "CPU" ever came into widespread usage. However, the term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961). The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same. Connects to: Architectures: Common Manufacturers: Motherboard via one of Socket PowerPC Intel Integration x86 DIP AMD Others x64 The CPU consists of a number of sub parts. These include the ALU, the Process Registers, the CPU Cache, and the Memory Management Unit. This is not a complete list of all the sub parts of the CPU, there are whole books on that subject, along with jobs at Intel.

Here is a reasonable drawing of what a CPU does and how it works. CPU Block Diagram Another name for Instructions is opcode. The opcode is the basic unit of control in the CPU. When a CPU is designed, the opcodes are defined and usually hard coded into the CPU. These opcodes define what the CPU does. Some of you are probably familiar with assembly code, also known as assembly language. Assembly code is the human readable version of machine language . For those of you who are not familiar with machine code, let me see if I can make it understandable. A computer is a series of registers and logic gates . In the computer everything is stored as ON and OFF, commonly referred to as 1 and 0. This is easy to visualize if you think of a light switch, the light is either ON or it is OFF.
Figure 8

Notes by David (KIET)

So now that we understand how binary arithmetic is done you might have guessed, that this operation is performed by the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit). Besides the ALU we have Registers which work as temporary storage locations for the ALU. Another part of the CPU you hear about often is the CPU cache . The cache is a method for keeping the ALU busy by prefetching instructions and data before it is needed by the ALU. 2.3. RAM RAM (Random Access Memory) is the interface between the larger but slower storage devices and the CPU. RAM is sometimes referred to as scratch pad memory since it's contents disappear when the power is turned off. RAM is best viewed as a very large set of mail boxes. Each of the RAM chips has two set of information pins, data and address. The Data pins of the RAM chip are used to read and write the contents. These pins provide access to the values stored in the chip at a given address.

Figure 9

SDRAM means synchronous dynamic random access memory which is a type of solid state computer memory. DDR SDRAM While the access latency of DRAM is fundamentally limited by the DRAM array, DRAM has very high potential bandwidth because each internal read is actually a row of many thousands of bits. To make more of this bandwidth available to users, a Double Data Rate interface was developed. This uses the same commands, accepted once per cycle, but reads or writes two words of data per clock cycle. Some minor changes to the SDR interface timing were made in hindsight, and the supply voltage was reduced from 3.3 to 2.5 V. DDR2 SDRAM DDR2 SDRAM is very similar to DDR SDRAM, but doubles the minimum read or write unit again, to 4 consecutive words. The bus protocol was also simplified to allow higher speed operation. (In particular, the "burst terminate" command is deleted.) This allows the bus speed of the SDRAM to be doubled without increasing the speed of internal RAM operations; instead, internal operations are performed in units 4 times as wide as SDRAM. Also, an extra bank address pin (BA2) was added to allow 8 banks on large RAM chips. DDR3 SDRAM DDR3 continues the trend, doubling the minimum read or write unit to 8 consecutive words. This allows another doubling of bandwidth and external bus speed without having to change the speed of internal operations, just the width.
Notes by David (KIET)

5. Storage Devices Hard disks, sometimes also called hard drives, are storage devices for the computer. Unlike the computer's memory, hard drives are not within the circuitry of the computer and are not on the motherboard itself. There is at least one hard disk within every single modern desktop computer! They are used to store large amounts of information. The data stored in a hard disk will not be erased when the computer is turned off, like the data stored in the computer's random-access memory (RAM). When the central processing unit of a computer needs to use information stored on the hard disk, the data will be copied from the hard disk to the computer's RAM. This is so a computer can permanently store large amounts of information and operate at fast speeds at the same time! A hard disk is generally accessed over one of a number of bus types, including ATA (IDE, EIDE), Serial ATA, SCSI, SAS, FireWire (aka IEEE 1394), USB, and Fibre Channel. ATA drives have typically had no problems with interleave or data rate, due to their controller design, but many early models were incompatible with each other and couldn't run in a master/slave setup (two drives on the same cable). This was mostly remedied by the mid-1990s, when ATA's specification was standardized and the details begun to be cleaned up, but still causes problems occasionally (especially with CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives, and when mixing Ultra DMA and non-UDMA devices). Serial ATA does away with master/slave setups entirely, placing each drive on its own channel (with its own set of I/O ports) instead. FireWire/IEEE 1394 and USB(1.0/2.0) hard disks are external units containing generally ATA or SCSI drives with ports on the back allowing without requiring additional ports on the computer itself very simple and effective expansion and mobility. Most FireWire/IEEE 1394 models are able to daisy-chain in order to continue adding peripherals SCSI originally had just one speed, 5 MHz (for a maximum data rate of 5 megabytes per second), but later this was increased dramatically. The SCSI bus speed had no bearing on the drive's internal speed because of buffering between the SCSI bus and the drive's internal data bus; however, many early drives had very small buffers, and thus had to be reformatted to a different interleave (just like ST-506 drives) when used on slow computers, such as early IBM PC compatibles and Apple Macintoshes.. Head Disk Assembly (HAD): The head disk assembly is the aluminum case in which the hard drive is contained. It is a chamber that holds all of a hard disk's
Notes by David (KIET)

components. In the inside, you can find platters, a spindle motor, heads, and a head actuator, while on the outside there is a logic board. . Hard disk drives range in size, but are usually 5.25 inches or 3.5 inches. This size usually depends on the size of the platters in the disk. Platters: Platters are rigid disks where the information is actually stored. Most hard disk drives have at least two platters. The size of the platter determines how much information the hard disk can store. When the hard disk is operating, a platter can make up to 7,200 revolutions per minute. Originally, platters were made out of an aluminum material, but now there are new platters that are made out of a mixture of glass and cement. Glass platters are thinner than aluminum ones, and they can also resist heat better. Platters are all coated with a magnetic oxide material. This mixture is the reason why some platters may seem to have an orange-y color. These are the materials responsible for allowing the platters to record and store data. Data is stored on the platters in a pattern of tracks and sectors. Tracks are concentric circles, like a bulls eye, while sectors are similar to pizza slices. Each sector contains a certain number of bytes. Read/Write Heads: The read/write heads are mechanisms that allow the hard disk to read and write information and data. There is one head on every side of a platter. The heads are rested on the platter when the disk is not in use, but when the hard disk is in use, the spinning of the platters cause the heads to lift slightly up, making them seem as if they are floating in the air. However, the heads lift up so little that even a particle of dust lying in the space they lift up would cause a problem! Head Actuators: Head actuators are devices to which the read/write heads are attached. They are responsible for moving the heads around on the platters to different tracks and sectors. There are two different types of head actuators. First, there is the stepper motor actuator. There are stop positions on the read/write heads, and the stepper motor actuators have motors that move from one stop position to another. Unfortunately, it is very slow. The second kind of head actuators is the servo motor actuators. These are found in almost all modern hard disks. They use a special form of the binary system to position the read/write head over the right portion of the platter Spindle Motors: Spindle motors are the devices that spin the platters. They can spin these disks at a set rate, ranging anywhere from 5400 RPM to 7200 RPM! Some spindle motors are located in a position
Notes by David (KIET)

below the head disk assembly, while others are built into the hub of the platters. The modern ones are usually all built into the hub because this takes up less space and thus allows for more platters to be built in. More platters equal more storage space! Logic Board: The logic board is located blow the HDA. It consists of a bunch of chips that control the spindle motors and the head actuators and that also translates data so that it is usable by the rest of the computer. 5.3. CD-Rom The CD-Rom is similar to the audio CD. The use of the CD has revolutionized data distribution on the PC due to it's size and cost. There are three common types of CDs, those pressed, those burned, and those burned and erased. Here is a discussion of how the CD-R works.

Inside View of CD ROM A CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable) is a special type of CD which is coated with a photosensitive organic dye which allows a user to record information to a special type of cd for backup and duplication purposes. Once the CD-R disk is placed within the computer the recording process begins the laser heats and the dye reveals the areas to diffuse light just as a regular CD would. The CD-R drive does not actually create pits on the CD instead the burner creates reflective sections on the CD causing the computers CD-ROM laser to interpret it as a pit. Because of this method of creating a CD, CD-R drives are only capable of recording to the CD once. This unfortunately means if you encounter errors or do not complete the recording process the CD may become useless.
Notes by David (KIET)

The DVD drive connects to the same cables as the hard disk drive. Here is what the inside of a DVD drives looks like.

Internal view of a DVD Drive 3. Input Devices

Keyboard layout A Personal Computer is designed for user input. But to talk to the computer we need one or more input devices. Lets do a survey of the common, and less common input devices for the PC. 3.2. Mouse The second most common input device is the Computer Mouse. The mouse is a 2 dimensional pointing device, as can be see below. As the ball moves, it rotates the wheels, which interrupt the light from the LED to the photo transistor. This creates our familiar ON and OFF sequence. The mouse is a relative device, meaning that it only indicates movement by sending pulses, either positive or negative.
Notes by David (KIET)

An absolute device would be a light pen which gives position and movement to the OS. The mouse communicates with the PC via a 3 byte serial interface. 3.3. Trackball It appears that the venerable wheeled mouse is in danger of extinction. The now-preferred device for pointing and clicking is the optical mouse. Developed by Agilent Technologies and introduced to the world in late 1999, the optical mouse actually uses a tiny camera to take 1,500 pictures every second. Able to work on almost any surface, the mouse has a small, red lightemitting diode (LED) that bounces light off that surface onto a complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. The CMOS sensor sends each image to a digital signal processor (DSP) for analysis. The DSP, operating at 18 MIPS (million instructions per second), is able to detect patterns in the images and see how those patterns have moved since the previous image. Based on the change in patterns over a sequence of images, the DSP determines how far the mouse has moved and sends the corresponding coordinates to the computer. The computer moves the cursor on the screen based on the coordinates received from the mouse. This happens hundreds of times each second, making the cursor appear to move very smoothly.

In this photo, you can see the LED on the bottom of the mouse. Optical mice have several benefits over wheeled mice:

No moving parts means less wear and a lower chance of failure. There's no way for dirt to get inside the mouse and interfere with the tracking sensors. Increased tracking resolution means smoother response. They don't require a special surface, such as a mouse pad.

3.5. Graphics Tablet Another input device, often used by artists, is the Graphics Tablet . This device consists of a grid of wires which are activated by pressure from the stylus. These devices are used to create
Notes by David (KIET)

electronic free hand drawings. I have read that a number of cartoon strips are now being produced electronically using graphics tablets. If you want to have fun, and you have access to a graphics tablet, try using Gimp with a graphics tablet. It is a trip being able to draw free hand on a computer screen. 3.6. Touch Screen A close relative of the graphics tablet is the Touch Screen. These have taken on a much broader use with the current crop of PDAs. The touch screen has been used for inputs to many dedicated devices. The technology consists of a grid again and the stylus is the finger for dedicated terminals. Or a grid and a stylus for small screens as seen on a PDA. One of the things that makes the touch screen so useful is the ability to redefine an area. Since the input is happening on top of a display, the definition of the touch can change depending on previous inputs. With dedicated terminals this is a real advantage since it means you can use a menu tree to arrive at a selection. Or with something like a PDA, you can use the same input surface for many different applications.

4. Output Devices 4.1. CRT For many people a PC display still means a CRT . The Cathode Ray Tube has been a reliable display device for computers from early on. Today, many new computers are coming with LCD displays instead of the CRTs. Lets look at how the CRT works to have a better understanding of the technology. Cathod Ray Tube Diagram The tube, basically consists of an electron gun, cathode, which shoots electrons at the screen, anode. The stream of electrons is first focused and then bent using electromagnets to deflect the electrons toward different parts of the screen. At the screen, the stream of electrons strikes a phosphor which glows. The intensity of the glow is determined by the number of electrons striking each dot. If we are discussing a color CRT,
Notes by David (KIET)

we are talking about three guns, one for each primary color. Due to the small size of the phosphor dots our eye blends the three color dots into a single colored pixel. Here in the US the older CRTs refreshed at 30 frames per second, using an interlaced pattern. Newer CRTs though, use a non-interlaced pattern and so they can refresh at 60 times per second, or higher. 4.2. LCD As more and more people turn desktop computers to laptop computer, there is a move from the CRT display to the LCD display. Some people prefer the LCD since it is lighter and slimmer. I tend to still prefer the CRT to the LCD, because of the sharpness and it's ability to deal with moving images. But it seems I am in the minority these days. Lets take a look at how the LCD display works. Liquid Cristal Display Explained A simple black - or - white LCD display works by either allowing daylight to be reflected back out at the viewer or preventing it from doing so - in which case the viewer sees a black area. The liquid crystal is the part of the system that either prevents light from passing through it or not. The crystal is placed between two polarising filters that are at right angles to each other and together block light. When there is no electric current applied to the crystal, it twists light by 90o, which allows the light to pass through the second polariser and be reflected back. But when the voltage is applied, the crystal molecules align themselves, and light cannot pass through the polariser: the segment turns black. Selective application of voltage to electrode segments creates the digits we see.

Notes by David (KIET)

A thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though it is usually synonymous with LCD. It is used in televisions, flat panel displays and projectors.

Computer power supply unit (PSU) is the device that converts the input AC voltage to the DC voltages needed by the personal computer. Since the introduction of IBM PC/XT there have been about a dozen of different PC types (such as AT, Baby AT, LPX, ATX, BTX, SFX, PS3, WTX, TFX, LFX, CFX, EPS) that differ by their structure, form factors, connectors and volt/amp ratings. Output rating of a modern computer power supply is ranging anywhere from 185 W to two kilowatt. PSU over 400W are used mainly for Extreme Gaming & Media Entertainment PC, SLI support, as well as servers and industrial PCs. Today's standard desktop PC PSU produces the following DC outputs: +5V, +3.3V, +12V1, +12V2, -12V and standby 5V. Additional "point of load" DC-DC converters step down 12V to the CPU core voltage and other low voltages needed for motherboard components. All outputs should have a separate current limit to meet 240VA safety requirements of EN 60950, although in practice 12V rails usually have a combined current limit. To support PCI Express requirements in the new systems the old 2x10 main power connector has been replaced by a 2x12 connector. An extra cable with 2x2 power connector is used for the second 12V rail that supports the processor's voltage regulator. There are also peripheral, floppy drive, and serial ATA connectors. The PSUs for high-end discrete graphics cards have an additional 2x3 or 2x4 connector to supply extra power to graphics card that require more than 75 Watts of total power. Older motherboards also used an aux power connector for 5V and 3.3V rails. Inside SMPS

Notes by David (KIET)

24-pin ATX power supply connector (20-pin omits the last 4: 11, 12, 23 and 24) Color Signal Pin Pin Signal Color

+3.3 V 1 13 +3.3 V sense +3.3 V 2 14 12 V Ground 3 15 Ground +5 V 4 16 Power on Ground 5 17 Ground +5 V 6 18 Ground Ground 7 19 Ground Power good 8 20 5 V (optional) +5 V standby 9 21 +5 V +12 V 10 22 +5 V +12 V 11 23 +5 V Notes by David (KIET)

+3.3 V 12 24 Ground

5.4. HD DVD Blu-ray Disc


High-density optical disc High-density optical disc VC-1, H.264, and MPEG-2 MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC (H.264), and VC-1 15 GB (single layer) Capacity: 30 GB (dual layer) 25 GB (single layer), 50 GB (dual layer) 51 GB (triple layer) [1] Read mechanism: 1x@36 Mbit/s & 2x@72 Mbit/s 1x@36 Mbit/s & 2x@72 Mbit/s Developed by: DVD Forum Blu-ray Disc Association Data storage, including high- Data storage, High-definition video and Usage: definition video PlayStation 3 Games HD DVD or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video

Media type: Encoding:

5.4. Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray Disc is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video.

.6. Memory Card Today Flash Memory , has largely taken the place of the Floppy Disk. This is good and bad, the memory stick has a shorter life for writing to than the floppy drive. The plus side is that it is larger and faster than the floppy disk.

Notes by David (KIET)

I am using the term memory card to include a number of different devices and technologies. These include Smart Media, Secure Digital , Multimedia Card , Memory Stick , CompactFlash , and USB Flash Memory . The ideas is that all these technologies are designed to plug into the computer and transfer data. 5.6. Pen Drive

Internals of a typical flash drive (Saitek brand USB1.1 pictured) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 USB connector USB mass storage controller device Test points Flash memory chip Crystal oscillator LED Write-protect switch Space for second flash memory chip

USB flash drives are NAND-type flash memory data storage devices integrated with a USB (universal serial bus) connector. They are typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable. (USB Memory card readers are also available, whereby rather than being built-in, the memory is a removable flash memory card housed in what is otherwise a regular USB flash drive, as described below.) USB flash drives offer potential advantages over other portable storage devices, particularly the floppy disk. They are more compact, faster, hold more data, are more reliable due to their lack of moving parts, and have a more durable design. Additionally, it has become increasingly common for computers to ship without floppy disk drives. USB ports, on the other hand, appear on almost every current mainstream PC and laptop. These types of drives use the USB mass storage standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix-like systems.

With nothing being mechanically driven in a flash drive, the name is somewhat of a misnomer. It is called a "drive" because it appears to the computer operating system (and the user) in a manner identical to a mechanical disk drive, and is accessed in the same way. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board typically in a plastic or metal casing and more recently in rubber casings to increase their robustness. This makes the drive sturdy enough to be carried about in a pocket, for example as a key fob, or on a lanyard. Only the USB
Notes by David (KIET)

connector protrudes, and it is typically protected either by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing them to be connected directly to a port on a personal computer. To access the data stored in a flash drive, the drive must be connected to a computer, either by plugging it into a USB host controller built into the computer, or into a USB hub. Flash drives are active only when plugged into a USB connection and draw all necessary power from the supply provided by that connection. However, some flash drives, especially high-speed drives, may require more power than the limited amount provided by a bus-powered USB hub, such as those built into some computer keyboards or monitors. These drives will not work unless plugged directly into a host controller (i.e., the ports found on the computer itself) or a selfpowered hub.

PC Architecture http://en.wikipedia.org howstuffworks.com www.computerhelpatoz.com www.pccomputernotes.com/ www.techtutorials.info All-in-one A+ PC Hardware Book (4th Edition ... The Indispensable PC Hardware Book

Notes by David (KIET)

Week 2 Task 2 : Every student should disassemble and assemble the PC back to working condition. Lab instructors should verify the work and follow it up with a Viva. Also students need to go through the video which shows the process of assembling a PC. A video would be given as part of the course content.
Here is a brief summary of the steps to assemble a system. Prepare the computer case Open case Mount base screws Open expansion slots

Prepare and mount the motherboard Mount CPU and CPU cooler Mount memory modules Mount motherboard onto case Connect power supply

Mount the drives Mount floppy drive Mount hard drive Mount CD ROM drive

Connect the drives and motherboard Connect floppy drive Connect hard drive Connect CD ROM drive

Mount video and other add-on cards Mount video card Mount sound card Mount FAX/data modem

Testing and getting ready for operating system Power-on for the first time Clock speed and memory counting Change BIOS

How to build a PC A step-by-step guide to enthusiast system assembly

The best thing about being a PC enthusiastbeyond, of course, the never ending joy of serving as the personal support technician for friends and familyis being able to assemble a system from the ground up with the perfect mix of components for a given budget. That mix of components will vary depending on your needs, but with today's market so rich with highNotes by David (KIET)

performance hardware at affordable prices, it's easy to spec a custom system that will blow the doors off pre-built boxes from major PC vendors. For those who lack the expertise to pick the best available components, we compile regular system guides outlining our recommendations at various price points. These guides are a great starting point for seasoned PC hobbyists contemplating a new build, but they're an invaluable resource for less savvy users seeking guidance as they step into the enthusiast realm. Users new to building systems from scratch need more than just a shopping list, though. There's an art to assembling a rig from bare components. Building a PC can be a daunting task for a newbie who has never put a system together before. For those folks, we've crafted a step-by-step guide covering the basics of system assembly. Keep reading as we show you how to build a PC from scratch. Getting started Before diving into assembly, you'll want to gather a few supplies and find a large, clean work area that preferably isn't teeming with static electricity. As far as tools are concerned, you shouldn't need more than a Philips head screwdriver; one that holds screws in place with a magnetic tip is ideal. We'll also be using rubbing alcohol, Q-Tips, and zip ties. Everything else that you need should be included with the various components you've gathered to put into the system. Yes, you'll need those components, too. Prior to removing any of the components from their packaging, you'll want to take the precaution of grounding yourself by touching a large, metal object like a table base, filing cabinet, or your PC's casewhatever's nearbyin order to discharge any static electricity you may be carrying with you. Static electricity can be harmful to PC components. Some folks prefer to use an antistatic wristband in order to keep themselves grounded. Assembling the core The CPU lies at the core of the modern PC, making it an appropriate place to start our build. For this first step, you'll of course want the processor, and also your system-to-be's motherboard. This particular assembly guide features an Intel processor with a LGA775 socket, so certain steps won't be applicable to systems using AMD processors based on Socket AM2. Socket AM2 isn't hard to figure out, though; processor installation instructions typically come bundled with both the processor and the motherboard.

After laying the motherboard out on a clean work surface, remove the plastic cover that shields the LGA775 socket's pins from harm. Be careful not to bend or otherwise disturb these pins they need to line up just right with contact points on the base of the CPU.

Notes by David (KIET)

With the plastic guard removed, you'll easily be able to unclip the lever that holds the socket's CPU retention mechanism in place. Flip this retention bracket back on its hinges to expose the socket in full.

Modern CPUs are keyed to ensure that they can only be inserted into a socket one way, just like a puzzle piece, so you should have no problem dropping your processor into the socket. LGA775 processors, for example, have little indents along opposing edges that line up with protrusions in the socket. If your CPU struggles to slide smoothly into the socket, chances are you've got it oriented the wrong way. Once the processor is sitting comfortably in the socket, flip the retention bracket back down and use the lever to clamp it into place. This secures the CPU to the motherboard. When the posts are lined up, depress the black plastic tabs one by one to lock the heatsink into place. You should hear an audible click as each post locks into place. Since the area around a modern motherboard's CPU socket is often crowded with tall capacitors, heatsinks, and elaborate heatpipe arrays, I find it's best to depress the retention post that's least accessible first. The post directly opposite that one should be next, followed by the remaining two in whichever order you desire.

Notes by David (KIET)

After locking the heatsink into place, plug its fan into the appropriate header on the motherboard. The CPU fan header is usually right next to the socket, but if you can't find it, your motherboard manual should have a map highlighting its location. Note whether the heatsink you're using features a fan with a three- or four-pin header. That information will come in handy when we jump into the BIOS to configure fan speed control, since some motherboards can't auto-detect fan types. Memory installation Since it's a lot harder to work on a motherboard when it's sitting inside a case, we might as well install the memory before we slip the mobo into our enclosure. These days, most systems run their memory in dual-channel configurations using pairs of memory modules. Motherboards are typically equipped with four DIMM slots, two of which correspond to each memory channel, so you'll want to check your motherboard's manual to determine which slots correspond to which memory channel. Be sure to install at least one memory module per channel.

Once you've figured out which slots to populate, sliding memory modules into place is a snap. Like processors, modules are keyed so they only fit into DIMM slots one way. Orient your modules accordingly, and apply even pressure along their top edge to seat them into the DIMM slots. If the module rocks back and forth as if on a central pivot point, you've got it turned around the wrong way. If you're running fancy-pants memory modules with ginormous heat spreaders, like those pictured above, you may run into clearance issues with larger aftermarket processor heatsinks.
Notes by David (KIET)

Unless the heatsink's orientation can be changed to provide additional clearance for the DIMM slots, you'll have to settle for lower profile memory modules or a less extravagant CPU cooler.

When memory modules are seated correctly, retention tabs located at the ends of the DIMM slots should swing up into their upright and locked position, ready for take-off. If these tabs aren't completely locked, you should be able to flick them into place easily with your finger. Preparing the enclosure We're done with the motherboard for the moment, and must now prepare the enclosure for its arrival. Time to break out the screwdriver, folks. The first thing we need to do is remove the enclosure's side panels. With some cases, only the left panel needs to be removed or even can be removed. However, if your enclosure has removable panels on both sides, we recommend taking both off. The additional access will come in handy when we clean up wiring within the case. Most modern enclosures hold their side panels in place with thumbscrews or mechanical latches, so you probably won't even need a screwdriver to remove them. And if you need instructions on how to use a screwdriver, well, perhaps assembling a system from scratch is a little ambitious. Removing the case panels gives us access to the enclosure's internalsmost importantly, the panel on which the motherboard will set. The motherboard doesn't rest directly
Notes by David (KIET)

on the metal panel, though; that would create all sorts of short circuits. Instead, the motherboard sits atop a series of posts that separate it from the case. Motherboard posts should come bundled with your case, and they can be screwed directly into the motherboard tray with your bare hands. Making sure they're tight. When screwing posts into the motherboard, be sure that they line up with the board's mounting holes; posts that don't line up can make contact with solder points on the underside of the board, creating short circuits. We recommend using at least six mounting posts for a standard ATX motherboard, but to be on the safe side, you might as well use as many as there are mounting holes on your board. Once the posts are in place, fish the I/O shield out of your motherboard box. Most cases already come with a generic I/O shield, but chances are it won't line up properly with your motherboard's port cluster. If your case has a generic shield, pop it out and toss it. The I/O shield that comes with your motherboard should easily snap into place. Before moving on, we're going to save ourselves some hassle by bending back the metal tabs on the inside of the I/O shield. In the picture above, these tabs can be seen above the PS/2, Ethernet, and Firewire ports. Bending these tabs back will ensure that they don't catch on the motherboard ports when we slide it into the system. We're now all set up to install the motherboard into the case, but before doing that, it's worth filling in a few other Components that will be easier to install in anr otherwise empty enclosure. r First among these is our system's hard drive. These days, it seems every case manufacturer mounts hard drives slightly differently, but the enclosure we've busted out today takes a simple approach. Hard drives slide neatly into internal 3.5" bayswith the drive ports facing out, of courseand are held in place by screws. Depending on your enclosure, you may need to secure the drive with screws on both sides; it's a good thing we removed the right-side case panel. Which internal drive bay ends up housing the system's hard drive is up to you, but I prefer to have drives sitting in lower rather than higher bays. Heat rises, and we might as well put the
Notes by David (KIET)

drive in the coolest part of the case that we can. If you're running a system with multiple hard drives, try not to stack them in bays directly on top of one another. If possible, leave an empty bay between drives to allow air to flow freely between them. Next up is our system's optical drive. This goes in one of our enclosure's external 5.25" bays, and in traditional cases, it's held in place by screws. Of course, these screws are slightly different from the ones that hold the hard drive in place you know, because it would be entirely too convenient for the same screw type to be used throughout. All the screws you need should come with the case, and as a rule, ones with finer threads are used to secure optical drives and the motherboard, those with coarser threads and small heads secure hard drives, and those with coarse threads and large heads are reserved for case panels and expansion cards. If you're going to be running a single optical drive, check to make sure that its jumper is set to Master or Single Drive. This should be the drive's default position, and you don't need to change it unless you plan on running a second optical drive off the same cable. Drives with SATA interfaces are a little more convenient, since they don't have these jumpers and won't need to be configured in this way. You'll notice that we're installing the optical drive in the case's highest 5.25" drive bay. Optical drives aren't used frequently, so we're not so concerned with whether they're in the coolest possible bay. Instead, I like to mount optical drives as high as possible in tower enclosures to make them easier to reach when the case is sitting on the floor. In goes the motherboard With the case prepped and drives installed, it's time for our populated motherboard to join the mix.
Notes by David (KIET)

Standard enclosures are usually a little tight, so it's easier if you insert the motherboard at an angle, port-side first. Line up the port cluster with corresponding holes in the I/O shield and gently set the board down on the mounting posts you screwed into the case earlier. If the motherboard is positioned correctly, its mounting holes should line up exactly with the posts below.

From here, you'll want to screw the motherboard into place using screws provided with the case. When tightened, the screws should be snug, but there's no reason to really torque on them.

Next, we tackle the case's front-panel connectors for the power and reset switches, power and hard drive activity lights, and the PC speaker. Each motherboard lays these connectors out in a slightly different fashion, so you'll have to consult the manual to determine which connectors plug in where. For hard drive and power LEDs, colored wires should be plugged into the positive pins on the motherboard. It's ridiculous that the industry hasn't agreed to a standard for front-panel connectors that would eliminate the need to connect a mess of wires individually, but this is the system we're stuck with. Be sure to plug in the front-panel connectors now, because things only get more crowded inside the enclosure from here. While we're connecting frontpanel hardware, it's worth tackling expansion ports. Most enclosures now come with frontmounted USB ports that hook into headers located on the motherboard. Depending on your case, these front-mounted USB ports may be tied to a series of wires that have to be connected individually, or they may connect with consolidated blocks that can be plugged in all at once. Obviously, the latter is much easier to deal with. If your case's front-panel USB ports are attached to individual wires, you'll
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need to consult your motherboard manual for a diagram illustrating how those wires should be connected to pins on the motherboard. We've only addressed USB headers here, but the same applies for front panel Firewire, eSATA, and even audio ports. The wires for each front-panel connector should be clearly labeled, either on the wires themselves or in the manual that comes with your case. Your motherboard's manual should have full pin diagrams for all its onboard headers that illustrate how these leads should be connected, as well. Expansion cards join the party There are only a few pieces we need to put into place to complete our build, and next up, we have expansion cards. Most systems will require at least one expansion cardgraphics, of coursebut some folks may also have a discrete audio card, TV tuner, or other auxiliary hardware to complement their motherboards' integrated peripherals.

Before installing expansion cards, we need to make some room for them in the case's back plate panel. Our screwdriver comes out again, this time to remove back plates corresponding to the slots in which we intend to install our expansion cards. Keep in mind that for most double-wide graphics cards, you'll need to remove two PCI back platesone across from the expansion slot and a second back plate immediately to the left.
To seat an expansion card, place it into an appropriate expansion slot and apply even pressure along the top edge of the card until it slides into place. When properly installed, the card's back plate should line up flush with the enclosure. Now use the same screws that held the case's empty back plates in place to secure the expansion card to the case. The expansion card installation process is the same whether you're putting in a graphics card, audio card, or any sort of other peripheral. Just make sure that you're using the correct type of slot, be it PCI, PCI Express, or with older systems, AGP. Like most PC components, cards are keyed only to fit into a slot one way, so you shouldn't have a problem. Notes by David (KIET)

You'll note that in the picture above, we're installing the system's sound card in the lowest expansion slot. At the very least, you should avoid putting expansion cards right next to your graphics carddoing so can impede airflow to the graphics cooler. I tend to put other expansion cards into the lowest slots to give the graphics cooler as much room to breathe as possible. Cabling begins With the exception of the power supply, which we'll tackle in a moment, we now have all the hardware installed in our case. Cabling comes next.

If your case has three-pin power connectors for its cooling fans, you can plug them directly into the motherboard. With some boards, this will even get you temperature-based fan speed control. The motherboard manual should map out all onboard fan header locations. Cases that use fans with four-pin molex power connectors can't be hooked into the motherboard. Instead, these fans need to be plugged directly into the power supply, which we'll install in just a second. First, we have a couple of other cables to connect, starting with the one for our optical drive. Depending on the drive, this cable with either be of the IDE or Serial ATA variety. The cable itself should come with your motherboard, and like most PC connectors, it's keyed such that it can only be attached the right way.

Next, connect the hard drive with a Serial ATA cable from your motherboard box. The L-shaped connector only works one way, so you should be able to figure it out. SATA cables are much thinner and more flexible than IDE ribbons, making it easier to keep cabling out of the way of other components. We'll tidy things up a little later, so don't worry about being too neat just yet.
Notes by David (KIET)

Power, please The last piece of the puzzle to fall into place is our system's power supply. Depending on your case, the PSU may slide in from the back or from the side, and you may or may not have to attach a mounting bracket before it's installed. PSUs feature an asymmetrical screw pattern at the rear to ensure that they're installed in the correct orientation. Line up the screw holes in the power supply with those on the case's rear panel before sliding the PSU into place. Once the PSU is installed, toss the mess of wires connected to it over the side of the case. This will make running power cables to our components much easier, and we won't need to use all of the PSU's leads anyway. If you're running a power supply with modular cables, you only need to connect as many cables as needed for the hardware in your system. It's usually easier to connect these cables before dropping the power supply into the system, if only because the area around the PSU can get a little tight in some cases, making it more difficult to plug them in later. With the power supply securely affixed inside the case, it's time to start our plug fest. First, attach the 24-pin primary power connector to the motherboard. Some PSU primary power connectors can be configured for both 20- and 24-pin motherboards, so make sure you're using the correct setup. Next, plug the auxiliary 12V connector into the motherboard. Depending on your PSU and motherboard, this will either be a four- or eight-pin connector. We've had a few readers mistake their PSU's four-pin floppy connector for the 12V plug, so you'll want to make sure you have the right one. The 12V
Notes by David (KIET)

plug is a chunky connector that looks like a smaller version of the primary 24-pin plug with fewer pins. As has been the case throughout this build, all connectors should be keyed to fit only one way. Most modern graphics cards need a little extra juice, so we'll plug them in next. Graphics cards typically use sixpin PCI Express power connectors, although some recent high-end models require eight-pin power. If your power supply doesn't have the right connectors for your graphics card, check the bundle of cables that came with the graphics card. Power adapters are typically included with retail graphics cards for those running older PSUs that lack PCIe power plugs. With our graphics cards hooked up, we turn our attention to hard drive power. Serial ATA drives have their own type of power connector, another L-shaped plug that can only be inserted one way. Some Serial ATA hard drives also have a standard four-pin molex power connector. You can use this connector in lieu of the SATA power connector, if you wish. However, don't plug in both; that can damage the drive. Finally, we plug in our optical drive using a standard four-pin molex plug. SATA optical drives may use a SATA power connector. Now would be the time to plug in any four-pin case fans, as well.

Notes by David (KIET)

Cleaning time By now, the inside of your case probably looks like a tangled mess of wires, some of which are likely still hanging over the edge. The mess not only looks bad, but it can also impede airflow around important system components. We should really tidy the mess up with a little help from a fistful of zip ties. First, gather any unused power supply leads into a neat bundle and zip tie them together. This bundle can be stuffed out of the way into your case's empty 5.25" drive bays. Empty 5.25" drive bays make a good dumping ground for excess cabling because they generally don't have venting or fans that might otherwise be obscured by a clump of wires. With excess power supply leads out of the way, we can turn our attention to the cables we're actually using. There are a number of ways to deal with these, depending on just how clean you want the inside of your case to look. We won't go overboard here, but it's worth taking the time to remove any slack in the cables and carefully route them along the case's internal structure. Most cases have loops or cutouts that can serve as anchor points for zip ties, making it much easier to snake cables out of the way.

Your case's internals don't have to be immaculate when you're finished, but you shouldn't have cables impeding airflow around any components or case fans, or around case vents. Cleaning up internal cabling also makes it easier to work on the system later on, either to swap out
Notes by David (KIET)

components or add new ones when your brand-new system becomes hopelessly out of date after just a few short months. We're finished with the hardware now, so you can put the case panels back on, stand the case up, and start connecting peripherals like your monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Now would be a good time to plug in the power cord, as well, and to make sure that the power supply is switched to its on position. Hit the case's power switch, and the system should spring to life. This is the BIOS setup for Award BIOS v6.00PG. If you have a different version of the Award BIOS their would be a lot of similarities. If your BIOS is AMI or Phoenix then the common BIOS features would have some similarities. Whatever BIOS you have, this setup guide should give you an idea about how to setup a BIOS. Please note that setting up BIOS incorrectly could cause system malfunction, therefore it is recommended that you also follow the BIOS guide provided on your motherboard manual. Softmenu III
Softmenu III is where you can setup up the CPU without setting jumpers on the motherboard. You can setup the CPU simply by selecting the speed i.e. Pentium III 750 from the list. This ensures that the CPU bus, multiplier, voltage etc, is correctly set for that particular CPU. However you can manually setup each feature if required. Once you have finished with the setup press ESC to return the previous menu. Softmenu III Setup Standard CMOS Features Advanced BIOS Features Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals Power Management Setup PnP/PCI Configurations PC Health Status Load Fail-Safe Defaults Load Optimized Defaults Set Password Save & Exit Setup Exit Without Saving

Standard CMOS Features Here you can setup the basic BIOS features such as date, time, type of floppy etc. Use the arrow keys to move around and press enter to select the required option. You can specify what IDE devices you have such as Hard drive, CD-ROM, ZIP drive etc. The easiest way to setup the IDE devices is by leaving it set to auto. This allows the BIOS to detect the devices automatically so you don't have to do it manually. At the bottom, it

Notes by David (KIET)

also displays the total memory in your system.

Advanced BIOS Features As you can see from figure 3, there are numerous advance settings which you can select if required. For most cases leaving the default setting should be adequate. As you can see the first boot device is set to floppy. This ensures that the floppy disk is read first when the system boots, and therefore can boot from windows boot disk. The second boot device is the Hard disk and third is set to LS120. If you want to boot from a bootable CD then you can set the third boot device to CD/DVD-ROM.
Advanced Chipset Features

Here you can setup the contents of the chipset buffers. It is closely related to the hardware and is therefore recommended that you leave the default setting unless you know what you are doing. Having an incorrect setting can make your system unstable. If you know that your SDRAM can handle CAS 2, then making changes can speed up the memory timing. If you have 128MB SDRAM then the maximum amount of memory the AGP card can use is 128MB.
Integrated Peripherals Notes by David (KIET)

This menu allows you to change the various I/O devices such as IDE controllers, serial ports, parallel port, keyboard etc. You can make changes as necessary .

Power Management Setup The power management allows you to setup various power saving features, when the PC is in standby or suspend mode.

PnP/PCI Configurations This menu allows you to configure your PCI slots. You can assign IRQ's for various PCI slots. It is recommended that you leave the default settings as it can get a bit complicated messing around with IRQ's

Notes by David (KIET)

PC Health Status This menu displays the current CPU temperature, the fan speeds, voltages etc. You can set the warning temperature which will trigger an alarm if the CPU exceeds the specified temperature.

Load Fail-Safe Defaults If you made changes to the BIOS and your system becomes unstable as a result, you can change it back to default. However if you made many changes and don't know which one is causing the problem, your best bet is to choose the option "Load Fail Safe Mode Defaults" from the BIOS menu. This uses a minimal performance setting, but the system would run in a stable way. From the dialog box Choose "Y" followed by enter to load Fail-Safe Defaults.

Load Optimized Defaults Like the Fail-Safe mode above, this option loads the BIOS default settings, but runs the system at optimal performance. From the dialog box Choose "Y" followed by enter to load Optimized Defaults.

Notes by David (KIET)

Set Password To password protect your BIOS you can specify a password. Make sure you don't forget the password or you can not access the BIOS. The only way you can access the BIOS is by resetting it using the reset jumper on the motherboard.

Save and Exit Setup To save any changes you made to the BIOS you must choose this option. From the dialog box choose "Y".

Exit without Saving If you don't want to save changes made to the BIOS, choose "N" from the dialog box.

Task 3 : Every student should individually install MS windows on the personal computer. Lab instructor should verify the installation and follow it up with a Viva.
Notes by David (KIET)

How Do I Install Windows XP

Installing/Re-installing Windows XP is a relatively straightforward process providing you have everything you need to hand. There is nothing worse than being asked by the operating system set up application for a specific driver and having to hunt a for the relevant floppy or CD. So, to start, you need the following.

Windows XP CD Windows XP CD Product Code Number Any relevant drivers - this is not always the case as XP does have many drivers. However, it may be necessary to update the driver that XP initially installs. Be particularly careful with Modem drivers. Make sure that your PC can boot from your CD-ROM

Now to the nitty gritty! 1/ Boot up your pc. During the initial boot cycle insert the Windows XP CD into your CD-ROM 2/ You will see on your screen 'Press any key to boot from CD'

3/ At this stage press either Enter or any other key 4/ Set up will now automatically inspect your computer's hardware Configuration 5/ After set up has checked your hardware a blue screen will appear
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with the words 'Windows set up' in the top left hand corner.

6/ At this stage, should you have a RAID, SCSI or SATA drive, you will have the option of pressing F6 to install the third party drivers for this hardware. If you do not have any of this hardware installed on your pc there is no need to press F6. XP will now start loading files into memory. 7/ After all the files have been loaded into memory the Welcome To Set Up Window appears

8/ To begin installing XP Press Enter 9/ The next screen to appear is the EULA (End user Licence Agreement) Press F8 to accept the licence or ESC if you don't want
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to accept the licence agreement and want to terminate the install.

10/ After agreeing to the licence agreement set up searches your hard drive for any partitions 11/ The next screen shows all the partitions on your hard drive. You may have just one or several depending upon whether you have created partitions prior to installing Windows XP

12/ You can select the partition you want to install XP on. Once you have selected the partition press Enter
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13/ The next window will offer to format the partition for you. If the partition is already formatted the option will be 'leave file format as it is.' If it hasn't been previously formatted then you will have the option to either:

Format (Quick) Format (Quick) Format Format

the partition using the NTFS file system the partition using the FAT file system the partition using the NTFS file system the partition using the FAT files system

14/ It is recommended that you use the NTFS file system so select 'Format the partition using the NTFS file system' 15/ Set up will now begin to format your hard drive

Notes by David (KIET)

16/ Once the drive has been formatted windows set up will start copying files to memory

17/ Once the copying has been completed windows initialises your configuration and then proceeds to reboot your machine

18/ Your system will now reboot 19/ On reboot you will again be presented with 'Press any key to boot from CD' On this occasion DO NOT press any key. Leave well alone. Windows will then automatically launch. If you press any key during this process you will start the set up procedure all over again.

Notes by David (KIET)

20/ You will now see the Windows XP Graphical interface as windows loads Note If your copy of XP does not include Service Pack 2 the Logo will look slightly different to the one illustrated below in as much as it will display Windows XP Home or Professional. As soon as you upgrade to Service Pack 2 (SP2) the Home/Professional branding will be removed.

21/ At the next screen Windows will begin copying files to your hard drive

Notes by David (KIET)

22/ As the files are installed on your hard drive you will be asked to select various options. The first to launch is the Regional and Language Options window.

23/ Click the Customise button to select your Country standards, language, etc. Click OK when you are satisfied with your selections 24/ After you have completed that return to the original Regional and language Options window and click the Details button

Notes by David (KIET)

25/ From here you can set the default keyboard language. Click OK when finished
26/ Now click the Next button 27/ The next window asks for your name and company. Fill this in with the relevant details

28/ After completing the name and company dialogue boxes press Next 29/ Now you are presented with the Product code number screen

Notes by David (KIET)

30/ Insert your product code numbers in the relevant boxes. Take your time here, as inserting the wrong number, will cause an error. 31/ After inserting the product code number press Next 32/ Your next screen is the Computer and Administrator password screen

33/ XP usually inserts a computer name but you can change it if you want something different. 34/ Next insert the Administrator password (you don't need to do this for XP Home Edition) and then confirm the password in the next dialogue box. 35/ Click Next to continue
Notes by David (KIET)

36/ If you have a Dial Up Modem installed you will now be asked for the Country and area code information. Fill this in as necessary and press Next. Do Not worry if the Dial Up Modem screen doesn't appear during set-up. Personally I much prefer to set-up the Internet Connection after Windows XP has completed it's installation. 37/ The Date and Time Setting windows now appears.

38/ Select your Time Zone from the drop down time zone list and XP will make the other adjustments 39/ Finally click the Next button 40/ Windows now starts to install the Networking part of the operating system

Notes by David (KIET)

41/ Assuming you have a Networking Card installed the Networking Settings window will now pop up 42/ The Typical Settings Option should already be selected so simply press the Next button

43/ Unless you are on a Network or Domain you simply need to press the Next button If you are on a Network then click the Yes make this computer a member of the following domain and then click the Next button. You may need to ask your administrator for these details.

44/ Windows will now continue copying files 45/ After a while Windows will finalise the installation. The progress bar will show Notes by David (KIET)

Completing Installation followed by Installing Start menu icons, registering Components, Saving Settings and, finally, Removing any temporary files used. 46/ After finalisation Windows will again restart your pc 47/ On reboot you will again be presented with 'Press any key to boot from CD' On this occasion DO NOT press any key. Leave well alone. Windows will then automatically launch. If you press any key during this process you will start the set up procedure all over again.

48/ You will now see the Windows Logo screen

49/ Once Windows has loaded it will adjust your monitors resolution. Just click OK to continue

Notes by David (KIET)

50/ If you are happy with the resolution change press OK again 51/ Windows now needs to apply the computer settings so you need to be a little patience here 52/ The Welcome to Microsoft Windows screen now appears. By clicking the ? you can get help

53/ Click the Next button to continue 54/ If you are using a copy of Windows XP with Service Pack 2 already integrated the next screen will ask you to enable the Windows Firewall.

Notes by David (KIET)

55/ The next screen asks you to Activate your copy of Windows XP. You have 30 days in which to activate your copy of Windows so I always select the No option and then activate when I am satisfied everything is working correctly.

56/ After the Activation screen Windows XP asks you How you will connect to the Internet. This and the following screen may only appear if you are using a DSL or Cable modem. Although personally I prefer to set-up the Internet Connection after Windows XP has finally been installed.

Notes by David (KIET)

57/ After making your connection selection Windows check for Internet Connectivity.

58/ You are now asked Who will use this computer

Notes by David (KIET)

59/ Insert the Name(s) of the user(s) who will be using the computer and then press Next 60/ After completing the who will use this computer section a thank you screen will appear

61/ After a while the Welcome Screen will appear

Notes by David (KIET)

62/ Finally the Windows XP desktop will appear in all its glory.

63/ Congratulations! You have now successfully installed Windows XP

Notes by David (KIET)

Week 4 Task 4 : Every student should install Linux on the computer. This computer should have windows installed. The system should be configured as dual boot with both windows and Linux. Lab instructors should verify the installation and follow it up with a Viva

Overview of Dual Boot Setup

Heres an overview of how we are going to reach our goal of a functional, dual boot Windows XP / Linux system. There are four basic steps:
1. Install Windows XP: See the preceding chapters on installing Windows XP. When you partition your hard drive using the XP setup program, youll want to leave some unpartitioned space. This unpartitioned space can be used to install a Linux partition. Be sure to plan ahead how much disk space you want to allocate to Windows XP and how much for Linux. 2. Backup any valuable data from your Windows system: This isnt important if youve freshly installed Windows. But, if youve worked with Windows for awhile before deciding to dual boot, you should backup your important files. Before adding another operating

or partitioning a disk, always backup your important data. 3. Make a bootable Linux disk: If your system wont boot from a CD, you might need to make a bootable Linux floppy disk to start the installation process. If you were able to boot from the Windows XP CD, this means your system will boot from a CD. You can change your systems BIOS settings to allow the system to boot from the CD instead of making a bootable floppy. Notes by David (KIET)

4. Perform the Linux installation from its CD: It will recognize that Windows XP is already installed and offer you the option of keeping it and adding Linux also.

You might find that after installing Windows onto your hard drive that if you put a bootable CD in the tray, the system will start up from the hard drive and not from the CD. This probably means that your system can boot from the CD, but the order that the computer uses to find a bootable operating system is: First, floppy drive; Second, hard drive; Third, CD drive. This information is set by the systems BIOS. Because BIOS finds a bootable operating system on the hard drive, it runs that operating system. So, it doesnt need to look at the CD at all.
We want to run Linux installer from its CD while a bootable XP system is already on the PC, so well enter our systems BIOS setup and change the boot order so that the system first looks for a bootable system from the CD and then from the hard drive Or, you could just make a bootable Linux floppy and treat the install as if your system couldnt boot from a CD. During startup, we

enter BIOS setup. See your mainboard manual to determine which key brings up BIOS during startup. We moved the CD drive above the hard drive in the boot order. This means the system will first look for a bootable CD before trying to boot from the hard drive. This is important because we already have a bootable operating system on the hard drive, but we wish to boot from the CD drive. Exit and save the changes.

Your mainboard manual should tell you which key to press as the system starts up to enter BIOS. Remember, changes to BIOS are important and should only be made when you understand what youre doing and when the change is necessary.

Notes by David (KIET)

Beginning Installation
Assuming your PC boots from the CD, insert CD 1 from the Red Hat Linux set into the CD drive and restart your system. A Red Hat install screen appears (Figure 163). Hit Enter to install in graphical mode.

Figure 163: Red Hat welcome screen Press ENTER to continue the graphical installation. A bunch of text will scroll by (Figure 164), and it might appear your system is hung. But, its probably just working away behind the scenes.

Notes by David (KIET)

The first screen of the install process allows the single option of hitting Next.

Figure 165: Another welcome screen Hit Next.

Language Selection
The next screen shows language options. Select English (Figure 166).

Figure 166: Language selection Choose your language.

Selecting the Keyboard and Mouse

Be sure to select English for the keyboard options also (Figure 167).
Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 167: Keyboard configuration Choose U.S. keyboard and hit Next. The next screen asks you to select your mouse (Figure 168).

Figure 168: Mouse configuration Your mouse should be selected.

Selecting the Installation Type

Next up is the Installation Type screen, in which youll choose Personal Desktop (Figure 169). For learning Linux, a standard workstation setup is best. Later, if you want, you can set up Linux as a server or experiment with other setup options. Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 169: Installation Type Select Personal Desktop as the installation type.

Choosing the Linux Partition Creation Method

Now, youll be asked to partition your drive (Figure 170). There are two methods: you can have your system automatically partition your drive, or you can do it manually. Well do it automatically.

Figure 170: Selecting the partitioning method Select Automatically Partition. Dont worry. This step wont wipe out your existing operating system.
Notes by David (KIET)

Automatic Partitioning
The next screen (Figure 171) shows the option of removing all Linux partitions. There are no Linux partitions on this hard drive yet. It wont find any to remove, but thats OK. Be sure not to remove all partitions. You want to keep the non-Linux partition on which Windows XP is installed. That is your NTFS formatted partition.

Figure 171: Removing Linux partitions Choose to remove all Linux partitions. Dont remove non-Linux partitions, because we wish to keep Windows XP installed also.

A popup box will ask you to confirm your decision. Click Yes to remove any Linux partitions (Figure 172).

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 172: Confirming partition removal Confirm that you wish to remove all Linux partitions.

If a warning message appears saying the boot partition /boot may not meet booting constraints, hit OK.

Choosing a Default Operating System

The next dialog box will ask you to choose a default operating system to be loaded by the Linux boot loader (GRUB) as shown in Figure 173. Select DOS as the default. This will mean that Windows XP will become the default operating system to boot, unless a conscious choice is made to boot to Linux instead.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 173: Boot loader configuration Under the default checkbox, Linux is selected. This means that when the system boots up, after a short while Linux will boot as the default operating system. If other users, who are familiar with Windows, but not Linux, will be using this PC, be sure to select DOS, which is Windows XP, as the default operating system to boot.

Selecting Windows as the default usually makes sense if anybody not familiar with Linux must use your computer.

Firewall Configuration
Next, is a firewall configuration dialog. Choose a high level of protection (Figure 174). Firewalls help prevent hackers from getting into your computer.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 174: Firewall configuration Choose High as firewall security.

Language Option Configuration

The next dialog box asks us to set up language options (Figure 175).

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 175: Additional language support English should be selected as the default. Hit Next.

Time Zone Setup

The dialog after that sets up your time zone information (Figure 176).

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 176: Time zone Select your time zone from the list or by clicking on the map.

Setting Up the Root Password

Next, youll be asked to choose a password for root (Figure 177). In Linux, root is the supreme commander of the operating system. Logging in as root allows you to modify the operating system. As a general rule, you should only log in as the root user when its necessary for administrating your computer. For general Linux use, log in as a normal user. That helps prevent you from inadvertently modifying your system.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 177: Selecting a password for root Youll login as root when you wish to modify your Linux operating system.

Youll have the opportunity to create regular user accounts later. Be sure to write down or remember your root password. You must enter it twice to confirm it. As soon as you start typing, a message that the passwords dont match appears. Dont let this throw you. You havent had a chance to enter anything into the second password box yet! Eventually, youll get those suckers to match! Linux is case sensitive.

Installing Packages
The next dialog gives you options for packages to install. Accept the default packages (Figure 178). When first becoming familiar with Linux, a standard install will offer plenty of opportunities to familiarize yourself with Linux.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 178: Package selection Accept the default packages. Hit Next.

Copying Files from the CDs

Now, the install process can begin (Figure 179 and Figure 180). Change CDs as requested. Files will be copied to your drive.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 179: Beginning the install Hit Next when thats the only option!

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 180: Installation in progress Progress bars will show the installation progress. You might want to go do something else for awhile and return later. Change CDs as requested.

Creating a Boot Floppy

You can create a boot disk for future use, or select No to boot disk creation, if you dont have an extra floppy disk handy (Figure 181).

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 181: Creating a boot disk You can create a boot disk or just skip this step for now. If the installation fails, youll probably start again from the CD, so you dont really need a boot disk now.

Selecting the Video Card and Monitor Type

A dialog asks you to select your video card (Figure 182). It will probably already be recognized. Youll also be asked to select your monitor (Figure 183), or it will be detected.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 182: Video card configuration Your video card might be selected automatically. If not, select your card from the list.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 183: Monitor configuration If your monitor isnt recognized, select it from the list.

Choosing Screen Resolution and Color Depth

The next dialog box (Figure 184) will ask you to choose a screen resolution and a color depth. Color depth refers to how many colors you want your monitor to display. Resolution is how many pixels by how many pixels your monitor displays.

Figure 184: Customizing graphics settings Setting the color depth and screen resolution. For most monitors today, 1024x768 pixels is a good resolution. You might want to decrease the color depth from high color.

Dual Booting and Configuring Linux

Now, we must restart the PC (Figure 185). When we do, a dual boot screen will appear (Figure 186). Use the arrow keys to select Linux as the operating system
you want to run and hit Enter, so that Linux will have a chance to complete its installation.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 185: Installation complete Click Next.

Notes by David (KIET)

Figure 186: GRUB dual boot screen At startup, the bootloader offers you the choice between Windows XP (listed as DOS) and Red Hat Linux. The default is highlighted.

Notes by David (KIET)

Table B-1. Similar Commands Command's Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes prompt window Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output on the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS
copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: (if A:)

cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo

Basic Linux Example

cp thisfile.txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile.txt echo this message pico thisfile.txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile.txt /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the

diff grep

diskette is in Displays command help Creates a directory View a file Renames a file Displays your location in the file system Changes directories with a specified path (absolute path) Changes directories with a relative path Displays the time
command /?
mkdir more ren chdir cd

mke2fs (or mformat[b] ) man[c]


Linux equivalent of A:)

man command mkdir directory less thisfile.txt

mv pwd cd

mv thisfile.txt thatfile.txt[e]
pwd cd /directory/directory

cd .. time

cd .. date cd .. date

Shows amount of RAM mem free free and use Notes: a. Pico is a simple text editor; other editors you can use in place of Pico include Emacs and vi. b. This formats a disk for the DOS filesystem. c. You can also use info for some commands. d. The more pager can also be used to page through a file a screen at a time. e. The mv command can both move a file and, if you want to rename a file in the same directory, you "move" that file to the same directory with a new name, as in this example. Notes by David (KIET)

An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.

alias apropos apt-get aspell awk bash bc bg break builtin bzip2 c cal case cat cd cfdisk chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum clear cmp comm command continue cp cron crontab csplit cut Create an alias Search Help manual pages (man -k) Search for and install software packages (Debian) Spell Checker Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index GNU Bourne-Again SHell Arbitrary precision calculator language Send to background Exit from a loop Run a shell builtin Compress or decompress named file(s) Display a calendar Conditionally perform a command Display the contents of a file Change Directory Partition table manipulator for Linux Change group ownership Change access permissions Change file owner and group Run a command with a different root directory Print CRC checksum and byte counts Clear terminal screen Compare two files Compare two sorted files line by line Run a command - ignoring shell functions Resume the next iteration of a loop Copy one or more files to another location Daemon to execute scheduled commands Schedule a command to run at a later time Split a file into context-determined pieces Divide a file into several parts

date Display or change the date & time dc Desk Calculator dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records ddrescue Data recovery tool declare Declare variables and give them attributes df Display free disk space diff Display the differences between two files diff3 Show differences among three files dig DNS lookup dir Briefly list directory contents dircolors Colour setup for `ls' dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path dirs Display list of remembered directories du Estimate file space usage e echo egrep eject enable env ethtool eval exec exit expect Display message on screen Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression Eject removable media Enable and disable builtin shell commands Environment variables Ethernet card settings Evaluate several commands/arguments Execute a command Exit the shell Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal

Notes by David (KIET)

expand export expr f false fdformat fdisk fg fgrep file find fmt fold for format free fsck ftp function gawk getopts grep groups gzip hash head history hostname id if ifconfig ifdown ifup import install join kill less let ln local locate logname logout look lpc lpr lprint lprintd lprintq lprm ls lsof m make

Convert tabs to spaces Set an environment variable Evaluate expressions Do nothing, unsuccessfully Low-level format a floppy disk Partition table manipulator for Linux Send job to foreground Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string Determine file type Search for files that meet a desired criteria Reformat paragraph text Wrap text to fit a specified width. Expand words, and execute commands Format disks or tapes Display memory usage File system consistency check and repair File Transfer Protocol Define Function Macros Find and Replace text within file(s) Parse positional parameters Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern Print group names a user is in Compress or decompress named file(s) Remember the full pathname of a name argument Output the first part of file(s) Command History Print or set system name Print user and group id's Conditionally perform a command Configure a network interface Stop a network interface Start a network interface up Capture an X server screen and save the image to file Copy files and set attributes Join lines on a common field Stop a process from running Display output one screen at a time Perform arithmetic on shell variables Make links between files Create variables Find files Print current login name Exit a login shell Display lines beginning with a given string Line printer control program Off line print Print a file Abort a print job List the print queue Remove jobs from the print queue List information about file(s) List open files Recompile a group of programs

j k l

Notes by David (KIET)

man mkdir mkfifo mkisofs mknod more mount mtools mv mmv netstat nice nl nohup nslookup open op

Help manual Create new folder(s) Make FIFOs (named pipes) Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem Make block or character special files Display output one screen at a time Mount a file system Manipulate MS-DOS files Move or rename files or directories Mass Move and rename (files) Networking information Set the priority of a command or job Number lines and write files Run a command immune to hangups Query Internet name servers interactively Open a file in its default application Operator access Modify a user password Merge lines of files Check file name portability Test a network connection Restore the previous value of the current directory Prepare files for printing Printer capability database Print environment variables Format and print data Process status Save and then change the current directory Print Working Directory

o p

passwd paste pathchk ping popd pr printcap printenv printf ps pushd pwd

quota Display disk usage and limits quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage quotactl Set disk quotas ram rcp read readonly renice remsync return rev rm rmdir rsync screen scp sdiff sed select seq set sftp shift shopt shutdown sleep ram disk device Copy files between two machines. read a line from standard input Mark variables/functions as readonly Alter priority of running processes Synchronize remote files via email Exit a shell function Reverse lines of a file Remove files Remove folder(s) Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees) Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh Secure copy (remote file copy) Merge two files interactively Stream Editor Accept keyboard input Print numeric sequences Manipulate shell variables and functions Secure File Transfer Program Shift positional parameters Shell Options Shutdown or restart linux Delay for a specified time

Notes by David (KIET)

slocate sort source split ssh strace su sudo sum symlink sync t

Find files Sort text files Run commands from a file `.' Split a file into fixed-size pieces Secure Shell client (remote login program) Trace system calls and signals Substitute user identity Execute a command as another user Print a checksum for a file Make a new name for a file Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail Output the last part of files tar Tape ARchiver tee Redirect output to multiple files test Evaluate a conditional expression time Measure Program running time times User and system times touch Change file timestamps top List processes running on the system traceroute Trace Route to Host trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne) tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters true Do nothing, successfully tsort Topological sort tty Print filename of terminal on stdin type Describe a command ulimit umask umount unalias uname unexpand uniq units unset unshar until useradd usermod users uuencode uudecode v vdir vi vmstat Limit user resources Users file creation mask Unmount a device Remove an alias Print system information Convert spaces to tabs Uniquify files Convert units from one scale to another Remove variable or function names Unpack shell archive scripts Execute commands (until error) Create new user account Modify user account List users currently logged in Encode a binary file Decode a file created by uuencode Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b') Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b') Text Editor Report virtual memory statistics Execute/display a program periodically Print byte, word, and line counts Report all known instances of a command Locate a program file in the user's path. Execute commands Print all usernames currently logged in Print the current user id and name (`id -un') Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP Send a message to another user Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)

watch wc whereis which while who whoami Wget write xargs

Notes by David (KIET)

yes . ###

Print a string until interrupted Run a command script in the current shell Comment / Remark

Create and view symbolic or hard links

Know the difference between symbolic and hard links as well as how to create, view and remove both types of links. In addition, be able to temporarily resolve a low disk space issue using a symbolic link.

A link allows several filenames to refer to a single file on disk. There are two types of links: hard links (((links!hard))) and symbolic links(((links!symbolic))). A hard link associates two or more filenames with the same inode. Thus hard links allow different directory entries to refer to the same disk data blocks. Symbolic, or soft links as they are sometimes known as, are pointer files that name another file elsewhere in the file system. As symbolic links point to another pathname in the filesystem they can span physical devices, as they point to a pathname not actual disk location of the file. Both hard and symbolic links are created with the ln(((ln))) command. Changes made to either the hard linked file or the original will effect both of them since they share the same disk data blocks. ls(((ls))) marks symbolic links with an 'l'. Using the '-i' option to ls will list the inodes of each file which will identify the hard linked files:
20912 -rw-r--r-20912 -rw-r--r-20914 lrwxr-xr-x 2 fred 2 fred 1 fred wheel wheel wheel 24 Jan 31 14:00 hardlink 24 Jan 31 14:00 index 5 Jan 31 13:58 softlink -> index

rm(((rm))) will remove both hard and symbolic links, however if the symbolic link is deleted it does not affect the file referenced by the link. Similarly, in the above example deleting index will not affect hardlink even though it is the same file. The stat(1)(((stat))) utility displays file status. Using stat -F filename will highlight symbolic links with a trailing '@' and show the file to which it is linked:
$ stat -F softlink lrwxr-xr-x 1 fred wheel 5 Jan 31 13:58:17 2007 softlink@ -> index

The power of stat lies in its ability to format the output, as illustrated in the example taken from the man page:
$ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" * hardlink: Regular File index: Regular File

Notes by David (KIET)

softlink: Symbolic Link -> index

Create an entry in the current directory called hardlink with the same inode as index:
$ ln index hardlink $ ls -la total 8 drwxr-xr-x 2 fred drwxr-xr-x 29 fred -rw-r--r-2 fred -rw-r--r-2 fred

wheel wheel wheel wheel

512 2048 0 0

Jan Jan Jan Jan

31 31 31 31

12:33 12:33 12:33 12:33

. .. hardlink index

Create a symbolic link to index in the current directory:

$ ln -s index softlink $ ls -la total 8 drwxr-xr-x 2 fred wheel drwxr-xr-x 29 fred wheel -rw-r--r-2 fred wheel -rw-r--r-2 fred wheel lrwxr-xr-x 1 fred wheel

512 2048 0 0 5

Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan

31 31 31 31 31

12:35 12:33 12:33 12:33 12:35

. .. hardlink index softlink -> index


cat concatenate files and print on the standard output Usage: cat [OPTION] [FILE]... eg. cat file1.txt file2.txt cat n file1.txt echo display a line of text Usage: echo [OPTION] [string] ... eg. echo I love India echo $HOMEText Processing

Notes by David (KIET)

Internet Explorer 6 Tutorial

Introduction Microsoft's Internet Explorer 6 is a web browser. There are many versions of Internet Explorer; this is the latest. It provides access to web pages across the internet and has many different components. This tutorial will go over the basics. Definitions These are some terms commonly used to reference objects on the internet or within Internet Explorer. URL: Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is the address to a particular webpage. For example, the URL to this page is: http://www.kietap.com Homepage: The homepage is the very first page that is displayed when Internet Explorer launches. Address Bar: The field that displays the URL of the current page. A user can type in a desired URL to display a specific page. Shortcut: A shortcut is a quick way to access a file or webpage. Usually a shortcut will appear as an icon on the desktop or in a menu. Link: A link is similar to a shortcut except links are objects within a webpage. This is an example link to this page. Clipboard: The clipboard is a temporary storage place for content. A user can copy to the clipboard within one program and paste from the clipboard in another program. Cookies: Cookies are bits of information a website may store on a user's computer. Typical information that is stored include, items in a shopping cart, what links a user has followed, and other information the website may need in order to customize their site to a particular user. Icon: An icon is a small picture associated with a program. Internet Explorer's icon is Field: A field is a place to type some information. Here is an example of a field: Sample Field The Toolbar

The toolbar is at the top of the window and is divided into the menubar and the navigation bar.

Notes by David (KIET)

Menubar: The menubar contains the menus for accessing different features of Internet Explorer. The menu categories are File, Edit, View, Favorites, Tools and Help. Navigation bar: The navigation bar is filled with icons representing different options a user can perform to navigate about the internet. The Back Button: Used to go back to the last page viewed. You can press back multiple times. The Forward Button: Used to go forward through previously viewed pages. Both the back and forward buttons have a drop down menu (the little black triangle) next to each button. These will pull down a selectable list of all of the previously viewed pages. The Stop Button: Used to stop downloading a webpage. The Refresh Button: Used to re-download a webpage. Generally used if a page does not display properly or the contents of the page have changed but the changes are not displayed. The Home Button: Displays the homepage. File Menu

New: Opens a submenu with some items that can be created. A new window will open another instance of Internet Explorer. Open: Allows the user to view a website or a folder on the user's computer. This method is identical to typing in the address in the address bar. Save As: Allows a user to save the current page locally to the hard drive. Page Setup: Opens up a setup window with options for customizing the look of a printout of the page. Print: Prints the current page with the constraints given in page setup. (Default settings are usually fine) Print Preview: Opens a window that will display what a printout will look like before a user prints. Notes by David (KIET)

Send: Send is a submenu with options that allow a user to email the current page, a link to the page, or create a shortcut on the desktop. Close: Closes this instance of Internet Explorer. Edit Menu

Copy: Copies the selected contents to the clipboard. Select All: Selects all contents on the page. Find on this page: Opens a search box to search for some text on the current page. View Menu

The view menu has a number of functions tailored to the look of Internet Explorer. Toolbars: A submenu with options for showing different toolbars. Experiment with the different choices to see what each option does. Placing a check next to each option enables them and makes them visible. Those options that are not checked are not enabled and not visible. Just remember to re-check the options that were originally checked. Status Bar: The status bar is at the bottom of the window. It displays information about various aspects of Internet Explorer. For example, when a user clicks on a link, the number of images left to download is displayed along with what page is loading.

Notes by David (KIET)

Explorer Bar: A submenu with various explorer options. Search opens a search box to search the internet. Favorites opens a window of all the user's saved favorites. History opens a list of all the websites a user has visited in the last few weeks. Go to: A submenu for jumping to a previously viewed page. Identical functions to the back and forward buttons in the navigation bar. Stop: Stops the current page from loading. Identical to the stop button in the navigation bar. Refresh: Reloads the current page. Identical to the refresh button on the navigation bar. Text Size: Makes the size of the text on a current page larger or smaller. Experiment with the different options to see their effects. Encoding: Allows the user to pick a language that may be displayed on the page. Usually the best option is auto select. Source: Shows the source HTML code for the current page. Full Screen: Puts Internet Explorer into kiosk mode. Try it now to see what it looks like. Remember to press "F11" on your keyboard to return to normal mode. Sometimes users accidentally hit the "F11" key just above the backspace button and are unable to get Internet Explorer back to normal. Favorites Menu

The favorites menu provides a means of saving websites that a user finds useful or interesting. When the user wants to re-visit that site at a later date, they can simply click on the saved favorite and it will go directly to the corresponding page. Add To Favorites: Opens up a box asking where to save a favorite for the currently displayed page. The user may opt to categorize their favorites into subfolders. Organize Favorites: A box for moving favorites to various sub folders within the favorites menu. Tools Menu Within the tools menu is an option called Internet Options.

Notes by David (KIET)

The Internet Options window is split up into 7 tabs. General Tab: Has options to set the user's homepage, clear out temp files, and clear the history cache. Security Tab: Has many different security settings. Settings set too low may leave a user vulnerable to attack by hackers, settings too high may render some sites non-functional. As a rule of thumb, the default of medium is a safe place to leave this setting. Privacy Tab: Has a slider setting for the handling of cookies. Cookies are generally harmless and a setting of medium is a good rule of thumb for the security tab. Content Tab: Contains settings for content filtering. Some organizations, like schools, will have additional filtering software to filter out inappropriate materials. Auto complete is another option on the content tab. Auto complete is designed to save information typed in text fields like login information so that a user does not have to type it in every time. To turn this feature on or off, check or uncheck the boxes for the different types of text fields. Connections: Stores information pertaining to how a computer connects to the internet. Programs: Stores which programs Internet Explorer will use for each internet service. Advanced: Has settings pertaining to various aspects of the web. A good rule of thumb here is the default settings.

Notes by David (KIET)

Microsoft and Internet Explorer are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Internet Explorer 6 Tutorial is not affiliated with, nor has it been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by Microsoft Corporation.

Enable Cookies in Internet Explorer Cookies are bits of information a website may store on a user's computer. Typical information that is stored include, items in a shopping cart, what links a user has followed, and other information the website may need in order to customize their site to a particular user. Many of the courses offered make use of cookies. Without cookies enabled on your browser, certain aspects of the courses may not work properly.The steps below will walk you through how to enable cookies within Internet Explorer 6.

Select the "Tools" menu. Select the menu item "Internet Options". Click the "Privacy" tab. Move the slider setting to "Medium". Click "Ok". Notes by David (KIET)

Enable JavaScript in Internet Explorer 6 Javascript is a scripting language that can provide enormous functionality and the ability to create dynamic websites. Many courses offered take advantage of JavaScript to provide content to your browser. The steps below show you two different ways to enable JavaScript within Internet Explorer 6.

Use this method if you do not have specific security settings setup on your machine. Select the "Tools" menu. Select the menu item "Internet Options". Select the "Security" tab. Click the "Internet" web content zone. Set the slider bar to a setting of "Medium" which is also the default level. Press "Ok".

Notes by David (KIET)

Use this method if you have specific security settings setup on your machine. Select the "Tools" menu. Select the menu item "Internet Options". Select the "Security" tab. Click the "Custom Level" button. Scroll down to the "Active Scripting" setting. Click "Enable". Press "Ok". Press "Ok" on the next window.

Notes by David (KIET)