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SUSPENSION SYSTEM

History of suspension system: The first suspension system has been designed for the light chariots of Ramses I1 around the year of 1296 B.C. But this suspension system was very bad due to its unstable condition. At that time, one suspension system has been found that was really comfortable for driving power and suspension. However, there were problems for that design in which it reduces the speeds and the rapid wear of the component and need to be changed frequently. By that time, the history witnessed a rapid evolution of suspension system design with several problems have been discovered and identified. Regardless of the positive development of suspension system design, there still problems pertaining to the system such as noisy attempts at an iron chain suspension. A new suspension system design was found by William Brush at 1906, after his brother had a car accident at unpaved road with the speed of 30 mph. The impression is that the car's right wheel started shimmy violently and the entire car vibrated furiously. Brush has designed a suspension system for the Brush Two-Seat Runabout car model. The feature of the model was different with front coil springs and devices at each wheel that dampened spring bounce (shock absorber) mounted on a flexible hickory axle. After 25 years, the independent coil spring front suspension has been introduced. Most of the cars were introduced with the coil spring front suspension sprung independently and started using hydraulic shock absorbers. However after several years, manufactures have switched back and forth from model to model between leaf and coil spring. Most of them equipped the leaf spring for a heavy car while the coil spring for a light car. Generally, there are two categories of vehicle's suspension i.e. conventional suspension and advanced suspension systems. Conventional suspension system refers to the passive suspension system whereas advanced suspension system indicates semi-active suspension or active suspension system.

Types of suspensions: 1. Front Suspension System 1.1 Independent Systems 1.2 Semi-Independent Systems 1.1 Front Independent Suspension Systems: 1.1.1 Trailing-arm Suspension: arm is joined at the front to the chassis, allowing the rear to swing up and down twin-trailing-arm work on exactly same as the double wishbones 1.1.2 McPherson Strut: combines shock absorber and coil spring into a single unit more compact and lighter suspension system that used for front-wheel drive vehicles 1.1.3 Double Wishbone: Several different configurations with wishbone-shaped arms mounting positions one at frame and one at wheel Each wishbone bears a shock absorber and a coil spring to absorb vibrations. help minimize roll or sway and provide for a more consistent steering feel. 1.1.4 Multi-Link Suspension: as the spindle turns for steering, it alters the geometry of the suspension by torquing all four suspension arms. gives even better road-holding properties the spring (red) is separate from the shock absorber 1.2 Front Semi-Independent Suspension Systems: 1.2.1 Transverse leaf-Spring:

2. Rear Suspension Systems: 2.1 Solid Axle Leaf-Spring:

2.2 Solid Axle Coil-Spring:

2.3 Beam Axle

3. Advanced Suspensions: 3.1 Hydrolastic Suspension 3.2 Quadraphonic Suspension 3.3 Hydropneumatic Suspension Components of Suspension System: The basic components of a suspension system are as follows: CONTROL ARM: A movable lever that fastens the steering knuckle to the vehicle frame or body CONTROL ARM BUSHING: A sleeve, which allows the control arm to move up and down on the frame STRUT ROD: Prevents the control arm from swinging to the front or rear of the vehicle BALL JOINTS: A swivel joint that allows the control arm and steering knuckle to move up and down, as well as side to side SHOCK ABSORBER or STRUT: Keeps the suspension from continuing to bounce after spring compression and extension STABILIZER BAR: Limits body roll of the vehicle during cornering SPRING: Supports the weight of the vehicle; permits the control arm and wheel to move up and down

MAC PHERSON STRUT:


The most unique feature of a MacPherson strut suspension is that all of the components are contained in a single assembly. Based on a triangle design, a typical MacPherson strut assembly includes a coil spring, upper suspension locator, and shock absorber and is mounted between the top arm of the steering knuckle and the inner fender panel. When the spring is not on the strut itself, but is instead located between the lower control arm and the frame, this is known as a Chapman strut and a modified MacPherson suspension; the advantage is that minor road vibrations are absorbed through the chassis rather than being fed to the driver through the steering system. Following is a closer look at MacPherson strut components

STRUT:
The strut is the heart of the MacPherson suspension system. Not only the struts look like conventional shock absorbers, they also perform the same shock-dampening function. They reduce suspension space and weight requirements as well. By mounting the strut assembly to the steering knuckle, the need for an upper control arm and ball joint is eliminated. The upper mount is the load-carrying component on MacPherson suspensions. There are two types of struts: serviceable and sealed. Serviceable struts are designed with a threaded body nut, thus enabling the shock-absorbing cartridge to be replaced. Sealed struts, on the other hand, permanently retain the cartridge by means of a cap. Since there is no way of replacing the cartridge on a sealed strut, the entire strut unit must be replaced. The majority of original equipment domestic struts are sealed. It is recommended that struts always be rebuilt or replaced in pairs.

COIL SPRINGS:
Coil springs are found on all MacPherson strut suspensions. A mounting plate welded to the strut acts as the lower spring seat, while the upper seat is bolted to the strut piston rod. The coil spring and strut turn with the motion of the steering wheel by means of a bearing or rubber bushing in the upper mount. As mentioned earlier, modified MacPherson suspensions do not have the coil spring mounted on the strut. While this feature does provide a smoother ride under normal driving conditions, the regular MacPherson suspension (in which the spring is positioned on the strut) provides a smoother, more responsive ride over a wide range of driving conditions. The higher and wider spring placement also provides superior roll resistance.