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Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Dr K.Sandrasegaran Special Acknowledgements to Jochen Schiller
Global System for Mobile
Communication (GSM)
Dr K.Sandrasegaran
Special Acknowledgements to Jochen Schiller
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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GSM Markets & Evolution Distinguish between 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and 4G mobile technologies. Tabulate
GSM Markets & Evolution
Distinguish between 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and 4G mobile technologies.
Tabulate the differences between GSM 900, 1800 and 1900.
What was the primary goal during the setting up of GSM standards?
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Readings Recommended Mobile Communications (2 nd Edition) by Jochen Schiller Chapter 4: Telecommunications Systems
Readings
Recommended
Mobile Communications (2 nd Edition) by Jochen Schiller
Chapter 4: Telecommunications Systems
Reference
“GSM Switching, Services, and Protocols” by Jörg Eberspächer,
Hans-Jörg Vögel, Christian Bettstetter. New York : Wiley, c2001.
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What are the trends with mobile phone subscribers worldwide? (Schiller) 1200 1000 GSM total 800
What are the trends with mobile phone subscribers worldwide? (Schiller)
1200
1000
GSM total
800
TDMA total
CDMA total
600
PDC total
Analogue total
Total wireless
400
Prediction (1998)
200
0
year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
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Subscribers [million]
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems CT0/1 AMPS CT2 NMT IMT-FT DECT IS-136 TDMA IMT-SC D-AMPS
Development of mobile telecommunication systems
CT0/1
AMPS
CT2
NMT
IMT-FT
DECT
IS-136
TDMA
IMT-SC
D-AMPS
IS-136HS
GSM
UWC-136
PDC
IMT-DS
UTRA FDD / W-CDMA
IMT-TC
UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA
IMT-TC
TD-SCDMA
IS-95
cdma2000 1X
cdmaOne
IMT-MC
cdma2000 1X EV-DO
1X EV-DV
(3X)
1G
2G
2.5G
3G
CDMA
TDMA
FDMA
TD-SCDMA IS-95 cdma2000 1X cdmaOne IMT-MC cdma2000 1X EV-DO 1X EV-DV (3X) 1G 2G 2.5G 3G
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Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
GSM Introduction Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof
GSM Introduction
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GSM: Overview GSM formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) now: Global System for Mobile Communication
GSM: Overview
GSM
formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982)
now: Global System for Mobile Communication
Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications
Standardisation Institute)
simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991,
1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations
(Germany: D1 and D2)
seamless roaming within Europe possible
today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 184
countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America)
more than 747 million subscribers
more than 70% of all digital mobile phones use GSM
over 10 billion SMS per month in Germany, > 360 billion/year worldwide
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What are performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.)? Communication mobile, wireless communication; support
What are performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.)?
Communication
mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services
Total mobility
international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different
providers
Worldwide connectivity
one number, the network handles localization
High capacity if needed
better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell
High transmission quality
high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at
higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains)
Security functions
access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN
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What are some of disadvantages of GSM? There is no perfect system!! no end-to-end encryption
What are some of disadvantages of GSM?
There is no perfect system!!
no end-to-end encryption of user data
no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user, no transparent B-
channel
reduced concentration while driving
electromagnetic radiation
abuse of private data possible
roaming profiles accessible
high complexity of the system
several incompatibilities within the GSM standards
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GSM Services: What type of services does GSM offer? GSM offers several types of connections:
GSM Services: What type of services does GSM offer?
GSM offers
several types of connections: voice connections, data
connections, SMS
multi-service options (combination of basic services)
Services
Three service domains
Bearer Services (i.e. pipes) refers to transport data between
access points
Basic
Supplementary
Services
Services
eg voice, data bearers.
Telematic Services: enable communication via mobile phones
eg telephony, emergency number, multinumbering, group 3 fax,
voice mailbox, email, SMS
Bearer
Teleservices
Services
Supplementary Services: Services in addition to the basic
services, which cannot be offered stand-alone
eg CLI Caller Line Identifcation, suppression of number forwarding,
automatic call-back, conferencing, locking mobile terminal
(incoming or outgoing calls),
bearer services
MS
transit
source/
TE
MT
GSM-PLMN
network
destination
TE
R, S
(PSTN, ISDN)
network
(U, S, R)
U m
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
tele services
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GSM Services Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof
GSM Services
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Services Bearer Services transport data between access points Different data rates for voice and data
Services
Bearer Services transport data between access points
Different data rates for voice and data (original standard)
•data service (circuit switched)
•synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
•asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s
•data service (packet switched)
•synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
•asynchronous: 300 - 9600 bit/s
Telematic Services
Mobile telephony
Emergency number
Multinumbering
group 3 fax
voice mailbox
electronic mail
Short Message Service
(SMS)
bearer services
MS
transit
source/
TE
MT
GSM-PLMN
network
destination
TE
R, S
U
(PSTN, ISDN)
network
(U, S, R)
m
tele services
Supplementary services may include:
Voice mail
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What is a bearer service? What type of bearer services does GSM offer? Telecommunication services
What is a bearer service? What type of bearer services does
GSM offer?
Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points
Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3)
Different data rates for voice and data (original standard)
data service (circuit switched)
synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s
data service (packet switched)
synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
asynchronous: 300 - 9600 bit/s
Today: data rates of approx. 50 kbit/s possible – will be covered later!
Q. Distinguish the terms transparent vs. non-transparent, and synchronous vs.
asynchronous.
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Tele Services II Additional services Non-Voice-Teleservices group 3 fax voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed
Tele Services II
Additional services
Non-Voice-Teleservices
group 3 fax
voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile
terminals)
electronic mail (MHS, Message Handling System, implemented in the
fixed network)
Short Message Service (SMS)
alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the
signaling channel, thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and
SMS
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What are Tele Services? Types? Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones All
What are Tele Services? Types?
Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via
mobile phones
All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security
measurements etc.
Offered services
mobile telephony
primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the
traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz
Emergency number
common number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service
providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption
of other connections possible)
Multinumbering
several ISDN phone numbers per user possible
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What are supplementary services? Services in addition to the basic services, which cannot be offered
What are supplementary services?
Services in addition to the basic services, which cannot be offered
stand-alone
May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol
versions
Some examples of services
identification: forwarding of caller number
suppression of number forwarding
automatic call-back
conferencing with up to 7 participants
locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls)
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GSM Architecture Distinguish between the following GSM subsystems: RSS, BSS, NSS and OSS. Using an
GSM Architecture
Distinguish between the following GSM subsystems: RSS, BSS, NSS and OSS.
Using an A3 page, draw and name the main elements of the GSM system architecture
(BTS, BSC, MSC, VLR, HLR, AuC, EIR, GMSC, SMSC (SMS), IWF, etc.
What are the functions of network elements?
Draw the external entities to which GSM connect to including MS, PSTN, PSPDN. Etc.
On the same diagram, sketch all the interfaces A, Abis, B, C, D, E, F, G, Um, R and S.
Draw the protocol stack that is used on each interface above.
What are the advantages of specifying all internal interfaces of the GSM system?
How and where is user-related data represented/stored in the GSM system?
Distinguish between the HLR and VLR.
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GSM: system architecture radio network and fixed subsystem switching subsystem partner networks MS MS ISDN
GSM: system architecture
radio
network and
fixed
subsystem
switching subsystem
partner networks
MS
MS
ISDN
PSTN
MSC
U
m
A
TC
BTS
bis
BSC
EIR
BTS
HLR
VLR
TC
BTS
BSC
ISDN
BTS
MSC
A
PSTN
IWF
BSS
PSPDN
CSPDN
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SS7
Architecture of the GSM system GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) several providers
Architecture of the GSM system
GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)
several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within
each country
Encourages competition which lowers prices and speeds up development of
new services
Open interfaces (eg Um, A, Abis) encourages vendor competition
What are the subsystems of GSM?
RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects
NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching
OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network
Um
A
RSS
Radio Subsystem
Radio and mobility
NSS
Network and Switching
Subsystem
Location and call
handling
OSS
Operation Subsystem
Network Management
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Network Elements OSS Operation Subsystem Network Management BSS NSS Um A Fixed Base Station Network
Network Elements
OSS
Operation Subsystem
Network Management
BSS
NSS
Um
A
Fixed
Base Station
Network and
Partner
Subsystem
Switching Subsystem
Networks
Abis
Ater
BTS
EIR
Mobile
BSC
MSC
ISDN
Terminals
BTS
HLR
PSTN
TC
BTS
VLR
PSPDN
BSC
CSPDN
MSC
BTS
IWF
AUC
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GSM: overview OMC, EIR, AUC HLR GMSC fixed network NSS with OSS VLR MSC MSC
GSM: overview
OMC, EIR,
AUC
HLR
GMSC
fixed network
NSS
with OSS
VLR
MSC
MSC
VLR
BSC
BSC
RSS
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Distinguish between the tasks of the BTS and BSC

Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS

BTS comprises radio specific functions

BSC is the switching center for radio channels

Functions

BTS

BSC

Management of radio channels

 

X

Frequency hopping (FH)

X

X

Management of terrestrial channels

 

X

Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels

 

X

Channel coding and decoding

X

 

Rate adaptation

X

 

Encryption and decryption

X

X

Paging

X

X

Uplink signal measurements

X

 

Traffic measurement

 

X

Authentication

 

X

Location registry, location update

 

X

Handover management

 

X

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Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
What is RSS? Components? Functions? radio subsystem network and switching subsystem The Radio Subsystem (RSS)
What is RSS? Components? Functions?
radio
subsystem
network and switching
subsystem
The Radio Subsystem (RSS) consists of one
or more BSS.
MS
MS
Components of Base Station Subsystem
BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + TC
+interconnection
U
m
A
BTS
bis
1. Base Transceiver Station (BTS):
BSC
MSC
BTS
radio components including sender,
receiver, antenna
Signal and protocol processing limited to
error protection, encryption, link level
signalling
2. Base Station Controller (BSC):
A
BTS
Controlling and switching between BTSs,
Manages radio channels – handover,
paging, radio slot reservation and
assignment
mapping of radio channels (U m ) onto
terrestrial channels (A interface)
MSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
3. Transcoder (TC) :
Interfaces
U m : radio interface
translates GSM speech channels (13kbit/s) to
PCM speech channels (64kbit/s),
handles comfort noise generation, discontinuous
transmission
A bis : standardized, open interface with
16
kbit/s user channels
A: standardized, open interface with
64
kbit/s user channels
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Mobile station (MS), Mobile Terminal and SIM

Terminal for the use of GSM services

A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups

MT (Mobile Terminal):

offers common functions used by all services the MS offers corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access end-point of the radio interface (U m )

SIM (Subscriber Identity Module):

personalization of the mobile station, stores user parameters Provides separation of personal and terminal mobility. Contains keys and algorithms needed for security.

TA (Terminal Adapter): e.g. Modem. Provides terminal adaptation, hides radio specific characteristics. TE (Terminal Equipment): e.g. Laptop

peripheral device of the MS, offers services to a user

does not contain GSM specific functions

TE
TE
       
TE        
   
TA
TA
   
MT
MT

U

 

R

S

m

Describe the functions of the MT and SIM. Why does GSM separate the MT and SIM? Explain the difference between MT, TE, TA, SIM, MS?

Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please
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Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
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Network and switching subsystem (NSS)

controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC

2. Databases (scalability, high capacity, low delay)

MSC EIR HLR VLR MSC IWF SS7
MSC
EIR
HLR
VLR
MSC
IWF
SS7

MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center):

fixed partner

 

ISDN

PSTN

ISDN

PSTN

PSPDN

CSPDN

IWF (Interworking Functions) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) HLR (Home Location Register)

Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
VLR (Visitor Location Register)
EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
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OSS Operation Subsystem radio cell BSS The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and
OSS Operation Subsystem
radio cell
BSS
The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables
centralized operation, management, and
maintenance of all GSM subsystems
Components
MS
MS
U
radio cell
m
MS
RSS
BTS
1. Authentication Center (AUC)
generates user specific authentication
parameters on request of a VLR
BTS
authentication parameters used for
authentication of mobile terminals and
encryption of user data on the air interface
within the GSM system
A
bis
BSC
BSC
2. Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
A
MSC
MSC
registers GSM mobile stations
stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations
can be locked and sometimes even
localized
NSS
signaling
VLR
VLR
3. Operation and Maintenance Center
(OMC)
ISDN, PSTN
HLR
GMSC
PDN
IWF
different control capabilities for the radio
subsystem and the network subsystem
O
OSS
EIR
AUC
OMC
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What are functions of an Mobile Services Switching Center? The MSC (mobile switching center) plays
What are functions of an Mobile Services Switching Center?
The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM
switching functions
Mobility management
management of network resources
interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC)
integration of several databases
specific functions for paging and call forwarding
termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7)
mobility specific signaling
location registration and forwarding of location information
provision of new services (fax, data calls)
support of short message service (SMS)
generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information
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GSM Numbering State the full name, composition, location(s) where it is kept, and purpose of
GSM Numbering
State the full name, composition, location(s) where it is kept, and purpose of
the following identifiers used in GSM: MSISDN, CC, NDC, SN, IMSI, MCC,
MNC, MSIN, TMSI, MSRN, VCC, VNDC, LAI, CGI (Cell Global Identity), BSIC,
IMEI? Distinguish between user related and system related identifiers.
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Identifiers Used in GSM SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user
Identifiers Used in GSM
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)
personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters
IMSI (international mobile subscriber identification)
IMSI identifies a subscriber worldwide.
Mobile country code + mobile network node + ms identification nr
E.g 240 + 23415 + 123456
TMSI (temporary mobile subscriber identification):
TMSI identifies a subscriber. Used over the air only to hide identity of the user.
Used by VLR is only valid for a certain period
MSISDN (mobile station ISDN number)
MSISDN is a dialable number assigned to a given subscriber.
+61 4 2456 1842
IMEI (international mobile station equipment identity)
IMEI identifies a particular handset.
This is also called mobile identity number (MIN).
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IMSI vs MSISDN

IMSI – International Mobile Subscriber Identity •Uniquely identifies a subscriber •Used internally within the network •Stored in the HLR, SIM, AUC •IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN (Mobile Country Code + Mobile Network Code + Mobile Subscriber Number)

Network name: Telstra Corporation Ltd.

MCC / MNC: 505 / 01, / 11, / 71, / 72

Network name: Optus Mobile Pty. Ltd.

MCC

/ MNC: 505 / 02, /90

MCC

/ MNC: 505 / 03, / 07

MCC 3 digits

MNC 2 digits

MSIN – 10 digits

MSISDN – Mobile Subscriber Identity Number •Uniquely identifies a subscriber •Stored in the HLR and SIM •MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN (Country Code + National Destination Code + Subscriber Number) •Publicly known subscriber number

CC max 3 digits

NDC max 3 digits

SN – 10 digits

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Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org Network name: Vodafone Network Pty. Ltd.
2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org Network name: Vodafone Network Pty. Ltd.

Network name: Vodafone Network Pty. Ltd.

Numbering in Germany Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof
Numbering in Germany
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GSM Air Interface Explain how GSM implements SDMA, FDMA, TDMA, FDD on its air interface.
GSM Air Interface
Explain how GSM implements SDMA, FDMA, TDMA, FDD on its air interface.
Using a table, distinguish between the following in terms of composition, duration, types, and effective
data rate: Burst, Time Slot, Frame, Multiframe, Superframe, Hyperframe.
Why is there a need to standardize the framing structure?
Explain the purpose of the various fields of the GSM burst? Guard, tail, S, training, etc.
Explain the purpose of normal, synchronization, access, dummy, and frequency correction bursts.
Why is there a need to separate uplink and downlink channels by 3TS?
How is slow hopping implemented in GSM?
Distinguish between the terms physical channel and logical channel.
Explain how different logical channels can use the same physical channel.
Distinguish between TCH/F and TCH/H. What data rates are possible in each?
What is the difference between TCH and CCH?
Explain the purpose of BCCH, FCCH, SCH, CCCH, PCH, RACH, AGCH, DCCH, SDCCH, SACCH,
FACCH.
Prove that the TCH/F data rate is 22.8 kbits/sec. Why is the user data rate much less than 22.8 kbits/sec?
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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GSM – SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/FDD/TDD 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200
GSM – SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/FDD/TDD
935-960 MHz
124
channels (200 kHz)
downlink
890-915 MHz
124
channels (200 kHz)
uplink
higher GSM frame structures
time
GSM TDMA frame
1
2 3
4 5
6
7 8
4.615 ms
GSM time-slot (normal burst)
guard
guard
space
tail
user data
S
Training
S
user data
tail
space
3 bits
57 bits
1
26 bits
1
57 bits
3
546.5 µs
577 µs
148 bits + 8.25 bp =156.25bp (*3.69us)
= 577us per RTSL
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Timeslot content – LOGICAL CHANNELS T6 T7 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
Timeslot content – LOGICAL CHANNELS
T6
T7
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T0
T1
What is transmitted in a timeslot is categorised
and scheduled in a predictable manner
Each successive transmission of a timeslot
contains a Logical Channel in a given
order, as shown
T0 always contains the Control Channels so
that all mobiles can orient themselves
within any network
The control channels (CCH) are for signalling
only, whereas the Traffic Channels (TCH)
carry user voice and data traffic
CCH are grouped in a sequence of 51 frames,
called a multiframe and TCH are grouped
in a 26 frame multiframe
0
FCCH
0
TCH
1
SCH
1
TCH
2
BCCH
2
TCH
3
BCCH
3
TCH
4
BCCH
4
TCH
5
BCCH
5
TCH
6
CCCH
TCH
7
CCCH
11
TCH
8
CCCH
12
SACCH
26 Frame
9
CCCH
13
TCH
10
FCCH
51 Frame
TCH
11
SCH
25
idle
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Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Basic Structure of Air Interface 1. Geographic region divided into areas called cells or sectors
Basic Structure of Air Interface
1. Geographic region
divided into areas called
cells or sectors
3. Transmission in each cell is
divided into 8 timeslots (TSL) –
TDMA frame
f1
f9
T6
T7
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T0
T1
f5
f18
Entire network is synchronised
f12
f10
f6
T6
T7
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T0
T1
f22
f4
f2
f2 f2
f15
f3
f24
f19
5. To increase capacity,
several frequencies can be
used in a cell, or sector, and
only 1 TSL is needed for
broadcasting
f7
4. T0, the first TSL in each
sector is reserved for
broadcast signalling
Once the mobile has
identified the timing of the
network it will tune in to this
timeslot anywhere in the
network find out more info
2. Each cell is assigned a frequency –
FDMA. Consecutive frequency numbers
should be separated by distance so as
to reduce interference
These timeslots are known as
PHYSICAL channels
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GSM hierarchy of frames (Schiller) hyperframe 0 1 2 2045 2046 2047 3 h 28
GSM hierarchy of frames (Schiller)
hyperframe
0
1
2
2045 2046 2047
3 h 28 min 53.76 s
superframe
0
1
2
48
49
50
6.12 s
0
1
24
25
multiframe
0
1
24
25
120
ms
0
1
2
48
49
50
235.4
ms
frame
0
1
6
7
4.615
ms
slot
burst
577
µs
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GSM Logical Channels CCH DCH Common Channels Dedicated Channels BCH CCCH DCCH TCH Broadcast Channels
GSM Logical Channels
CCH
DCH
Common Channels
Dedicated Channels
BCH
CCCH
DCCH
TCH
Broadcast Channels
Common Control
Dedicated Control
Traffic Channels
Broadcast network information
DL Only
Channels
Channels
Used to set up a point to
point connection
Used to set up a point to point
connection
Used to set up a point to
point connection
FCCH
TCH/F
Frequency Correction
PCH
SDCCH
Full rate
Channel
Paging Channel
Slow Dedicated
Broadcasts carrier frequency
Broadcasts pages
User data rate of 13
kbit/s
Control Channel
DL
only
SCH
RACH
Stand alone signalling
channel used to set up
connections
TCH/H
Synchronisation
Half rate
Random Access
SACCH
Channel
User
Channel
Slow Associated
Contains BSIC and TDMA
frame no.
data rate of 6-
7 kbit/s
Used by MS to gain DCCH
Control Channel
UL
only
BCCH
Used to control a point
to point connection
TCH/EFR
AGCH
Enhanced Full
Broadcast Control
FACCH
Access Grant Channel
Rate
Channels
Fast Associated
Network assigns DCCH to Ms
User data rate of 13
Broadcast network information:
Control Channel
DL
only
Used frequencies, Frequency
hopping sequence, Channel
combination, Paging groups,
surrounding cell information
Steals 20ms TCH channel
to exchange quick control
communication eg for
kbit/s
Provides better
speech quality
handovers
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GSM protocol layers for signaling A U m A bis MS BTS BSC MSC CM
GSM protocol layers for signaling
A
U m
A bis
MS
BTS
BSC
MSC
CM
CM
MM
MM
BSSAP
BSSAP
RR
RR’
RR’
BTSM
BTSM
SS7
SS7
LAPD m
LAPD m
LAPD
LAPD
radio
radio
PCM
PCM
PCM
PCM
16/64 kbit/s
64 kbit/s /
2.048 Mbit/s
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GSM Operation 4.1.4. Protocols State the full names of the protocols shown in Figure 4.6.
GSM Operation
4.1.4. Protocols
State the full names of the protocols shown in Figure 4.6. At which layer and interface are these protocols used on.
Explain the following functions of the physical layer (Layer 1) of the GSM Air interface: burst formatting, multiplexing,
synchronization (including timing advance), idle channel detection, measurements, modulation, encryption, channel
coding, error coding, interleaving.
What multiplexing schemes are used in GSM for what purposes?
How is synchronisation achieved in GSM? Who is responsible for synchronisation and why is synchronisation very
important? (Timing Advance)
How is error coding different in GSM and ISO/OSI model?
What are the important characteristics of channel coding in GSM?
Explain the role of voice activity detection (VAD) and comfort noise in GSM.
Why is a delay introduced due to interleaving in GSM?
What are the differences between LAPDm and LAPD?
Explain the function of RR, MM and CM in GSM?
Why is there a need to provide DTMF functionality in GSM?
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
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GSM Session Management 4.1.5 Localization and Calling How is localization performed in GSM? How does
GSM Session Management
4.1.5 Localization and Calling
How is localization performed in GSM? How does the HLR and VLR interact?
What is roaming? What are typical roaming scenarios?
Describe the steps involved in a Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)? Figure 4.4 &
4.9
Describe the steps involved in a Mobile Originated Call (MOC)? Figure 4.8 &
4.9
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Mobile Originated Call VLR 1, 2: connection request 3, 4: security check 5-8: check resources
Mobile Originated Call
VLR
1, 2: connection request
3, 4: security check
5-8: check resources (free circuit)
9-10: set up call
3
4
6
5
PSTN
GMSC
MSC
7
8
2
9
MS
MOC
BTS
1
MS
BSS
channel request
10
immediate assignment
service request
authentication request
authentication response
ciphering command
ciphering complete
setup
call confirmed
assignment command
assignment complete
alerting
connect
connect acknowledge
data/speech exchange
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GSM Mobility Management 4.1.6 Handovers in GSM Give reasons for a handover in GSM and
GSM Mobility Management
4.1.6 Handovers in GSM
Give reasons for a handover in GSM and the problems associated with it.
What are the typical steps for handover? (Figure 4.10)
What types of handover can occur in GSM?
What measurements have to be done during handover? Who takes the measurements?
How are the measurements processed? (Figure 4.11)
Why is there a need for a handover margin? What are the implications of setting it too high
or low?
Explain Figure 4.12. What are the important conclusions you can make from it?
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4 Mobile Terminated Call HLR VLR 5 8 9 3 6 14 15 1: calling
4
Mobile Terminated Call
HLR
VLR
5
8
9
3
6
14
15
1: calling a GSM subscriber
7
calling
PSTN
GMSC
MSC
2: forwarding call to GMSC
3: signal call setup to HLR
station
1
2
10
13
10
10
16
4, 5: request MSRN from
VLR
6: forward responsible
MSC to GMSC
7: forward call to
current MSC
8, 9: get current status of
MS
10, 11: paging of MS
12, 13: MS answers
14, 15: security checks
16, 17: set up connection
BSS
BSS
BSS
11
11
11
MS
MTC
BTS
10 . paging request
channel request
immediate assignment
paging response
authentication request
authentication response
ciphering command
ciphering complete
11
12
17
MS
call confirmed
assignment command
assignment complete
alerting
connect
connect acknowledge
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4 types of handover

1

4 types of handover 1   2 3 4 MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS
4 types of handover 1   2 3 4 MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS
 

2

3

4

MS

MS

MS

MS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BSC

BSC

BSC

 

MSC

MSC

Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Handover decision receive level receive level BTS BTS old old HO_MARGIN MS MS BTS old
Handover decision
receive level
receive level
BTS
BTS
old
old
HO_MARGIN
MS
MS
BTS old
BTS new
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
GSM Security 4.1.7 Security in GSM What are the security services offered by GSM? State
GSM Security
4.1.7 Security in GSM
What are the security services offered by GSM?
State the names, location and purpose of all the keys (PIN, PUK, Ki, Kc) and
algorithms (A3, A5, A8) used for GSM security?
Describe the steps involved in the authentication of a GSM user? (Figure 4.13)
Describe the steps involved in the encryption of user data? (Figure 4.14)
How is system security maintained?
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Handover procedure

MS

BTS old

BSC old

MSC

BSC new

BTS new

measurement

report

measurement

result

HO decision

HO required

HO access

HO request

resource allocation
resource allocation

ch. activation

Link establishment

clear complete

clear complete

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Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org

HO command

HO command

HO command

HO request ack

ch. activation ack

clear command

clear command

HO complete

HO complete

Security in GSM Security services access control/authentication user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN
Security in GSM
Security services
access control/authentication
user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal
identification number)
SIM network: challenge response method
confidentiality
voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful
authentication)
anonymity
“secret”:
temporary identity TMSI
(Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)
newly assigned at each new location update (LUP)
encrypted transmission
A3 and A8
available via the
Internet
network providers
can use stronger
mechanisms
3 algorithms specified in GSM
A3 for authentication (“secret”, open interface)
A5 for encryption (standardized)
A8 for key generation (“secret”, open interface)
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GSM - authentication SIM mobile network RAND K RAND RAND i K i 128 bit
GSM - authentication
SIM
mobile network
RAND
K
RAND
RAND
i
K i
128 bit
128 bit
128 bit
128 bit
AC
A3
A3
SIM
SRES* 32 bit
SRES
32 bit
SRES
MSC
SRES* =? SRES
SRES
32 bit
K i : individual subscriber authentication key
SRES: signed response
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HSCSD 4.1.8 New Data Services (HSCSD only) What are the limitations of data services offered
HSCSD
4.1.8 New Data Services (HSCSD only)
What are the limitations of data services offered by GSM networks?
How can the data rates associated with GSM be increased?
Explain the important characteristics of HSCSD?
What is the maximum data rate that can be achieved with HSCSD?
Which resources need to be allocated during handover for data transmission
using HSCSD?
What are the limitations of HSCSD?
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GSM - key generation and encryption MS with SIM mobile network (BTS) RAND K RAND
GSM - key generation and encryption
MS with SIM
mobile network (BTS)
RAND
K
RAND
RAND
i
K i
AC
SIM
128
bit
128 bit
128 bit
128 bit
A8
A8
cipher
K
c
key
K
64
bit
c
64 bit
data
encrypted
SRES data
BSS
data
MS
A5
A5
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Data services in GSM I

Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s

advanced coding allows 14,4 kbit/s not enough for Internet and multimedia applications

HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data)

mainly software update bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate) (e.g., 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots, 14.4 each) advantage: ready to use, constant quality, simple disadvantage: channels blocked for voice transmission

AIUR [kbit/s]

TCH/F4.8

TCH/F9.6

TCH/F14.4

4.8

1

   

9.6

2

1

 

14.4

3

 

1

19.2

4

2

 

28.8

 

3

2

38.4

 

4

 

43.2

   

3

57.6

   

4

Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Future mobile telecommunication networks terminal mobility fast MBS (Mobile Broadband System) UMTS mobile GSM
Future mobile telecommunication networks
terminal
mobility
fast
MBS
(Mobile Broadband System)
UMTS
mobile
GSM
DECT
slow
SAMBA
portable
MEDIAN
WAND
ISDN
B-ISDN
fixed
10 kbit/s
2 Mbit/s
20 Mbit/s
30 Mbit/s
150 Mbit/s
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please
Acknowledgements to Schiller, Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE,
Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran.
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Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org
Alcatel, ETSI, 3GPP, IEEE, Copyright 2011 Prof K.Sandrasegaran. Please report unauthorized usage to kumbes@ieee.org