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# HVDC and FACTS For Internal up to FC+TCR Under editing,dont take print out now.....

3. Static change in reactive bus power at a particular bus affect mostly the bus voltage at that bus and has little effect on the magnitudes of voltages at the remote buses. Real power- frequency control (P-f control) This is to exert control on frequency and simultaneously on real power exchange through outgoing lines. The frequency error Df is sensed; this information and the information on the increments in real tie line power give incremental errorDdI, these sensor signals are amplified, mixed and transformed in to real power command signal DPci. This signal is send to the prime mover to cause an increment in the torque. This will then provide change in generation DPGi to maintain the required power flows in the lines and maintain the frequency constant. Reactive power- Voltage control (Q-V Control) This control is for the control of lVil. The voltage error lDVil is sensed and this signal is transformed in to reactive power command signal lDQil. This signal is then used for the excitation change of synchronous generator or to switching and control of reactive power compensation devices. The imbalance between the generated and demanded reactive power results in a deviation of bus voltage. REACTIVE POWER- VOLTAGE REGULATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES On long EHV over head transmission lines and on much shorter ac cables, the production and consumption of reactive power by the line itself constitute a serious problem. On a line having series inductance L and shunt capacitance C per unit of length and operating voltage V and current I, the line produces reactive power, Qc = wCV2 (1) and consumes reactive power, QL = wLI2 (2) Per unit length. The reactive power produced by the line equals that consumed by it, with no net production or consumption, if wCV2= wLI2 (3) Hence if V/I = (L/I) 1/2 = Zs In this case the load impedance has the value Zs, Known as the surge impedance of the line. The surge impedance of an overhead line with single conductors is about 400 Ohm and with bundle conductor about 300 Ohm; that of cable is only 15 t0 25 Ohm. The power carried by the line so loaded is Pn = VI = V2/Zs And is called the surge impedance loading (SIL) or Natural load. It is independent of distance and depends mainly on the voltage.

Most lines cannot be operated always at their natural loads, for the loads vary with time. The most economical load on an overhead line is greater than the natural load. If the load is greater than the natural load, net reactive power is consumed by the line and must be supplied from one or both ends. If equal voltages are maintained at both ends of the line, equal amounts of reactive power are supplied from both ends. The reactive power transferred over a line is directly proportional to (lVsl-lVrl), i.e., voltage drop along the line and is independent of power angle (on the other hand the real power transfer is directly proportional to sind . The means that the major cause of voltage drop on the line is the transfer of reactive power VAR compensation is defined as the management of reactive power to improve the performance of ac power systems. The concept of VAR compensation embraces a wide and diverse field of both system and customer problems, especially related with power quality issues, since most of power quality problems can be attenuated or solved with an adequate control of reactive power. In general, the problem of reactive power compensation is viewed from two aspects: load compensation and voltage support. In load compensation the objectives are to increase the value of the system power factor, to balance the real power drawn from the ac supply, compensate

voltage regulation and to eliminate current harmonic components produced by large and fluctuating nonlinear industrial loads. Voltage support is generally required to reduce voltage fluctuation at a given terminal of a transmission line. Reactive power compensation in transmission systems also improves the stability of the ac system by increasing the maximum active power that can be transmitted. Series and shunt VAR compensation are used to modify the natural electrical characteristics of ac power systems. Series compensation modifies the transmission or distribution system parameters, while shunt compensation changes the equivalent impedance of the load. In both cases, the reactive power that flows through the system can be effectively controlled improving the performance of the overall ac power system. IN SHORT.. In load compensation the objectives are to increase the value of the system power factor to balance the real power drawn from the ac supply compensate voltage regulation and to eliminate current harmonic components produced by large and fluctuating nonlinear industrial loads. Voltage support is generally required to reduce voltage fluctuation at a given terminal of a transmission line Reactive power compensation in transmission systems Improves the stability of the ac system by increasing the maximum active power that can be transmitted. It also helps to maintain a substantially flat voltage profile at all levels of power transmission it improves HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) conversion terminal performance increases transmission efficiency controls steady-state and temporary over voltages, And can avoid disastrous blackouts. Series and shunt VAR compensation are used to modify the natural electrical characteristics of ac power systems. Series compensation modifies the transmission or distribution system parameters Shunt compensation changes the equivalent impedance of the load. In both cases, the reactive power that flows through the system can be effectively controlled improving the performance of the overall ac power system. FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION INTRODUCTION Traditionally, rotating synchronous condensers and fixed or mechanically switched capacitors or inductors have been used for reactive power compensation. However, in recent years, static VAR compensators employing thyristor switched capacitors and thyristor controlled reactors to provide or absorb the required reactive power have been developed. Also, the use of self-commutated PWM converters with an appropriate control scheme permits the implementation of static compensators capable of generating or absorbing reactive current components with a time response faster than the fundamental power network cycle. Based on the use of reliable highspeed power electronics, powerful analytical tools, advanced control and microcomputer technologies, Flexible AC Transmission Systems, also known as FACTS, have been developed and represent a new concept for the operation of power transmission systems. In these systems, the use of static VAR compensators with fast response times play an important role, allowing to increase the amount of apparent power transfer through an existing line, close to its thermal capacity, without compromising its stability limits. These opportunities arise through the ability of special static VAR compensators to adjust the interrelated parameters that govern the operation of transmission systems, including shunt impedance, current, voltage, phase angle and the damping of oscillations. REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION PRINCIPLES In a linear circuit, the reactive power is defined as the ac component of the instantaneous power, with a frequency equal to 100 / 120 Hz in a 50 or 60 Hz system. The reactive power generated by the ac power source is stored in a capacitor or a reactor during a quarter of a cycle, and in the

POW ER FACTOR CORRECTION AND VOLTAGE REGULATION IN SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM POWER FACTOR CORRECTION (BY SHUNT CAPACITOR) The degree of compensation being decided by an economic point of view between the capitalized cost of compensator and the capitalized cost of reactive power from supply system over a period of time. In practice a compensator such as a bank of capacitors (or inductors) can be divided into parallel sections, each Switched separately, so that discrete changes in the compensating reactive power may be made, according to the requirements of the load.

## ANALYSIS OF UNCOMPENSATED AC LINES POWER FORMULAE FOR TRANSMISSION LINES

Fig. 3.20 shows the single line diagram of a three-phase transmission line. The ends of a line can terminate at generating stations, grid switching stations or grid supply points. The ends of transmission lines are designated as busses. The concept of a bus in a one line diagram is essentially the same as that of a node in a circuit diagram. The system in Fig. 3.20 is a two bus

system having the sending end bus which is fed by the generator and station the receiving end bus which feeds the load. Sr is the complex power at the receiving end and Ss is the complex power at the sending end. (Refer power system analysis and design by B R Guptha Using Eqs. (3.43) and (3.46)) The currents Ir and Is can be expressed in terms of Vrand Vs as:

## The conjugates of', Ir and Is are

The complex power per phase at the receiving end and sending end are

The following important observations about Eqs. (3.77) and (3.78) are applicable to symmetrical 3- phase systems: 1. These equations yield power per phase if the phase voltage (i.e., line to neutral voltage) at the receiving and sending end are used for Vr and Vs 2. The total 3-phase power is three times the power per phase. Each term in these equations contains product of two voltages or the square of a voltage. Since line to line voltage is root 3 times the phase voltage, these equations yield 3-phase power directly if Vr and Vs represent line to line voltage at the receiving end and sending end. 3. If the voltage is expressed in volts, the power is expressed in watts or vars. If the voltages are considered in kilovolts, the power is expressed in mega watts or megavars. From Eq. (3.77) the real and reactive power at receiving end are:

## The corresponding value of Qr at this power limit is

The load must draw the leading vars given by Eq. (3.82) to achieve the condition of maximum real power at the receiving end. Very important conclusions can be drawn by considering the power transfer over a short line which has A = D= 1angle 0, B =Z=lZI Z angle theta . Substituting these values in Eqs. (3.79) and (3.80) we have

The resistance of a transmission line is usually very small as compared to inductive reactance.Thus lZl=X and theta= 900. Substituting these values in the above equations

Eqs. (3.83 to 3.87) are for short lines. However a long line can be represented by an equivalent Pi circuit ( ref B R Gupta Fig. 3.14). The shunt admittance at the receiving end can be combined with the load and the shunt admittance at the sending end can be combined with the generator network. Thus the above equations can also be applied to long lines. A study of Eqs. (3.85 to 3.87) leads to following important conclusions: 1. For fixed values of Vs, Vr and X the real power depends on angle d which is the phase angle between Vs, and Vr. This angle d is, therefore, known as power angle. P is maximum when d=90. However, Shas to be kept to values well below 90 from considerations of system stability. 2. Power can be transferred over line even when lVsl lVrl. The phase difference between Vr, and Vs, causes the flow of current in the line. Modern power systems are operated with almost the same voltage magnitudes (i.e.,1 p.u.) at important busses by using methods of voltage control. 3. The maximum real power transferred over a line increases with increase in ys and Vr. An

increase of 10% in Vr and Vs increases the power transfer by 21%. This explains the reason for adopting high and extra high transmission voltages. 4. The maximum real power depends on the reactance X which is directly proportional to line inductance. A decrease in inductance increases the line capacity. The line inductance can be &creased by using double circuit lines and by the use of bundled conductors. Another method of reducing line inductance is by inserting series capacitance in the line. This method is/known as series compensation. The series capacitors are usually installed at the midpoint of the line. 5. The reactive power transferred over a line is directly proportional to(lVsl lVrl), i.e., voltage drop along the line and is independent of power angle. This means that the major cause of voltage drop on the line is the transfer of reactive power over the line. To maintain a good voltage profile, the control of reactive power is necessary.

We assume that the voltage at the sending end is 1.0 per unit at zero degrees phase angle and that the P and Q drawn by the load at the receiving end are As the power to the load is increased we obtain a voltage characteristic at the receiving end that looks like the graph in Figure 2.

The plot in figure 1 shows the fact that the voltage at the receiving end actually could have two different values one higher and one lower. However, the lower voltage solution is unstable. It also shows that there is a maximum power transfer, beyond which there is no power flow solution. What is even more important for the subject in this paper is the reactive power consumed by the transmission line and supplied by the generator at the sending end. For the same line and voltages the reactive plots are shown in Figure 3. The solid line is the reactive power absorbed by the transmission line and the dotted line is the reactive power that must be supplied from the generator. Obviously the reactive power absorbed by the transmission line starts to increase rapidly as the voltage at the receiving end of the line begins to drop. Now we shall assume that reactive compensation is provided at the receiving end as shown in the diagram in figure 4

Here the lowest curve in figure 5 has a Q C = 0 MVAR, the next higher curve has Q C = 50 MVAR, and each higher curve has an additional 50 MVAR of reactive compensation. It can easily be seen that the maximum power transfer of the transmission system is now greater due to the reactive compensation. Thus reactive compensation has a direct economic benefit to the users of a transmission system.

For better Understanding.. A large majority of power transmission lines are AC lines operating at different voltages (10 kV to 800 kV). The distribution networks generally operate below 100 kV while the bulk power is transmitted at higher voltages. The lines operating at different voltages are connected through transformers which operate at high efficiency. Traditionally, AC lines have no provision for the control of power flow. The mechanically operated circuit breakers (CB) are meant for protection against faults (caused by flashovers due to over voltages on the lines or reduced clearances to ground). A CB is rated for a limited number of open and close operations at a time and cannot be used for power flow control. (Unlike a high power electronic switch such as thyristor, GTO, IGBT, IGCT, etc.). Fortunately, ac lines have inherent power flow control as the power flow is determined by the power at the sending end or receiving end. For example, consider a trasmission line connecting a generating station to a load centre in Fig.1.1(a). Assuming the line to be lossless and ignoring the line charging, the power flow (P) is given by where X is the series line reactance. Assuming V1 and V2 to be held constants (through voltage regulators at the two ends), the power injected by the power station determines the flow of power in the line. The difference in the bus angles is automatically adjusted to enable P = PG (Note that usually there could be more than one line transmitting power from a generating station to a load centre). If one or more lines trip, the output of the power station may have to be reduced by tripping generators, so as to avoid overloading the remaining lines in operation.

Fig. 1.1(b) shows another situation where a line supplies power to a load located at bus (2). Here also the eq. (1.1) applies but the power flow in the line is determined by the load supplied. The essential difference between the two situations is that in Fig. 1.1(a), the load centre is modeled as an infinite bus which can absorb (theoretically) any amount of power supplied to it from the generating station. This model of the load centre assumes that the generation available at the load centre is much higher than the power supplied from the remote power station (obviously, the total load supplied at the load centre is equal to the net generation available at that bus). Control of Power Flow in AC Transmission Line We may like to control the power flow in a AC transmission line to (a) enhance power transfer capacity and or (b) to change power flow under dynamic conditions (subjected to disturbances such as sudden increase in load, line trip or generator outage) to ensure system stability and security. The stability can be affected by growing low frequency, power oscillations (due to generator rotor swings), loss of synchronism and voltage collapse caused by major disturbances. From eq. (1.1), we have the maximum power (Pmax) transmitted over a line as

where max (30{40) is selected depending on the stability margins and the stiffness of the terminal buses to which the line is connected. For line lengths exceeding a limit, Pmax is less than the thermal limit on the power transfer determined by the current carrying capacity of the conductors (Note this is also a function of the ambient temperature). As the line length increases, X increases in a linear fashion and Pmax reduces as shown in Fig. 1.4.

Figure 1.4: Power transfer capacity as a function of line length the series compensation using series connected capacitors increases Pmax as the compensated value of the series reactance (Xc) is given by Xc = X(1 -kse) (1.3) where kse is the degree of series compensation. The maximum value of kse that can be used depends on several factors including the resistance of the conductors. Typically kse does not exceed 0.7. Fixed series capacitors have been used since a long time for increasing power transfer in long lines. They are also most economical solutions for this purpose. However, the control of series compensation using thyristor switches has been introduced only 10{15 years ago for fast power flow control. The use of Thyristor Controlled Reactors (TCR) in parallel with fixedcapacitors (SVC) for the control of Xc, also helps in overcoming a major problem of Sub synchronous Resonance (SSR). Effect of angle between Vs And Vr( Here angle controlled by PST,just for explanation) In tie lines of short lengths, the power flow can be controlled by introducing Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) which has a complex turns ratio with magnitude of unity. The power flow in a lossless transmission line with an ideal PST (see Fig. 1.5) is given by Again, manually controlled PST is not fast enough under dynamic conditions. Thyristor switches can ensure fast control over discrete (or continuous) values of phase angle, depending on the configuration of PST used. Pmax can also be increased by controlling (regulating) the receiving end voltage of the AC line. When a generator supplies a unity power factor load (see Fig. 1.1(b)), the maximum power occurs when the load resistance is equal to the line reactance. It is to be noted that V2 varies with the load and can be expressed as

Comparing eq. (1.6) with (1.1), it can be seen that the maximum power transfer can be doubled just by providing dynamic reactive power support at the receiving end of the transmission line. This is in addition to the voltage support at the sending end. It is to be noted that while steady state voltage support can be provided by mechanically switched capacitors, the dynamic voltage support requires synchronous condenser or a power electronic controller such as Static Var Compensator (SVC) or STATic synchronous COMpensator (STATCOM) i.e FACTS. Points Three main variables that can be directly controlled in the power system to impact its performance. These are: Voltage Angle Impedance One could also make the point that direct control of power is a fourth variable of controllability in power systems Advantages of using reactive compensation: 1. Improving Steady-state Stability 2. Improve Dynamic Stability 3. Improve Transient Stability 4. Limit Rapid Voltage Increase or Decline 5. Limit Slow Voltage Increase or Decline 6. Limit Fast Wave-front Overvoltages due to lightning, switching, etc. 7. Reactive Power Support at DC Converter Terminals 8. Increase Short Circuit Levels 9. Decrease Short Circuit Levels The various kind of reactive compensations are: 1. Shunt Reactors and Capacitors 2. Series Reactors and Capacitors 3. Synchronous Condenser 4. Polyphase Saturated Reactor 5. Thyristor Controlled Reactor 6. Thyristor Switched Capacitor 7. Short Circuit Limiting Coupling CLASSIFICATION OF COMPENSATING DEVICES The devices used for this purpose are classified as: CLASSIFICATION 1 A. STATIC COMPENSATOR, using slow switching devices eg. Mechanically switched capacitor(using CB), Switched Reactors Static Compensation is ideal for second and minute responses. (capacitors, reactors, tapchanges). B. DYNAMIC COMPENSATOR using fast acting switching devices having response less than 10 sec. eg. FACTS Controllers Dynamic Compensation is ideal for instantaneous responses. (condensers, generators) CLASSIFICATION 2 A. PASSIVE COMPENSATION Shunt capacitors and reactors, and series capacitors provide passive compensation. They are either permanently connected to the transmission and distribution system, or switched. They contribute to voltage control by modifying the network characteristics.

B. ACTIVE COMPENSATION Synchronous condensers and SVCs provide active compensation; the reactive power absorbed/supplied by them is automatically adjusted so as to maintain voltages of the buses to which they are connected. CLASSIFICATION 3 A. Sources or sinks of reactive power, such as shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, synchronous condensers, and static Var compensators (SVCs). B. Line reactance compensators, such as series capacitors. C. Regulating transformers, such as tap-changing transformers and boosters. CLASSIFICATION 4 A. TCR( Thyristor controlled Reactor) Based(variable impedance type FACTS controllers) include: (i) Static Var Compensator (SVC), (shunt connected) (ii) Thyrister Controlled Series Capacitor or compensator (TCSC), (series connected) (iii) Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST) of Static PST (combined shunt and series) B. VSC ( Voltage Source Converter)based FACTS controllers are: (i) Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) (shunt connected) (ii) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) (series connected) (iii) Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) (combined series-series) (iv) Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) (combined shunt-series) CLASSIFICATION 5 A. Series controllers such as Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Thyristor Controlled Phase Angle Regulators (TCPAR or TCPST), and Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) B. Shunt controllers such as Staic Var Compensator (SVC), and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) C. Combined series-shunt controllers such as Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) D. Combined series-series controllers such as Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) COMPENSATION DEVICES /TECHENIQUES Due to system expansion without proper and adequate planning and financial provision for the works in time, a large number of distribution systems have run into problems such as poor voltage regulation, poor power factor, high losses and poor efficiency, over loading and less reliability for continuity of supply. The causes for high losses and poor voltage regulation in the distribution and sub transmission system are: 1. Low power factor of the consumer installations. 2. Long and over loaded L.T lines. 3. Distribution transformers centers located away from the load centers. 4. Long and overloaded 11kV and sub transmission lines. 5. Poor voltage regulation on 11 kV and L.T lines, voltage drops being extended beyond permissible. 6. Under loading of distribution transformers. 7. Absence of shunt compensation in the sub transmission and distribution system; Therefore, necessary to improve the working of the power distribution systems to reduce the unfavorable conditions and thereby reduce losses, improve voltage regulation, etc. The system improvement has to be planned properly with the following objectives in mind. 1. To reduce losses in the distribution and subtransmission system. 2. To improve the voltage regulation so as to bring it within the prescribed limit. 3. To improve the power factor in the subtransmission and distribution system so as to get