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Q. Jl Mech. Appl. Math, Vol. 59. No. 2 c The author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press;
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Advance Access publication 3 February 2006. doi:10.1093/qjmam/hbj004
212 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
derived in terms of special functions later called the Maliuzhinets functions. The homogeneous
isotropic twoface impedance halfplane problem of electromagnetic diffraction in the oblique inci
dence case was analysed by L uneburg and Serbest (10) by using the range restrictions concept.
For the more complicated anisotropic case, two different matrix surface impedances
Z
= Z
0
_
0
1
0
_
(1.1)
are involved. Here the superscripts identify the upper and the lower faces of the plane,
1
and
2
are dimensionless parameters, Z
0
=
0
,c
0
is the intrinsic impedance, and
0
and c
0
are the
permeability and permittivity of free space. On the screen faces, the impedance boundary conditions
are E = Z
H, where E = (E
, E
z
)
and H = (H
, H
z
)
are different, Senior (13) used the WienerHopf and Maliuzhinets ideas to
reduce the problem to functional equations. The former method gives rise to a vector WienerHopf
problem for four pairs of unknown functions. Hurd and L uneburg (14) found a closedform solution
in the case Z
+
= Z
, the Daniele method leads to a system of highly nonlinear equations. These equations
have to be solved in order to eliminate an essential singularity of the WienerHopf factors. Apart
from the elliptic case (the number of nonlinear equations equals one) (15, 14) so far there is no
constructive (exact or approximate) technique for its solution.
Senior and Topsakal (16) employed the SommerfeldMaliuzhinets formulation and reduced the
problem to a secondorder difference equation and then converted it into an integral equation. An
approximate solution was given for the case Z
+
= Z
1
,
2
) (,
0
, ,
1
,
2
), where is the angle of observation,
is the angle of incidence, and
0
is the angle between the screen and the incident plane
wave.
2. Formulation
PROBLEM 2.1 (Main problem) Let S be a thin semiinnite anisotropic impedance sheet {0
, = 0, z +} with surface impedances
+
1
,
+
2
on the upper side S
+
( = 0) and
1
,
2
on the lower surface S
V
j
+(1)
j
cos
V
3j
i k
j
sin
2
V
j
= 0, = 0, j = 1, 2, (2.3)
where
1
= 1,
1
,
2
=
2
.
In this section the boundaryvalue problem for the Helmholtz equation will be reduced to two
vector difference equations with periodic coefcients. The total eld V = (V
1
, V
2
) is sought in the
form of the Sommerfeld integral (3)
V(, , z) =
e
i kz cos
2i
_
e
i k sin cos s
SSS(s +)ds. (2.4)
Here is the Sommerfeld contour. It consists of two loops symmetric with respect to the origin.
The asymptotes for the branches are the lines s =
3
2
and s =
1
2
for the upper loop and the lines
s =
1
2
and s =
3
2
for the lower loop. The spectral vector function SSS(s) = (S
1
(s), S
2
(s)) is
analytic everywhere in the strip Re s apart from the point s =
0
, where its components
have a simple pole with the residues dened by the incident eld (2.1)
res
s=
0
S
1
(s) = e
1
, res
s=
0
S
2
(s) = e
2
. (2.5)
At the innite points s = x i (x ), the functions S
1
(s) and S
2
(s) are bounded.
Because of the symmetry of the Sommerfeld contour in (2.4) the boundary conditions can be
rephrased in terms of the spectral functions as the system of the Maliuzhinets type difference equa
tions
_
sin s
j
sin
_
S
j
(s ) +(1)
j
cos s cos S
3j
(s )
=
_
sin s
j
sin
_
S
j
(s ) +(1)
j
cos s cos S
3j
(s ), j = 1, 2. (2.6)
To satisfy the boundary conditions, we introduce the following four new functions:
+
j
(s) =
_
sin s
j
sin
_
S
j
(s) (1)
j
cos s cos S
3j
(s), j = 1, 2. (2.7)
Clearly, the transformation
T : (,
0
, ,
1
,
2
) (,
0
, ,
1
,
2
) (2.8)
does not change the electromagnetic eld. The general solution to the main problem invariant to the
transformation T is given by the Sommerfeld integral (2.4) with the spectral functions S
1
(s) and
S
2
(s) being expressed through the functions +
1
(s) and +
2
(s) as follows:
S
1
(s) =
1
2
_
S
+
1
(s) +S
1
(s)
, S
2
(s) =
1
2
_
S
+
2
(s) +S
2
(s)
, (2.9)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 215
where
S
j
(s) =
1
I
s
(
1
,
2
)
__
sin s
3j
sin
_
+
j
(s)
+(1)
j
cos s cos +
3j
(s)
_
, j = 1, 2, (2.10)
and
I
s
(a, b) = (sin s +a sin )(sin s +b sin ) +cos
2
s cos
2
. (2.11)
The boundary conditions (2.6) for the functions S
1
(s) and S
2
(s) are equivalent to the following
conditions:
1
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
)
_
I
s
_
1
,
2
_
+
1
(s )
1
1
cos s sin 2+
2
(s )
_
=
1
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
)
_
I
s
_
1
,
2
_
+
1
(s )
1
1
cos s sin 2+
2
(s )
_
,
1
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
)
_
I
s
_
1
,
2
_
+
2
(s )
2
cos s sin 2+
1
(s )
_
=
1
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
)
_
I
s
_
1
,
2
_
+
2
(s )
2
cos s sin 2+
1
(s )
_
,
+
j
(s ) = +
j
(s ), j = 1, 2, (2.12)
Here
1
= 2
_
1
+
1
+
1
1
_
1
,
2
=
+
2
+
2
2
. (2.13)
From formulae (2.10) it follows that +
j
(s) = O(e
s
) ( j = 1, 2) as s (Re s is nite). Because
of the poles of the functions S
1
(s) and S
2
(s), the new functions +
1
(s) and +
2
(s) admit simple
poles at the point s =
0
. Analysis of the relations (2.10) implies that the functions S
1
(s), S
2
(s)
have inadmissible poles at the zeros of the functions I
s
(1,
1
,
2
) which lie in the strip
Re s . Let these zeros be denoted by
j
, j = 1, 2, 3, 4. The singular points
j
are the numbers
2j i log
_
i M
_
1 (M
)
2
_
, j = 0, 1, . . . , = 1, 2, (2.14)
which meet the requirement Re
j
(, ). Here
M
=
1
2
1
sin
_
1 +
2
+(1)
_
d
1
_
,
d
1
= (1
2
)
2
+4
1
(
1
) cos
2
, (2.15)
and
_
d
1
and log(i M
_
1 (M
)
2
) are xed branches of the square root and the loga
rithmic functions, respectively. Notice that the transformation T maps the points
+
j
into
j
:
216 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
+
j
= T
j
and
j
= T
+
j
. The points
j
become removable points of the functions S
1
(s)
and S
2
(s) if the following conditions hold:
(sin s
2
sin )+
1
(s) cos s cos +
2
(s) = 0,
_
sin s
1
1
sin
_
+
2
(s) +cos s cos +
1
(s) = 0, s =
j
, j = 1, 2, 3, 4. (2.16)
Since the determinant of this system I
j
(1,
1
,
2
) is equal to 0, the above conditions are
equivalent to the following four equations:
(sin
2
sin )+
1
(
j
) cos
j
cos +
2
(
j
) = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, 4. (2.17)
Let H
+
be the innite strip H
+
= {s C Re s 3}, and H
= {s C 3 Re s
}. Denote the boundaries of the strips by O
= {Re = 2 } and O
1
= {Re = 2 }.
From the integral representation (2.4) and the boundary conditions (2.3) it may be deduced that the
vectors +++
(s) = (+
1
(s), +
2
(s))
1
and satisfying the
boundary conditions
+++
() = G
()+++
( 4), O
, (2.18)
and the conditions of symmetry
+++
(s) =+++
(2 s), s H
, (2.19)
where the components G
mn
() of the matrices G
() are given by
G
+
11
() = G
11
() =
I
(1,
1
,
+
2
)I
(1,
+
1
,
2
) +
2
1
1
cos
2
sin
2
2
D()
,
G
+
22
() = G
22
() =
I
(1,
1
,
+
2
)I
(1,
+
1
,
2
) +
2
1
1
cos
2
sin
2
2
D()
,
G
12
() =
0
sin sin 2 sin 2
1
D()
, G
21
() =
2
G
12
(),
D() =
I
(1,
+
1
,
+
2
)
I
(1,
+
1
,
+
2
)
[I
(1,
1
,
+
2
)I
(1,
+
1
,
2
) +
2
1
1
cos
2
sin
2
2]
=
I
(1,
1
,
2
)
I
(1,
1
,
2
)
[I
(1,
+
1
,
2
)I
(1,
1
,
+
2
) +
2
1
1
cos
2
sin
2
2],
+
0
=
+
2
1
1
,
0
=
2
1
+
1
. (2.20)
At the ends of the strip, that is, as s (Re s is nite), +
j
(s) = O(e
s
) ( j = 1, 2). The
components +
j
(s) of the vectors +++
but everywhere
in the complex plane apart from the poles of the solution and the functions G
i j
(s).
REMARK 2.2 In the case of normal incidence ( =
1
2
), G
() = diag{G
11
(), G
22
()}. This
case is considered in section 7.
3. Vector RiemannHilbert problem on a plane
3.1 RiemannHilbert problem for two even functions on a system of contours
Let =
1
2
. In this section Problem 2.2 will be converted into two vector RiemannHilbert prob
lems on the segment (1, 1) and a system of branch cuts. In what follows the general method (6)
for vector difference equations with periodic meromorphic coefcients will be adjusted to Problem
2.2. The rst step of the procedure is decoupling of the vector equations (2.18). It may be achieved
by splitting the matrices G
():
G
() = T
()A
()[T
( 4)]
1
, O
, (3.1)
where A
() = diag{
1
(),
2
()}, and
1
() and
2
() are the eigenvalues of the matrices
G
(),
1
() = a
1
() +a
2
() f
1
2
(),
2
() = a
1
() a
2
() f
1
2
(). (3.2)
The matrices T
(s) = T
(s) =
_
1 1
f
1
(s) + f
1
2
(s) f
1
(s) f
1
2
(s)
_
. (3.3)
Here
a
1
() =
1
2
[G
11
() + G
22
()], a
2
() = G
12
(),
f
1
(s) =
G
11
(s) G
22
(s)
2G
12
(s)
=
1
(
+
0
+
0
)
2
0
sin 2 cos s
(cos
2
s cos
2
+sin
2
s g
0
sin
2
),
f
2
=
G
21
(s)
G
12
(s)
=
2
, f
(s) = [ f
1
(s)]
2
+ f
2
=
_
1
(
+
0
+
0
) tan
4
0
cos s
_
2
f
(s),
f
(s) =
_
cos
2
s + g
0
1
sin
2
_
2
+16g
1
cos
2
s cot
2
,
g
0
=
1
+
0
+
0
_
+
0
+
1
+
+
2
1
_
, g
1
=
2
+
0
1
(
+
0
+
0
)
2
. (3.4)
From the above formulae it follows that the matrices G
+
() and G
+
j
() =
j
() =
j
() and therefore A
+
() = A
(s) are twovalued functions. They have branch points at the zeros of odd order of the
218 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
function f
(s) which are dened by the roots of the equations cos 2s = N
, s H
( = 1, 2),
where
N
= 1 +
2
sin
2
_
1 g
0
sin
2
8g
1
cos
2
+4i (1)
cos
_
d
0
_
,
d
0
= g
1
(1 g
0
sin
2
4g
1
cos
2
). (3.5)
Here
d
0
is one of the branches of the square root. In general, d
0
is complex. If d
0
= 0 then the
functions f
1,2
_
N
2
1) ( = 1, 2; j = 0, 1, 2, . . .), (3.6)
only those roots s
j
should be taken which lie in the strip H
= {2 Re s 2 }. The
branch of the logarithmic functions is xed by the condition arg(N
_
N
2
1) , and
_
N
2
, s
0
, s
1
, . . . , s
15
. Single
branches of the functions f
1,2
are xed by
f
1
2
(s) =
1
(
+
0
+
0
) tan
4
0
cos s
f
(s),
f
(s) cos
2
s, s x i ,
2 x 2 . (3.7)
Then, clearly, T f
1,2
+
(s) = f
1,2
cut
along a system of cuts C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7) which join pairs of the branch points. The cuts are
smooth curves and they do not intersect each other.
According to the splitting (3.1) of the matrices G
(s) = [T
(s)]
1
+
(s), s H
, (3.8)
are introduced. Their components are given by
1
(s) =
_
f
1
(s)
2 f
1,2
(s)
+
1
2
_
+
1
(s) +
+
2
(s)
2 f
1,2
(s)
,
2
(s) =
_
f
1
(s)
2 f
1,2
(s)
+
1
2
_
+
1
(s)
+
2
(s)
2 f
1,2
(s)
, s H
. (3.9)
Analysis of these formulae shows that the functions f
1
(s) f
1,2
(s) and f
1,2
0
, s
1
, . . . , s
15
. Because of the poles
of the functions +
1
(s) and +
2
(s) at the points s =
0
and s = 2
0
, the functions
1
(s) and
2
(s) may have two simple poles at these points.
Clearly, the branch cuts C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7) are lines of discontinuity for the functions
1
(s)
and
2
(s). However, the vectors +
(s) = T
(s)
1
(s) and
2
(s) solve the following system of two scalar difference
equations:
() =
()
( 4), = 1, 2, O
, (3.10)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 219
subject to the RiemannHilbert boundary conditions on the cuts C
1
()
L
=
2
()
R
,
1
()
R
=
2
()
L
, C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7), (3.11)
where
()
L
and
()
R
are the limiting values of the functions
j
from the left and from the righthand sides with respect to the positive directions of the contours
C
j
( = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, . . . , 7). It becomes evident from (3.9) that at the ends of the strip the
functions
1
(s) grow, and the functions
2
(s) are bounded:
1
(s) = O(e
s
),
2
(s) = O(1), s , s H
. (3.12)
By the mappings
w = i tan
s 2
4
, s = 2 +2i log
1 +w
1 w
, (3.13)
the contours O
are mapped onto the upper side of the cut [1, 1] (the left bank with respect to
the positive direction), and the left boundaries of the strips, O
1
, are mapped onto the lower side
of the cut. The images of the upper and the lower innite points of the strips H
, x i and
x +i (2 x 2 ), are the points w = 1 and w = 1, respectively. The function
log[(1 + w)(1 w)
1
] is real on the upper side of the cut. The systems of equations (3.10) and
(3.11) reduce to the following vector RiemannHilbert problem.
PROBLEM 3.1 Find the functions F
and w = w
, where w
= i tan
1
4
(
0
), continuous
up to the segment (1, 1) and the contours C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7). The functions F
(w) = F
(t ) = l
(t )F
(t ), = 1, 2, t (1, 1),
F
+
1
(t ) = F
2
(t ), F
+
2
(t ) = F
1
(t ), t C
j
, j = 0, 1, . . . , 7. (3.14)
Here the curves C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7) are the images of the branch cuts C
j
, and
F
(w) =
(s), w C, s H
,
F
+
(t ) = F
(w)
L
, F
(t ) = F
(w)
R
, t [1, 1],
l
(t ) =
, (3.15)
where w and s are linked by (3.13) and t = i tan
1
4
( 2 ). At the ends,
F
1
(w) D
1
w 1
2
, F
2
(w) D
2
, w 1, (3.16)
where D
1
and D
2
are constants.
The functions F
1
(w) and F
2
(w) are even, because of the relations
+
(s) = +
(2 s), = 1, 2,
f
1
(s) = f
1
(2 s), f
1,2
(s) = f
1,2
(2 s), s H
. (3.17)
The class of solutions (3.16) for Problem 3.1 follows from the conditions (3.12).
220 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
It was proved in (6) that the even RiemannHilbert problem (3.14) has a solution if the coef
cients l
(t )l
(t ) = 1. The functions l
(1) = l
(0) = l
(1) = 1, A
= 2, (3.18)
where A
(0) = 0.
3.2 Branch points and the function p
1
2
()
Analysis of the branch points
w
j
= i tan
s
j
4
, j = 0, 1, . . . , 15, (3.19)
shows that half of them are located in the upper halfplane. Moreover, for each branch point w
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7) there is one branch point, say w
m+8
(m = 0, 1, . . . , 7), such that w
j
= w
m+8
.
Denote = w
2
= tan
2 1
4
(s ) and
j
= (w
j
)
2
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 15). Among the 16 numbers
j
there are eight distinct ones. Let they be reordered in the following manner:
Im
0
Im
1
Im
7
, (3.20)
and
Re
j
Re
j +1
if Im
j
= Im
j +1
. (3.21)
Then, clearly,
+
j
=
j
=
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7). For example, if
=
1
3
,
+
1
= 1 i,
+
2
= 01 i,
1
= 2 i,
2
= 1 +i, (3.22)
then the branch points
j
are
0
= 23406 19658i,
1
= 016520 15996i,
2
= 012473 010242i,
3
= 0051898 0091307i,
4
= 025053 +021041i,
5
= 0063887 +061857i,
6
= 47887 +39321i,
7
= 47050 +82778i.
Notice that the branch points are invariant with respect to the transformation T : T
j
=
j
, j =
0, 1, . . . , 7. Since the shape of the branch cuts C
j
and the starting and the ending points of the
cuts were not chosen it may be assumed that the branch cuts are the straight lines in the plane
which join the branch points
2 j
with
2 j +1
, j = 0, 1, 2, 3. These branch cuts are denoted by
j
.
The convention (3.20), (3.21) guarantees that the branch cuts will not cross each other (Fig. 2).
Notice that regardless of the values of the impedance parameters the rst four branch points
j
( j = 0, 1, 2, 3) are located below the real axis, and the other four branch points are in the upper
halfplane. If all the impedance parameters
j
are real, then
j
=
7j
, j = 0, 1, 2, 3.
Let p
1,2
() be the branch of the function
u
2
= p(), p() = (
0
)(
1
) . . . (
7
), (3.23)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 221
Fig. 2 Branch cuts
0
,
1
,
2
and
3
chosen such that p
1,2
()
4
, . In what follows a relation between the single branches of
the functions f
1,2
2
+6 +1
( 1)
2
, (3.24)
formula (3.7) implies
f
1
2
(s) =
1
(
+
0
+
0
) tan ( 1)
2
4
0
(
2
+6 +1)
_
f
(s). (3.25)
Use of the directly veried relations
cos 2s = 1 +
32( +1)
2
( 1)
4
(3.26)
and
f
(s) =
1
4
(cos 2s N
1
)(cos 2s N
2
) =
(1 N
1
)(1 N
2
)
4( 1)
8
p( ) =
2
12
p( )
p(1)( 1)
8
(3.27)
makes it possible to show that
_
f
(s) =
64
p
1,2
(1)( 1)
4
p
1,2
( ). (3.28)
222 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
Indeed, since cos
2
s 64( 1)
4
as 1 (s x ), the function
f
(s) meets the
condition (3.7). Therefore,
f
1,2
(s) =
16
1
(
+
0
+
0
) tan p
1,2
( )
0
p
1,2
(1)(
2
+6 +1)( 1)
2
. (3.29)
Analysis of the branches f
1,2
(s) and p
1,2
() shows that the functions f
1,2
(s) p
1,2
( ) do not have
branch points and also that at innity
f
1,2
(s)
2
1
(
+
0
+
0
) tan
0
( 1)
2
, s x i ( 1). (3.30)
4. Scalar RiemannHilbert problem on a surface of genus 3
In this section the vector problem (3.14) is formulated as a scalar RiemannHilbert problem on a
hyperelliptic surface, say R, of the algebraic function (3.23).
4.1 Formulation of the problem
The surface R is formed by gluing two copies C
1
and C
2
of the extended complex plane C
cut along the system of the cuts
j
( j = 0, 1, 2, 3). The positive (left) sides of the cuts
j
on C
1
are glued with the negative (right) sides of the curves
j
on C
2
, and vice versa. The genus of the
surface is 3. The function u, dened by (3.23), becomes singlevalued on the surface R:
u =
_
p
1,2
(), C
1
,
p
1,2
(), C
2
,
(4.1)
where a point of the surface R with afx on C
(, u) =
_
F
1
(w), (, u) C
1
,
F
2
(w), (, u) C
2
,
= w
2
= tan
2
s
4
, (4.2)
are singlevalued on the Riemann surface R. They are meromorphic everywhere on R apart from
the contour L = L
1
L
2
, where L
1
= (0, 1) C
1
and L
2
= (0, 1) C
2
. Therefore, Problem 3.1
is equivalent to the following scalar RiemannHilbert problem on the surface R.
PROBLEM 4.1 Find the functions F
(, ) = l(, )F
(, ), (, ) L, (4.3)
where
l(, ) =
_
l
1
(
), (, ) L
1
,
l
2
(
), (, ) L
2
,
(4.4)
= u(), and
1
= tan
2 1
4
(
0
). The functions F
(, u) B
( 1)
2
, and they are bounded on the second sheet. As 0 and (, u) R,
the functions F
(, u) are bounded.
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 223
Notice that a branch point
j
of a twosheeted Riemann surface is called (18) a pole of order
j
for a function F(, u) if F(, u) Az
j
, z 0, A = const, and z = (
j
)
1,2
is a local
uniformizer of the point
j
.
4.2 Factorization of the coefcient l(t, )
The rst step of the procedure for the problem (4.3) is to factorize the function l(, ). This means
nding a meromorphic solution to the following problem:
l(, ) =
X
+
(, )
X
(, )
, (, ) L. (4.5)
Its solution is given in terms of the singular integrals with the Weierstrass kernel on the Riemann
surface
dU =
u +
2
d
, (, ) L, (, u) R, (4.6)
as follows (6):
X(, u) = e
(,u)
,
(, u) = I
1
(, u) +I
2
(, u) +I
3
(, u),
I
1
(, u) =
1
2i
_
L
logl(, )dU, I
2
(, u) =
_
p
11
p
10
dU
_
p
21
p
20
dU,
I
3
(, u) =
3
j =1
_
_
5
j
dU +m
j
_
a
j
dU +n
j
_
b
j
dU
_
. (4.7)
The function exp{I
1
(, u)} satises the boundary condition (4.3). However, its asymptotics at the
ends 1 of the contours L
1
and L
2
differs from the one required in Problem 4.1. Also, in general,
it has an essential singularity at the innite points
,
a
2
= [
4
,
5
]
+
[
5
,
4
]
,
a
3
= [
6
,
7
]
+
[
7
,
6
]
. (4.8)
The positive direction is chosen such that the rst sheet C
1
is on the left. The crosssections b
j
are
closed contours consisting of two parts:
b
1
= [
1
,
2
]
C
2
[
2
,
1
]
C
1
,
b
2
= b
1
[
2
,
3
]
+
C
2
[
3
,
4
]
C
2
[
4
,
3
]
C
1
[
3
,
2
]
C
1
,
b
3
= b
2
[
4
,
5
]
+
C
2
[
5
,
6
]
C
2
[
6
,
5
]
C
1
[
5
,
4
]
C
1
. (4.9)
224 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
Fig. 3 Canonical crosssections a
j
and b
j
( j = 1, 2, 3)
The rst part (the solid line in Fig. 3) lies on the sheet C
1
. The starting point of the crosssection
b
j
is
2 j
( j = 1, 2, 3), and the terminal point is
1
. The second part (the dashed line in Fig. 3)
lies on the second sheet C
2
. The contour b
j
crosses the loop a
j
from right to left and does not
cross the other loops a
k
and b
k
(k = j ) or the contour L. Notice that for all tested values of the
impedance parameters and the angle , the segment
3
4
does not cross the segment (0, 1), and the
point = 0 always lies to right of the segment
3
4
. Because of the conditions (3.18) and the choice
of the argument of the functions l
) = log l
) +i c
(), (, ) L
, = 1, 2,
c
() = argl
), c
() [2, 0], c
(0) = 0, c
(1) = 2. (4.10)
The contours 5
j
= r
j
q
j
( j = 1, 2, 3) are continuous curves with starting points r
j
= (
j
, n
j
)
C
1
, n
j
= p
1,2
(
j
). These points are distinct and xed arbitrarily. The ending points q
j
= (
j
, u
j
)
R, u
j
= u(
j
), are to be determined (they may lie on either sheet). The contours 5
j
cannot cross the
a and bloops or the contour L. It is convenient to take the contour 5
j
as a line that passes through
the branch point
0
(Fig. 4). If the terminal point q
j
C
1
, then the whole contour 5
j
C
1
. If this
point lies on the second sheet C
2
, then the contour 5
j
consists of two parts: the segment
j
0
C
1
,
and the line
0
j
C
2
. Depending on whether the point (
j
, u
j
) is to the left or to the right of the
broken line
0
1
. . .
7
, the part
0
j
of the contour 5
j
lies in the domain that is either to the left, or
to the right of the contour
0
1
. . .
7
. In Fig. 4, as an example, the following case is illustrated. The
point q
1
C
1
, and the points q
2
and q
3
lie on the sheet C
2
.
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 225
Fig. 4 Contours 5
1
, 5
2
and 5
3
The points p
1
( = 1, 2) are arbitrary, distinct and xed
p
1
= (
, (1)
1
z
) C
,
1
=
2
,
= 1, z
= p
1,2
(
), = 1, 2. (4.11)
The point p
0
coincides with the right end = 1 of the contour L
: p
0
= (1, (1)
1
p
1,2
(1)). The integers m
j
and n
j
( j = 1, 2, 3) and the points q
j
are to be determined. Formulae
(4.7) can be represented in another form more convenient for analysis
(, u) =
1
() +u()
2
(),
1
() =
1
4i
_
1
0
[logl
1
(
)+logl
2
(
)]
d
+
1
2
_
1
1
d
1
2
_
2
1
d
+
1
2
3
j =1
_
5
j
d
,
2
() =
1
4i
_
1
0
[logl
1
(
) logl
2
(
)]
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
_
1
1
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
_
2
1
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
3
j =1
_
_
5
j
+m
j
_
a
j
+n
j
_
b
j
_
d
()( )
. (4.12)
By the SokhotskiPlemelj formulae for integrals with the Weierstrass kernel the rst integrals in
the above formulae for the functions
1
( ) and
2
() are discontinuous through the contour [0, 1],
226 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
and the limiting values of the function X(, u) meet the condition (4.5). The other integrals are
continuous through the contour L. They are discontinuous through their lines of integration with
the jump multiple to 2i . The continuity of the function X(, u) = exp (, u), however, is not
affected by these jumps. Analysis of the rst, second, and third integrals in the representations
(4.12) of the functions
1
() and
2
( ) at the points = 0 and = 1 yields
(, u) const, (, u) (0, p
1,2
(0)) R,
(, u) 2 log( 1), (, u) (1, p
1,2
(1)) C
1
,
(, u) const, (, u) (1, p
1,2
(1)) C
2
. (4.13)
Thus, the function X(, u) is bounded at the points (0, p
1,2
(0)) R, and its asymptotics at the
ends (1, p
1,2
(1)) is the same as for the functions F
2
2
3
+
3
3
( )
(4.14)
gives the following asymptotic expansion of the function (, w) at innity:
(, w) =
1
2
3
=1
1
2i
_
1
0
[logl
1
(
) logl
2
(
)]
1
d
p
1,2
()
+
2
=1
_
1
d
p
1,2
()
+
3
j =1
_
_
5
j
+m
j
_
a
j
+n
j
_
b
j
_
1
d
()
u( )
+ O(1), , = 1, 2, 3.
(4.15)
Therefore the function (, w) is bounded at innity if and only if the points q
j
= (
j
, u
j
) and the
integers m
j
and n
j
solve the following system of nonlinear equations:
3
j =1
[
(q
j
) +m
j
A
j
+n
j
B
j
] = d
, = 1, 2, 3, (4.16)
where
d
=
3
j =1
(
j
, n
j
)
1
2i
_
1
0
[logl
1
(
) logl
2
(
)]
1
d
p
1,2
()
2
=1
_
1
d
p
1,2
()
. (4.17)
The differentials
d
=
1
d
()
, = 1, 2, 3, (4.18)
form a basis of abelian differentials of the rst kind on the surface R. The integrals
A
j
=
_
a
j
1
d
()
, B
j
=
_
b
j
1
d
()
(4.19)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 227
are the A and Bperiods of the abelian integrals
(, u) =
_
(,u)
(
0
,0)
1
d
()
, = 1, 2, 3. (4.20)
The contour of integration does not intersect the canonical crosssections. The nonlinear system
(4.16) with respect to the points q
j
= (
j
, u
j
) R and the integers m
j
and n
j
( j = 1, 2, 3) is
the Jacobi inversion problem for the surface R of genus 3. Clearly, the solution to this problem is
invariant with respect to the transformation T . To reduce the system (4.16) to standard form, the
basis of abelian integrals needs to be normalized. The Aperiods of the normalized (canonical) basis
form the unit matrix. The canonical basis = {
=
j
,
B
j
=
_
b
j
d
=
3
r=1
M
r
B
r j
. (4.22)
Here
j
is the Kronecker symbol. The matrix BBB = {B
j
} (, j = 1, 2, 3) is symmetric, and ImBBB is
a positive denite matrix. The Jacobi problem (4.16) can now be formulated for the canonical basis
3
j =1
[
(q
j
) +n
j
B
j
] +m
=
d
, = 1, 2, 3, (4.23)
where
=
3
j =1
M
j
d
j
, = 1, 2, 3, (4.24)
and M
j
are the elements of the matrix M.
5. Solution of the Jacobi inversion problem
Consider the Jacobi inversion problem for a Riemann surface of genus h.
PROBLEM 5.1 Given h constants
d
nd h points q
R and 2h integers n
and m
( =
1, 2, . . . , h) such that
h
j =1
(q
j
) = e
j =1
n
j
B
j
m
=
d
+k
, and k
t
1
,t
2
,...,t
h
=
G
t
(q). (5.2)
228 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
where
G
t
(q) = exp
i
h
=1
h
=1
B
+2i
h
=1
t
(q) e
, t = (t
1
, t
2
, . . . , t
h
). (5.3)
Since the matrix ImB is positive denite the series (5.2) converges exponentially. The integers n
j =1
n
j
Im(B
j
) = Im(=
), = 1, 2, . . . , h, (5.4)
and the integers m
by
m
= Re(=
)
h
j =1
n
j
Re(B
j
). (5.5)
Here
=
= e
j =1
(q
j
). (5.6)
5.1 Riemanns constants
The Riemann constants k
= k
(z)
=
1
2
+
1
2
B
j =1, j =
_
a
j
(r)d
j
(r). (5.7)
Here
and n
=
1
2i
_
and b
=
h
j =1
(q
j
). (5.9)
On the other hand, the same integral may be represented as
J
=
h
j =1
(J
j
+J
j
), (5.10)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 229
where
J
j
=
1
2i
_
a
j
+
(r)d log F
+
(r)
1
2i
_
a
j
(r)d log F
(r),
J
j
=
1
2i
_
b
j
+
(r)d log F
+
(r)
1
2i
_
b
j
(r)d log F
(r). (5.11)
Because of the properties of the abelian integrals and the function, on the loops a
j
+
(r) =
(r) B
j
,
F
+
(r) = F
(r) exp{i B
j j
+2i [
+
j
(r) e
j
]}, (5.12)
and on the loops b
j
+
(r) =
(r) +
j
, F
+
(r) = F
(r), (5.13)
the integrals (5.11) reduce to
J
j
=
1
2i
_
a
j
(r)d log
F
+
(r)
F
(r)
B
j
2i
_
a
j
d log F
+
(r) =
_
a
j
(r)d
j
(r) n
j
B
j
,
J
j
=
j
2i
_
b
j
d log F
+
(r) =
j
2i
_
log F(r
+
j
) log F(r
++
j
)
_
=
j
2i
_
log
F(r
+
j
)
F(r
++
j
)
+2i m
j
_
, (5.14)
where n
j
and m
j
are some integers. The points r
++
j
and r
+
j
are shown in Fig. 5. Since the points
r
+
j
and r
++
j
are located on the different sides of the crosssection a
j
, from (5.12),
log
F(r
+
j
)
F(r
++
j
)
= i B
j j
2i [
j
(r
++
j
) e
j
] +2i m
j
, (5.15)
where m
j
are some integers. Therefore
J
=
h
j =1
_
_
a
j
(r)d
j
(r) n
j
B
j
_
1
2
B
(r
++
) +e
+m
+m
. (5.16)
Performing the integration and using
(r
) =
(r
+
) 1 yield
_
a
(r)d
(r) =
1
2
_
a
d[
(r)]
2
=
1
2
[
(r
+
(r
)][
(r
+
) +
(r
)] =
(r
+
)
1
2
=
(r
++
) +B
1
2
. (5.17)
Notice that this formula is not reducible to the expression
1
2
+
(r
++
j
derived in (19, formula (5.15)). By substituting (5.17) into (5.16) and denoting m
= (m
+m
)+
1, n
= n
, and
k
=
1
2
1
2
B
j =1, j =
_
a
j
(r)d
j
(r), (5.19)
the integral J
is converted into
J
= e
j =1
n
j
B
j
m
. (5.20)
Comparing with (5.9) and putting q
j
= q
j
give the Jacobi inversion problem (5.1). Clearly, the
Riemann constants (5.19) and the constants (5.7) dened in (19) are not the same. Indeed, the
Jacobi problem in terms of the constants k
= k
(z)
j =1
(q
j
) e
k
(z)
+B
j =1
(q
j
) = e
k
(z)
j =1
(n
j
j
)B
j
, = 1, 2, . . . , h. (5.22)
Obviously, it is impossible to nd integers m
and n
and n
.
To simplify the expressions for the Riemann constants, evaluate the integral in (5.19). Rewrite it
rst as
K
j
=
_
a
j
(r)d
j
(r) =
_
a
j
+
(r)d
j
(r) +B
j
. (5.23)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 231
Let r
+
,
+
and r
(r
) =
_
[
0
,
2 j +1
]C
1
d
(r) +
_
[
2 j +1
,r]C
1
d
) =
+
(
2 j +1
)
+
j
(r), (5.24)
where
+
j
(r) =
_
[r,
2 j +1
]C
1
d
(
+
). (5.25)
It follows from (5.24) and
_
[
2 j
,
2 j +1
]
d
(
+
) =
1
2
_
a
j
d
(r) = 0, = j, (5.26)
that
+
(r
+
) +
+
(r
) = 2
+
(
2 j +1
) = 2
+
(
2 j
). (5.27)
Hence
K
j
= B
j
+
+
(
2 j
). (5.28)
For a hyperelliptic surface Rof genus h with the system of crosssections as in Fig. 3, the integrals
+
(
2 j
) can be calculated. By the Cauchy theorem,
_
[
0
,
1
]
d
(r) =
h
j =1
_
a
j
d
(r) = 1. (5.29)
Therefore
+
(
2
) =
__
[
0
,
1
]
+
C
1
+
_
[
1
,
2
]C
1
_
d
(r) =
1
2
1
2
B
1
. (5.30)
Similarly, for j = 2
+
(
4
) =
+
(
2
) +
1
2
1
+
_
[
3
,
4
]C
1
d
(r) =
1
2
1
2
B
2
+
1
2
1
. (5.31)
For any j 1, it may be deduced that
+
(
2 j
) =
1
2
1
2
B
j
+
1
2
(
1
+
2
+ +
, j 1
). (5.32)
By substituting (5.32) into (5.28) and (5.19), the Riemann constants k
become
k
= 1 +
1
2
1
2
h
j =1
B
j
. (5.33)
Notice that the use of another set of the Riemann constants linked to the constants (5.33) by the
relation
= k
+ m
+ n
j =1
B
j
(5.34)
(for example,
k
=
1
2
+
1
2
(B
1
+ + B
h
)) gives also a solution to the Jacobi problem. Here
m
and n
are integers. In this case the Riemann function should be taken in the form
F(q) = (
1
(q) e
1
,
2
(q) e
2
, . . . ,
h
(q) e
h
), e
=
d
+
k
. (5.35)
232 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
This result follows from the periodicity properties of the Riemann function
(
1
+ j
1
,
+ j
2
, . . . ,
h
+ j
h
) = (
1
,
2
, . . . ,
h
), j
= 0, 1,
(
1
+B
1
,
2
+B
2
, . . . ,
h
+B
h
) = e
i B
2i
(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
h
), = 1, 2, . . . , h.
(5.36)
5.2 Afxes of the points q
1
, q
2
and q
3
The problem of nding the three zeros of the function
F(q) = (
1
(q) e
1
,
2
(q) e
2
,
(
q) e
3
) =
t
1
,t
2
,t
3
=
G
t
(q) (5.37)
for h = 3 can be reduced to a cubic equation. Here
G
t
(q) = exp
i
3
=1
3
=1
B
+2i
3
=1
t
(q) e
, t = (t
1
, t
2
, t
3
),
e
=
d
+k
, k
=
1
2
+
1
2
(B
1
+B
2
+B
3
), = 1, 2, 3, (5.38)
and the coefcients
d
=
1
2i
_
=
3
j =1
j
+
2
=1
_
res
q=0
+ res
q=
(q)
F(q)
, (5.40)
where 0
= (0, (1)
1
p
1,2
(0)) C
, and
) = 0, and F(
) = 0, = 1, 2. Because of the
asymptotics
(q)
F(q)
= O(
2
), , = 1, 2, 3, (5.41)
the residues at the innite points
may be represented as
N
=
3
j =1
_
a
j
t
d
+
j
(r) = 2
3
j =1
3
l=1
M
jl
_
[
2 j
2 j +1
]
l1
d
p
1,2
(
+
)
, (5.42)
where
+
[
2 j
,
2 j +1
]
+
. Comparing the two expressions for N
yields
1
1
+
1
2
+
1
3
=
, = 1, 2, 3, (5.43)
where
= 2
3
j =1
3
l=1
M
jl
_
[
2 j
2 j +1
]
l1
d
p
1,2
(
+
)
2
=1
res
q=0
(q)
F(q)
. (5.44)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 233
Note that the integral (5.39) is different from the one used in (19, 5). The function
is replaced
by the function
. Instead of the
residues at the innite points
2
+2
3
)
3
+3(
2
2
1
)
2
+6
1
6 = 0 (5.45)
with complex coefcients. The three roots of this equation dene the afxes of the zeros of the
function F(q).
5.3 Numerical procedure
The rst step of the procedure is to evaluate the matrix of Bperiods of the canonical basis by
formulae (4.21) and (4.22). This requires the A and Bperiods of the basis :
A
j
= 2
_
[
2 j
2 j +1
]
1
d
p
1,2
(
+
)
, j = 1, 2, 3,
B
1
= 2
_
[
1
2
]
1
d
p
1,2
()
, B
2
= B
1
2
_
[
3
4
]
1
d
p
1,2
()
,
B
3
= B
2
2
_
[
5
6
]
1
d
p
1,2
()
, = 1, 2, 3. (5.46)
These integrals are computed by the GaussChebyshev quadrature formulae. The branch of the
function p
1,2
() in the cut plane (Fig. 2) has been xed by the condition p
1,2
( )
4
, .
For numerical purposes, this branch can algorithmically be described as follows. Dene
y
m
=
2m+1
2m
(m = 0, 1, 2, 3),
m
=
_
tan
1
(Im y
m
, Re y
m
), Re y
m
= 0,
,2, Re y
m
= 0,
j
=
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 7),
j
=
tan
1
(Im
j
, Re
j
), Re
j
= 0,
,2, Re
j
= 0, Im
j
> 0,
,2, Re
j
= 0, Im
j
0.
(5.47)
Then the branch p
1,2
() behaves at innity as
4
if
p
1,2
() =
_
7
j =0

j
 exp
i
2
7
j =0
,
j
= arg
j
. (5.48)
In the case
m
0 and ,
m
the arguments
j
are chosen to be +
m
j
+
m
(m = 0, 1, 2, 3). This means that
j
=
j
, Re
j
0,
j
+, Re
j
0,
j
m
,
j
, Re
j
0,
j
>
m
,
m = [ j,2], (5.49)
234 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
where [ j,2] is the integer part of j,2. If
m
0 and as before ,
m
, then
m
j
2 +
m
.
Therefore,
j
=
j
+, Re
j
0,
j
+2, Re
j
0,
j
m
,
j
, Re
j
0,
j
m
,
m = [ j,2]. (5.50)
The evaluation of the Aperiods by formulae (5.46) requires dening p
1,2
(
+
), where
+
+
m
. In
this case for
m
0,
j
=
_
m
, j = 0, 2, 4, 6,
m
, j = 1, 3, 5, 7,
m = [ j,2], (5.51)
and if
m
0, then
j
=
_
m
, j = 0, 2, 4, 6,
m
+, j = 1, 3, 5, 7,
m = [ j,2]. (5.52)
To compute the coefcients of the cubic equation (5.45) by formulae (5.44) one needs to evaluate
the residues of the function
, = 1, 2.
They are given by
res
q=0
(q)
F(q)
=1
=
F
(q)
F(q)
q=0
,
res
q=0
(q)
F(q)
=2
=
_
F
(q)
F(q)
_
F
(q)
F(q)
_
2
_
q=0
,
res
q=0
(q)
F(q)
=3
=
1
2
_
F
(q)
F(q)
3F
(q)F
(q)
F
2
(q)
+2
_
F
(q)
F(q)
_
3
_
q=0
, (5.53)
where
F
(0
) = 2i
t
1
,t
2
,t
3
=
(1)
t
G
t
(0
),
F
(0
) = 2i
t
1
,t
2
,t
3
=
_
2i
_
(1)
t
_
2
+
(2)
t
_
G
t
(0
),
F
(0
) = 2i
t
1
,t
2
,t
3
=
_
4
2
_
(1)
t
_
3
+6i
(1)
t
(2)
t
+
(3)
t
_
G
t
(0
),
(s)
t
=
3
=1
t
(s)
(0
). (5.54)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 235
The derivatives
(s)
(0
(0
) =
(1)
1
M
1
p
1,2
(0)
,
(0
) =
(1)
1
p
1,2
(0)
_
M
2
M
1
p
(0)
2p(0)
_
,
(0
) =
(1)
1
p
1,2
(0)
_
2M
3
M
2
p
(0)
p(0)
M
1
2
_
p
(0)
p(0)
3
2
_
p
(0)
p(0)
_
2
__
, (5.55)
where
p
(0)
p(0)
=
7
j =0
1
j
,
p
(0)
p(0)
=
j =0
1
j =0
1
2
j
. (5.56)
To nd a root
1
= x
1
+i x
2
of equation (5.45) the following procedure is applied. Equation (5.45)
is written as H
1
+i H
2
= 0, where
H
1
= x
3
1
3x
1
x
2
2
+a
1
(x
2
1
x
2
2
) 2a
2
x
1
x
2
+b
1
x
1
b
2
x
2
+c
1
,
H
2
= x
3
2
+3x
2
1
x
2
+a
2
(x
2
1
x
2
2
) +2a
1
x
1
x
2
+b
1
x
2
+b
2
x
1
+c
2
,
a
1
+i a
2
= 3(
2
2
1
)
1
, b
1
+i b
2
= 6
1
,
c
1
+i c
2
= 6
1
=
3
1
3
1
2
+2
3
. (5.57)
The NewtonRaphson iteration for evaluation of x
1
and x
2
x
(n)
j
= x
(n1)
j
H
1,1
H
j
+(1)
j
H
1,2
H
3j
A
,
A = H
2
1,1
+ H
2
1,2
, H
1, j
=
H
1
x
j
, j = 1, 2, (5.58)
is employed. The standard iteration formula becomes simpler because of the relations H
2,2
= H
1,1
and H
2,1
= H
1,2
. The other two roots of equation (5.45) are found from the associated quadratic
equation.
The numerical algorithm proposed can be tested by checking numerically the following
properties.
(i) The matrix B of Bperiods is symmetric and ImB is a positive denite matrix.
(ii) The Riemann function meets the conditions (5.36) (h = 3).
(iii) Among each pair of points (
j
, p
1,2
(
j
) C
1
and (
j
, p
1,2
(
j
) C
2
( j = 1, 2, 3) there is
one and only one point q
j
such that F(q
j
) = 0.
(iv) The solution n
dened by
(5.5) are integers.
(v) The points q
j
and the integers m
j
and n
j
satisfy the conditions (4.16), and therefore the solu
tion X(, u) is bounded at innity.
(vi) The solution of the Jacobi problem is independent of the paths 5
j
, j = 1, 2, 3. It depends on
the location of the free points r
1
, r
2
, r
3
, p
11
and p
21
. However, the solution of Problem 2.2 is
independent of the choice of these points provided the paths 5
j
( j = 1, 2, 3) do not intersect
the a and bloops and the contour L.
236 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
All these properties of the solution have been successfully veried.
For the parameters
and
j
chosen to be
= +1 ( = 1, 2),
j
=
0
i j ( j = 1, 2, 3), (5.59)
and for the set of parameters (3.22) it turns out that n
= m
= 0, = 1, 2, 3,
1
= 03104 04492i,
2
= 25062 12753i,
3
= 46000 +20691i.
The points q
1
and q
3
lie on the rst sheet C
1
, and q
2
C
2
. If =
1
8
and the other parameters are
the same, then n
= m
= 0, = 1, 2, 3, q
1
C
1
, q
2
C
2
, q
3
C
2
, and their afxes are
1
= 05112 02745i,
2
= 65251 38299i,
3
= 158337 +104951i.
It is clear that if   is large, then even a small error of computation in the afxes of the points q
j
may produce a big error for the values of the function X(, u). To overcome this difculty, in the
case   > 1, formula (4.12) for the function
2
() is replaced by
2
() =
1
3
_
1
4i
_
1
0
[logl
1
(
) logl
2
(
)]
3
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
_
1
1
3
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
_
2
1
3
d
p
1,2
()( )
+
1
2
3
j =1
_
_
5
j
+m
j
_
a
j
+n
j
_
b
j
_
3
d
()( )
. (5.60)
Notice the above formula is not an asymptotic relation but an exact equality. The righthand side of
the second formula in (4.12) coincides with (5.60) provided the integers n
j
and m
j
and the points
q
j
( j = 1, 2, 3) solve the Jacobi problem (4.23). Formula (5.60) guarantees the stability of the
numerical values of the function exp{u( )
2
( )} for large   and makes the numerical algorithm
efcient for numerical purposes.
6. Solution to the physical problem and denition of the constants
To proceed now with the general solution of Problem 4.1, notice that the function X(, u) dened
by (4.7) has simple zeros at the points p
11
= (
1
, z
1
) and q
j
= (
j
, u
j
) ( j = 1, 2, 3), where
u
j
= (1)
1
p
1,2
(
j
), = 1 if q
j
C
1
and = 2 if q
j
C
2
. Therefore, the general solution
may have removable singularities at these points. Due to the presence of the prescribed poles of
the functions
(s) ( = 1, 2) at s =
0
and s = 2
0
, the functions F
1
= tan
2 1
4
(
0
). Next, the functions
1
(s) and
2
(s) are analytic at s =
1
2
, an inner
point of the strips H
( = 1, 2) of the Riemann
surface R. Therefore, the functions F
(, ) and
[X
(, )]
1
F
(, u) = X(, u)R
(, u), (6.1)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 237
where
R
(, u) = R
1
() +u( )R
2
( ),
R
1
() =
3
j =1
C
j
u
j
j
+
C
12
1
+
C
14
z
1
1
+C
15
,
R
2
() =
3
j =1
C
j
j
+
7
j =0
C
j +4
j
+
C
13
1
+
C
14
1
, (6.2)
and C
j
( j = 1, 2, . . . , 15) are arbitrary constants to be dened. From(6.2) it is seen that the rational
functions R
( = 1, 2). Therefore
lim
R
2
() = 0, = 1, 2, 3. (6.3)
Equivalently, these three conditions may be written as
3
j =1
C
j
1
j
+
7
j =0
C
j +4
1
j
+C
13
1
1
+C
14
1
1
= 0, = 1, 2, 3. (6.4)
It will be convenient to use the following representations for the rational functions R
1
() and
R
2
():
R
1
() =
15
j =1
C
j
j
(), R
2
() =
15
j =1
C
j
j
(), (6.5)
where
j
() =
u
j
j
,
j
() =
1
j
, j = 1, 2, 3,
j
() = 0,
j
( ) =
1
j 4
, j = 4, 5, . . . , 11,
12
( ) =
13
() =
1
1
,
12
() =
13
() = 0,
14
() =
z
1
1
,
14
() =
1
1
,
15
() = 1,
15
() = 0. (6.6)
Here z
1
= p
1,2
(
1
).
238 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
Because of the poles of the function X(, u) at the points r
= (
, n
) C
1
( = 1, 2, 3)
and p
21
= (
2
, z
2
) C
2
, the general solution (6.1) has inadmissible poles at these points. The
following conditions remove the singularities:
15
j =1
[
j
(
) +n
j
(
)]C
j
= 0, = 1, 2, 3,
15
j =1
[
j
(
2
) z
2
j
(
2
)]C
j
= 0. (6.7)
To derive the other conditions for the constants C
j
( j = 1, 2, . . . , 15), expressions for the functions
+
1
(s) and +
2
(s) are needed. Inverting the relations (3.9) and using (3.15), (4.2), (4.7), (4.12), and
(6.1) yield
+
1
(s) = F
(, u) + F
(, u),
+
2
(s) = f
1
(s)[F
(, u) + F
(, u)] + f
1,2
(s)[F
(, u) F
(, u)], (6.8)
where
F
(, u) = e
1
()+u()
2
()
[R
1
() +u()R
2
( )]. (6.9)
The above formulae may be rewritten in the form
+
1
(s) = 2
1
()[R
1
() cosh
2
() + p
1,2
()R
2
() sinh
2
( )],
+
2
(s) = f
1
(s)+
1
(s) +2 f
1,2
(s)
1
()[R
1
( ) sinh
2
() + p
1,2
( )R
2
() cosh
2
()],
(6.10)
where
1
() = e
1
()
,
2
() = p
1,2
( )
2
( ). (6.11)
By substituting (6.5) into (6.10), expressions with explicit dependence on the constants C
j
are
obtained:
+
1
(s) = 2
1
()
15
j =1
C
j
[
j
() cosh
2
() + p
1,2
()
j
() sinh
2
()],
+
2
(s) = 2
1
()
15
j =1
C
j
_
[f
1
(s)
j
( ) + f
1,2
(s) p
1,2
( )
j
()] cosh
2
( )
+[f
1
(s) p
1,2
()
j
() + f
1,2
(s)
j
()] sinh
2
()
_
. (6.12)
The functions +
1
(s) and +
2
(s) have to meet the four conditions (2.17) which give the next four
equations for the constants C
j
( j = 1, 2, . . . , 15):
15
j =1
_
j
(
p
1,2
(
)
j
(
)
+[
p
1,2
(
)
j
(
j
(
)] tanh
2
(
)
_
C
j
= 0, = 1, 2, 3, 4, (6.13)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 239
where
= cot
2 1
4
(
),
= sin
2
sin +cos
cos f
1
(
),
= cos
cos f
1,2
), = 1, 2, 3, 4. (6.14)
The function +
2
(s) dened by (6.12) has two simple poles at the points
1
2
and
1
2
. To remove
these singularities the following conditions have to be imposed:
res
s=
1
2
2
(s) = 0, res
s=
1
2
2
(s) = 0. (6.15)
Because of the symmetry property +
2
(s) = +
2
(2 s), the function +
2
(s) is regular at the
points s =
3
2
and s =
5
2
provided it meets the conditions (6.15). Equations (6.15) can be
rewritten in the form
15
j =1
_
j
(
) +
sin p
1,2
(
)
j
(
)
+
_
p
1,2
(
)
j
(
) +
sin
j
(
)
_
tanh
2
(
)
_
C
j
= 0, = 1, 2, (6.16)
where
1
= cot
2 1
8
,
2
= tan
2 1
8
,
=
1 g
0
sin
2
sin
,
=
_
f
_
1
2
_
=
_
f
_
1
2
_
=
64p
1,2
(
1
)
p
1,2
(1)(
1
1)
4
. (6.17)
The last two conditions for the constants can be obtained by xing the residues of the functions
+
1
(s) and +
2
(s) at the geometric optics pole s =
0
:
res
s=
0
+
1
(s) = e
1
_
sin
0
sin
1
_
+e
2
cos
0
cos ,
res
s=
0
+
2
(s) = e
2
_
sin
0
2
sin
_
e
1
cos
0
cos . (6.18)
Evaluating the residue of the function (
1
)
1
at the point s =
0
yields
= res
s=
0
1
1
=
2 sin
3 1
4
(
0
)
cos
1
4
(
0
)
. (6.19)
The conditions (6.18) become therefore
C
12
+ p
1,2
(
1
) tanh
2
(
1
)C
13
=
1
2
1
(
1
) cosh
2
(
1
)
_
e
1
_
sin
0
1
1
sin
_
e
2
cos
0
cos
_
,
[ f
1,2
(
0
) tanh
2
(
1
) f
1
(
0
)]C
12
+[ f
1,2
(
0
) f
1
(
0
) tanh
2
(
1
)] p
1,2
(
1
)C
13
=
1
2
1
(
1
) cosh
2
(
1
)
[e
2
_
sin
0
2
sin
_
+e
1
cos
0
cos ]. (6.20)
240 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
The solution of the problem is dened by quadratures (2.4) in terms of the spectral functions S
1
(s)
and S
2
(s) expressed through the functions +
1
(s) and +
2
(s) and the integrals (4.12) by formulae
(2.9), (2.10), (6.12) (6.11) and (6.5). The constants C
j
( j = 0, 1, . . . , 15) solve the two separate
systems of linear algebraic equations (6.4), (6.7), (6.13), (6.16) and (6.20) which can be written in
the form
15
j =1
a
j
C
j
= h
, = 1, 2, . . . , 15. (6.21)
It turns out, for some physical parameters, the coefcients a
j
might be badly scaled. For numerics,
the system (6.21) is rescaled
15
j =1
a
j
C
j
=
h
, = 1, 2, . . . , 15, (6.22)
where
a
j
= 10
s
j
,
h
= 10
s
, s
= [lg a
], = 1, 2, . . . , 15. (6.23)
For the parameters (3.22) and (5.59), 4 s
+
0, 5 s
0.
Because of the relations
= T
( = 1, 2, 3, 4),
1+
= T
1
, and
+
= T
, the
transformation T maps the constants C
+
j
into the constants C
j
: T C
+
j
= C
j
( j = 1, . . . , 15).
7. Normal incidence
In the case =
1
2
, the representations (2.10) become
S
(s) =
+
(s)
sin s
, = 1, 2. (7.1)
The matrices G
() = G
()+
( 4), O
,
+
(s) = +
(2 s), s H
, = 1, 2, (7.2)
where
G
() =
(sin +
+
)(sin +
)
(sin
+
)(sin
)
. (7.3)
As s (Re s is nite), +
(s) = O(e
s
). The functions +
) = 0, , = 1, 2, (7.4)
where sin
and Re
(, ). If the impedances
1
and
2
are real and positive,
then
1
= sin
1
2
=
1
. Otherwise
= i log
_
i
(1)
_
1 (
)
2
_
+2m, m = 0, 1, . . . , (7.5)
which lie in the strip Re s .
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 241
By the mapping (3.13), the difference equations (7.2) reduce to the scalar RiemannHilbert prob
lems on the segment (1, 1)
F
+
(t ) = l
(t )F
(t ), t (1, 1),
F
(w) = F
(w), w = w
(t ) = G
(), +
(s) = F
(w), w = i tan
1
4
(s ). (7.7)
The functions F
(w) = O(w 1
2
), w 1. (7.8)
The coefcients l
(t )l
(t ) = 1, l
(0) = l
(1) = 1,
[argl
(t )]
[1,0]
= [argl
(t )]
[0,1]
= 2. (7.9)
Here [g(t )]
[a,b]
is the increment of a function g(t ) as t traverses the contour [a, b] in the positive
direction. Choose argl
(t ):
l
(t ) =
X
+
(t )
X
(t )
, t (1, 1), (7.10)
where X
(t ) = X
(t i 0), and
X
(w) = (w
2
1)
1
exp
_
1
2i
_
1
1
logl
(t )
t w
dt
_
= (w
2
1)
1
exp
_
1
i
_
1
0
logl
(t )
t
2
w
2
t dt
_
. (7.11)
Analysis of the Cauchy integrals (7.11) shows that
X
(w) A
(w 1)
2
, w 1, A
= const. (7.12)
Thus, the functions X
(w) are even and have the asymptotics at the ends w = 1 required by the
class of solutions. The generalized Liouville theorem yields the solution
F
(w) = C
(w)
_
1
w
2
w
2
+d
1
+d
2
w
2
_
, w C, = 1, 2, (7.13)
where C
and d
, w
= i tan
1
4
(
0
). The conditions (7.4) give the expressions
242 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
for the constants d
1
and d
2
d
1
=
(
1
)
2
2
(
2
)
2
1
(
2
)
2
(
1
)
2
, d
2
=
1
d
2
(
2
)
2
(
1
)
2
, (7.14)
where
= i tan
4
,
d
=
1
(
)
2
w
2
. (7.15)
The physical conditions (2.5) and the invariance of the solution with respect to the transformation
,
0
0
, and
C
+
=
e
(sin
0
+
)
X
( w
+
)
+
, C
=
e
(sin
0
+
)
X
( w
, = 1, 2, (7.16)
where
= C
, = 1, 2.
8. High frequency asymptotics. Numerical results
High frequency asymptotics of the electrical and magnetic eld can be represented in the form
E
z
E
i
z
+ E
r
z
+ E
s
z
+ E
d
z
,
H
z
H
i
z
+ H
r
z
+ H
s
z
+ H
d
z
, k , (8.1)
where E
i
z
and H
i
z
are the incident waves, E
r
z
and H
r
z
are the reected waves, E
s
z
and H
s
z
are the
surface waves, and E
d
z
and H
d
z
are the diffracted waves. These waves may be recovered by applying
the steepest descent method to the Sommerfeld integrals (2.4). Analysis of the spectral functions
S
1
(s) and S
2
(s) shows that the geometrical optics poles should be found among the roots of the
equation
tan
2
s
4
= tan
2
0
4
, (8.2)
which lie in the strip + Re s + . The pole s =
0
gives rise to the incident waves
(2.1). The next two poles s = 2
0
and s = 2
0
reproduce the reected waves provided
that the angle of incidence
0
and the angle of observation satisfy the conditions
0
0
and
0
in the case s = 2
0
, and 0
0
and
0
in the
case s = 2
0
. By the Cauchy theorem the reected waves become
_
E
r
z
H
r
z
_
= e
i kz cos +i k sin cos(+
0
)
__
R
e
R
h
_
(,
0
) +
_
R
+
e
R
+
h
_
(
0
, )
_
,
(8.3)
where
(a, b) =
_
1, [a, b],
0, , [a, b].
(8.4)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 243
The reection coefcients R
e
and R
h
are dened by
_
R
e
R
h
_
=
1
2I
0
(1,
+
1
,
+
2
)
_
sin
0
+
+
2
sin cos
0
cos
cos
0
cos sin
0
+1,
+
1
sin
_
res
s=
0
2
_
+
+
1
(s)
+
+
2
(s)
_
+
1
2I
0
(1,
1
,
2
)
_
sin
0
2
sin cos
0
cos
cos
0
cos sin
0
1,
1
sin
_
res
s=
0
2
_
+
1
(s)
+
2
(s)
_
. (8.5)
To evaluate the residues
res
s=
0
2
_
+
+
1
(s)
+
+
2
(s)
_
and res
s=
0
+2
_
+
1
(s)
+
2
(s)
_
, (8.6)
the vector functions +++
+
(s) and +++
(s) = G
(s)+++
(s 4), Re s 5. (8.7)
Clearly, the residues in (8.5) can be expressed explicitly through the angles
0
and and the param
eters
, e
1
, and e
2
. To nd them, there is no need to solve Problem 2.2 since the residues (2.5) are
prescribed.
Because of the conditions (2.17) the points s = +
j
( j = 1, 2, 3, 4) are removable points of
the functions S
1
(s +) and S
2
(s +). However, outside the strip Re(s +) , the points
s = +
j
+2m (m = 1, 2, . . .) are simple poles of the functions S
1
(s) and S
2
(s). The poles
s = +
j
+2 and +
j
2
H may give rise to the surface waves. The domain
H is a
curved strip. The righthand boundary is described by the equation Re s = +gd(Ims) sgn(Ims),
where gd x is the Gudermann function gd x = cos
1
(1, cosh x). This curve is symmetric with
respect to the point s = . Its starting and ending points are s =
1
2
i and s =
3
2
+ i ,
respectively. The lines Re s =
1
2
and Re s =
3
2
are the asymptotes of the lower and upper parts
of the path. The lefthand boundary of the domain
H is symmetric to the the righthand side with
respect to the point s = 0. Since (, ) and Re
j
(0, ) ( j = 1, 2, 3, 4) for Re
> 0,
the surface waves are given by
_
E
s
z
H
s
z
_
=
4
j =1
__
W
+
ej
W
+
hj
_
(, + g
+
j
) +
_
W
++
ej
W
++
hj
_
( + g
+
j
, )
_
e
i kz cos +i k sin cos(
+
j
)
+
4
j =1
__
W
ej
W
hj
_
(, + g
j
)
+
_
W
+
ej
W
+
hj
_
( + g
j
, )
_
e
i kz cos +i k sin cos(
j
)
, (8.8)
244 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
where
W
+
ej
=
1
2
I
+
j
[(sin
+
j
+
+
2
sin )+
+
1
(
+
j
2) cos
+
j
cos +
+
2
(
+
j
2)],
W
+
hj
=
1
2
I
+
j
__
sin
+
j
+
1
+
1
sin
_
+
+
2
(
+
j
2) +cos
+
j
cos +
+
1
(
+
j
2)
_
,
W
ej
=
1
2
j
[(sin
2
sin )+
1
(
j
2) cos
j
cos +
2
(
j
2)],
W
hj
=
1
2
j
__
sin
j
1
1
sin
_
+
2
(
j
2) +cos
j
cos +
1
(
j
2)
_
,
g
j
= Re
j
gd(Im
j
) sgn(Im
j
),
j
=
d
ds
I
s
_
1
,
2
_
s=
j
. (8.9)
The steepest descent method applied to (2.4) for k yields the diffracted eld
_
E
d
z
H
d
z
_
=
e
i k(z cos + sin )
k
_
D
e
()
D
h
()
_
, (8.10)
where the diffraction coefcients D
e
() and D
h
() are expressed through the spectral functions
S
1
(s) and S
2
(s) as follows:
D
() =
e
i ,4
2 sin e
1
[S
( ) S
( +)], = 1, 2, (8.11)
and D
1
= e
1
1
D
e
and D
2
= Z
0
e
1
1
D
h
. Since the functions S
1
(s) and S
2
(s) have a simple pole at
the point s =
0
, the diffraction coefcients are innite at the points = 
0
 and = +
0
.
To evaluate the diffraction coefcients by formulae (8.11), one needs to use formulae (2.9), (2.10),
and the analytical continuation (8.7). If s =
j
( j = 1, 2, 3, 4) is a real zero of the function
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
), and +
j
(, 0) ( +
j
(0, )), then the diffraction coefcients are
innite at the point = +
j
( = +
j
). Since T C
+
j
= C
j
( j = 1, . . . , 15), analysis
of formulae (2.9), (2.10), (2.12) and (8.11) shows that the diffraction coefcients are invariant with
respect to the transformation T dened by (2.8).
When the upper and lower sides of the screen have the same impedances
, and =
1
2
,
formula (8.11) becomes simpler:
D
() =
e
i ,4
2
2e
1
_
+
+
( )
sin
+
+
( )
sin +
+
+
+
( +)
sin +
+
+
( +)
sin
_
, = 1, 2.
(8.12)
Here +
( +) = G
( +)+
( 3) if 0 , and +
+
( ) = +
+
( +3),G
(
) if 0. Since C
+
(
0
) = C
(
0
) and
+
1
( ) = +
1
( +), +
1
( +) = +
1
( ), (8.13)
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 245
Fig. 6 Normal incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcient D
1
() for
0
=
1
3
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
Fig. 7 Normal incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcient D
2
() for
0
=
1
3
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
the diffraction coefcients are invariant with respect to the transformation and
0
0
:
D
(,
0
) = D
(,
0
). For the case of normal incidence ( =
1
2
) numerical calculations
for the diffraction coefcients D
1
() and D
2
() are illustrated in Figs 6 and 7 for the impedance
parameters (3.22),
0
=
1
3
, and e
= e
1
,e
2
= 1. Numerical values are the same if ,
0
, and
j
246 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
( j = 1, 2) are replaced by ,
0
, and
j
. As = , the diffraction coefcients D
( = 1, 2)
vanish. As approaches the angles
2
3
and
2
3
, that is, the angles
0
, the real and imaginary
parts of the diffraction coefcients grow to innity.
The skew incidence case is presented in Figs 8 to 10 for the same impedance parameters when
0
=
1
3
, e
= 1, and =
1
4
. The numerical values are symmetric with respect to the
transformation T . The surface waves poles are not close to the real axis, and the graphs are smooth
curves. However, for some sets of parameters these poles could be real or close to the real axis. For
example, for the impedance parameters (3.22) and =
1
3
, the zeros
j
of the of the functions
I
s
(1,
1
,
2
) are
+
1
= 27363 06508i,
+
2
= 01342, 10348i,
+
3
= 04053 +06508i,
+
4
= 3007 +10348i,
1
= 25114 +13157i,
2
= 04547 +00129i,
3
= 06302 13157i,
4
= 26869 00129i.
Because the imaginary part of the zeros
2
and
4
is small, the graphs of the real and imaginary
parts of the diffraction coefcients change sharply (Fig. 11) in small neighbourhoods of the points
Re
2
and Re
4
, namely as = 154
and = 26
1
are given for = 049.
It is seen that as
1
2
, the skew incidence coefcient D
1
approaches the values of the normal
incidence diffraction coefcient D
1
. The same tendency is observed for the second coefcient D
2
.
Fig. 8 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcients D
1
() and D
2
() for
+
0
,
0
=
1
3
, =
1
4
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 247
Fig. 9 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcients D
1
() and D
2
() for
+
0
0
,
0
=
1
3
, =
1
4
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 0.1 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i .
Fig. 10 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcients D
1
() and D
2
() for
0
,
0
=
1
3
, =
1
4
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
248 Y. A. ANTIPOV AND V. V. SILVESTROV
Fig. 11 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcients D
1
() and D
2
() for
+
0
,
0
=
1
3
, =
1
3
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
Fig. 12 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcient D
1
() for
0
=
1
3
, = 049,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 249
Fig. 13 Skew incidence. The real and imaginary parts of the diffraction coefcient D
1
() and D
2
() for
0
=
1
3
, =
5
6
,
+
1
= 1 i ,
+
2
= 01 i ,
1
= 2 i , and
2
= 1 +i
For
1
2
, the branch points
j
approach the images of the secondorder zeros of the function
f
(s) = (cos
2
s + g
0
1)
2
( =
1
2
). For example, for = 0499, the branch points are
0
= 11414 20527i,
1
= 10124, 20090i,
2
= 00166 01168i,
3
= 00271 01167i,
4
= 02069 +03721i,
5
= 02000 +03970i,
6
= 18877 +81293i,
7
= 11927 +83925i.
Notice that the point = 0 is to the right of the segment
3
4
. As
1
2
, the accuracy of the
numerical solution to the Jacobi problem increases. For 0 or , the distance between
the branch points
0
and
7
grows. For =
1
10
and the impedance parameters (3.22), for example,

7
0
 = 39654. The values of the function p
1,2
() become large even for small values of .
Therefore, the solution of the problem requires higher accuracy for small or close to incidence
angles. The dependence of the coefcients D
1
and D
2
on the angle of incidence is shown in
Fig. 13.
9. Conclusion
Scattering of a plane wave at skew incidence from an anisotropic impedance halfplane for two
different matrix impedances Z
+
and Z
j
( j = 1, 2). As the angle of incidence
approaches
1
2
, the diffraction coefcients approach the limiting values for the case of normal
incidence.
The technique employed here can be applied for more complicated boundaryvalue problems for
mulated either as a system of the Maliuzhinets difference equations, or a system of the WienerHopf
functional equations. If, ultimately, the problem reduces to a scalar RiemannHilbert problem on a
hyperelliptic surface of high genera, then the procedure proposed should be modied accordingly.
The method of the paper has the potential to be extended to those systems of the Maliuzhinets and
the WienerHopf equations which are equivalent to a scalar RiemannHilbert problem on nsheeted
(n 3) Riemann surfaces.
Acknowledgments
The support of the rst author by LSU Faculty Research grant 107609102 and Louisiana Board
of Regents grant LEQSF(200507)ENHTR09 and the second author by Russian Foundation for
Basic Research through contract 040100160 is acknowledged. The authors are grateful to the
referees for their comments.
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THE EXACT SOLUTION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 251
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