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Dodona From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Dodona

(disambiguation).

Dodona and (Ancient Greek)

Vie of the bouleuterion in Dodona

Sho n ithin Greece

Location Dodoni, Ioannina, Epirus, Greece

Region Epirus

Coordinates 393247N 204716ECoordinates: 393247N 204716E

Type Sanctuary

History

Founded 2nd millennium BCE

Abandoned 391392 CE

Periods Mycenaean Greek to Roman Imperial

Cultures Greek, Roman

Site notes

Condition Ruined

O nership Public

Public access Yes

Dodona (Doric Greek: , Ddn, Ionic and Attic Greek: ,[1] Ddn) in Epirus in n an oracle devoted to a Mother Goddess identified at other sites ith Rhea or Ga ia, but here called Dione, ho as joined and partly supplanted in historical ti

mes by the Greek god Zeus. The shrine of Dodona as regarded as the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus. Situated in a remote regio n a ay from the main Greek poleis, it as considered second only to the oracle o f Delphi in prestige. Priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted th e rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be t aken. Aristotle considered the region around Dodona to have been part of Hellas and the region here the Hellenes originated.[2] The oracle as first under the control of the Thesprotians before it passed into the hands of the Molossians.[3 ] It remained an important religious sanctuary until the rise of Christianity du ring the Late Roman era.

Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Herodotus 3 See also 4 References 4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources 5 Further reading 6 External links [edit] History Though the earliest inscriptions at the site date to ca. 550500 BCE,[4] archaeolo gical excavations over more than a century have recovered artifacts as early as the Mycenaean era,[5] many no at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, and some in the archaeological museum at nearby Ioannina. Archaeologists have al so found Illyrian dedications and objects that ere received by the oracle durin g the 7th century BCE.[6] Until 650 BCE, Dodona as a religious and oracular cen tre mainly for northern tribes: only after 650 BCE did it become important for t he southern tribes.[7] At Dodona, Zeus as orshipped as "Zeus Naios" or "Naos" (god of the spring cf. Naiads)[8] there as a spring belo the oak in the temenos or sanctuary and "Zeu s Bouleus" (Counsellor).[9] Originally an oracle of the Mother Goddess, the orac le as shared by Dione ( hose name, like "Zeus," simply means "deity") and Zeus. Many dedicatory inscriptions recovered from the site mention both "Dione" and " Zeus Naios". Else here in Classical Greece, Dione as relegated to a minor role by classical times, being made into an aspect of Zeus's more usual consort, Hera , but never at Dodona.[10]

A map of the main sanctuaries in Classical Greece The god could also be invoked from a distance. In Homer's Iliad (circa 750 BCE), [11] Achilles prays to "High Zeus, Lord of Dodona, Pelasgian, living afar off, b rooding over intry Dodona".[12] No buildings are mentioned, and the priests (ca lled Selloi) slept on the ground ith un ashed feet.[13] The oracle also feature s in Odysseus's fictive yarn about himself told to the s ineherd Eumaeus:[14] Od ysseus, he tells Eumaeus, has been seen among the Thesprotians, having gone to i nquire of the oracle at Dodona hether he should return to Ithaca openly or in s

Not until the 4th century BCE, as a small stone temple to Zeus added to the sit e. By the time Euripides mentioned Dodona (fragmentary play Melanippe), and Hero dotus rote about the oracle, priestesses had been restored. Though it never ecl ipsed the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, Dodona gained a reputation far beyond Gree ce. In Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, a retelling of an older story of Jason and the Argonauts, Jason's ship, the "Argo", had the gift of prophecy, because it contained an oak timber spirited from Dodona. In c. 290 BCE, King Pyrrhus made Dodona the religious capital of his domain and beautified it by implementing a series of construction projects (i.e. grandly re built the Temple of Zeus, developed many other buildings, added a festival featu ring athletic games, musical contests, and drama enacted in a theatre).[13] A a ll as built around the oracle itself and the holy tree, as ell as temples to H eracles and Dione. In 219 BCE, the Aetolians, under the leadership of General Dorimachus, invaded a nd burned the temple to the ground.[17] During the late 200s BC, King Philip V o f Macedon (along ith the Epirotes) reconstructed all the buildings at Dodona.[1 8] In 167 BCE, Dodona as destroyed by the Romans[19] (led by Aemilius Paulus[20 ]), but as later rebuilt by Emperor Augustus in 31 BCE. By the time the travell er Pausanias visited Dodona in the 2nd century CE, the sacred grove had been red uced to a single oak.[21] In 241 CE, a priest named Poplius Memmius Leon organiz ed the Naia festival of Dodona.[22] In 362 CE, Emperor Julian consulted the orac le prior to his military campaigns against the Persians.[23] Pilgrims still cons ulted the oracle until 391-392 CE hen Emperor Theodosius closed all pagan templ es, banned all pagan religious activities, and cut the ancient oak tree at the s anctuary of Zeus.[24] Though the surviving to n as insignificant, the long-hall o ed pagan site must have retained significance for Christians given that a Bish op Theodorus of Dodona attended the First Council of Ephesus in 431 CE.[20]

Panorama of the theather of Dodona. The modern village Dodoni and the sno -cappe d Mount Tomaros are visible in the background. [edit] Herodotus Herodotus[25] (Histories 2:5457) as told by priests at Egyptian Thebes in the 5t h century BCE "that t o priestesses had been carried a ay from Thebes by Phoenic ians; one, they said they had heard as taken a ay and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these omen, they said, ere the first founders of places of divinati on in the aforesaid countries." The simplest analysis: Egypt, for Greeks and for Egyptians themselves, as a spring of human culture of all but immeasurable ant iquity. This mythic element says that the oracles at the oasis of Si a in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus ere equally old, but similarly transmitted by Phoenicia n culture, and that the seeresses Herodotus does not say "sibyls" ere omen.

ecret (as the disguised Odysseus is actually doing). Odysseus later repeats the same tale to Penelope, ho may not yet have seen through his disguise.[15] His ords "bespeak a familiarity ith Dodona, a realization of its importance,and an understanding that it as normal to consult Zeus there on a problem of personal conduct."[16]

Plan of the sanctuary Herodotus follo s ith hat he as told by the prophetesses, called peleiades (" doves") at Dodona: "...that t o black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech , declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message as divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove hich came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to mak e an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such as the story told by th e Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of hom as Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true." In the simplest analysis, this as a confirmation of the oracle tradition in Egy pt. The element of the dove may be an attempt to account for a folk etymology ap plied to the archaic name of the sacred omen that no longer made sense. Was the pel- element in their name actually connected ith "black" or "muddy" root elem ents in names like "Peleus" or "Pelops"? Is that hy the doves ere black? Herod otus adds: "But my o n belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry a ay the sacred omen and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, t he place here this oman as sold in hat is no Hellas, but as formerly calle d Pelasgia, as Thesprotia; and then, being a slave there, she established a shr ine of Zeus under an oak that as gro ing there; for it as reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes, she ould remember that temple in the land to hich she had come. After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had bee n sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians ho sold her." "I expect that these ome n ere called 'doves' by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange langu age, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; then the oman spoke ha t they could understand, and that is hy they say that the dove uttered human sp eech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice as like the voice of a bird. For ho could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove as black signifies that the oman as Egyptian." Thesprotia, on the coast est of Dodona, ould have been available to the sea-go ing Phoenicians, hom Herodotus's readers ould not have expected to have penetr ated as far inland as Dodona. [edit] See also List of cities in ancient Epirus Matriarchal religion Mother Goddess National Archaeological Museum of Athens [edit] References [edit] Citations 1.^ Liddell & Scott 1996, "Dodone" 2.^ Hammond 1986, p. 77; Aristotle. Meteorologica. 1.14. 3.^ Potter 1751, Chapter VIII, "Of the Oracles of Jupiter", p. 265. 4.^ Lhte 2006, p. 77. 5.^ Tandy 2001, p. 23. 6.^ Boardman 1982, p. 653; Hammond 1976, p. 156. 7.^ Boardman 1982, pp. 272273. 8.^ Kristensen 1960, p. 104; Tarn 1913, p. 60. 9.^ LSJ: bouleus. 10.^ Vandenberg 2007, p. 29.

11.^ Homer. Iliad, 16.233-16.235. 12.^ Richard Lattimore translation. 13.^ a b Sacks, Murray & Bunson 1997, "Dodona", p. 85. 14.^ Homer. Odyssey, 14.327-14.328. 15.^ Homer. Odyssey, 19. 16.^ G atkin, Jr. 1961, p. 100. 17.^ Dakaris 1971, p. 46; Wilson 2006, p. 240; Sacks, Murray & Bunson 1997, "Do dona", p. 85. 18.^ Sacks, Murray & Bunson 1997, "Dodona", p. 85; Dakaris 1971, p. 46. 19.^ Sacks, Murray & Bunson 1997, "Dodona", p. 85; Dakaris 1971, p. 62. 20.^ a b Pentreath 1964, p. 165. 21.^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 1.18. 22.^ Dakaris 1971, p. 26. 23.^ Dakaris 1971, p. 26; Fontenrose 1988, p. 25. 24.^ Fleler & Rohde 2009, p. 36. 25.^ Vandenberg 2007, pp. 2930. [edit] Sources Boardman, John (1982). The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuri es B.C.. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23447 -6. Boardman, John (1982). The Prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and th e Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C.. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambr idge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22496-9. Dakaris, S. I. (1971). Archaeological Guide to Dodona. Cultural Society "The An cient Dodona". Fleler, Christoph; Rohde, Martin (2009). Laster im Mittelalter/Vices in the Midd le Ages. Ne York, Ne York and Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-02 0274-3. Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy (1988). Didyma: Apollo's Oracle, Cult, and Companions. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520 -05845-3. G atkin, Jr., William E. (1961). "Dodona, Odysseus, and Aeneas". The Classical Journal 57 (3): 97102. Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprire (1986). A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Oxfo rd, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-873096-9. Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprire (1976). Migrations and Invasions in Greece a nd Adjacent Areas. Park Ridge, Ne Jersey: Noyes Press. ISBN 0-8155-5047-2. Kristensen, William Brede (1960). The Meaning of Religion: Lectures in the Phen omenology of Religion. The Hague, The Netherlands: M. Nijhoff. Lhte, ric (2006). Les Lamelles Oraculaires de Dodone. Genve, S itzerland: Librairi e Droz. ISBN 2-600-01077-7. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1996) [1940]. A Greek-English Lexicon. Ox ford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-864226-1. Pentreath, Guy (1964). Hellenic Traveller: A Guide to the Ancient Sites of Gree ce. London, United Kingdom: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09718-9. Potter, John (1751). Archaeologia Graeca or the Antiquities of Greece. I. Londo n, United Kingdom: Printed for G. Strahan, R. Ware, W. Innys, J. and P. Knapton, S. Birt, D. Bro ne, H. Whitridge, T. Longman, C. Hitch, J. Hodges, B. Barker, R . Manry and S. Cox, J. Whiston, J. and J. Rivington, J. Ward, M. Cooper, and M. Austen. Sacks, David; Murray, Os yn; Bunson, Margaret (1997). A Dictionary of the Ancie nt Greek World. Ne York, Ne York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511206-7. Tandy, David W. (2001). Prehistory and History: Ethnicity, Class and Political Economy. Montral, Qubec, Canada: Black Rose Books Limited. ISBN 1-55164-188-7. Tarn, William Woodthorpe (1913). Antigonos Gonatas. Oxford, United Kingdom: Cla rendon Press. ISBN 0-8244-0142-5. Vandenberg, Philipp (2007). Mysteries of the Oracles: The Last Secrets of Antiq

uity. Ne York, Ne York: Tauris Parke Paperbacks (I.B. Tauris). ISBN 1-84511-40 2-7. Wilson, Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Ne York, Ne York an d Oxford, Great Britain: Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge). ISBN 978-0-415-9733 4-2. [edit] Further reading