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2010 Interaional Conference on Power System Technology

Control Strategy for Power Grids Synchronism


Parallel Based on back-to-back VSC
Jiajun Liu, Yong Tang, Huadong Sun, Meiuan Xue, Bo Liu
Abstac-This paper aims at the present difculties to
regulate the frequency diference and voltage diference
automatically when doing power grid parallel operation in
substation, and applies the back-to-back voltage source converter
to the power grid synchronization parallel based on the theory of
active power frequency and reactive power voltage in power
system. The core of the power grid synchronization parallel
method based on power transfer is carrying through the fast
independent control of active power and reactive power between
the awaiting-parallel bilateral systems via the back-to-back
voltage source converter, so as to achieve the purpose of
adjusting the frequency diference, voltage diference and phase
angle diference between bilateral systems. In this paper, two
methods in power transfer via the back-to-back voltage source
converter, the disposable full power transfer and the successive
increasing power transfer, are frstly analyzed, while their own
characteristics and impact on power grids are introduced as well;
then such a control strategy is proposed that to transfer a
relatively small active power and a relatively small reactive
power in advance, until the system has stabilized, we get the
change rates of active power versus frequency diference,
reactive power versus voltage diference and active power versus
phase angle diference respectively according to the changes of
frequency diference, voltage diference and phase angle
diference, and fnally calculate the required active power and
reactive power to meet the parallel conditions based on the
change rates. This paper ultimately establishes the control
strategy of applying the back-to-back voltage source converter to
the power grids synchronization parallel, presents the control
fow chart of power grid parallel process, and makes a detailed
analysis of the key technologies in the chart, including the
converter start control, the calculation of required power, the
control strategy of bilateral converters, the closing control of
breakers at parallel points and so on. This proposed control
strategy has been simulated in PSCADIEMTDC, and the
simulation results shown that the control strategy for power grid
synchronism parallel in this paper is efective.
Keord-back-to-back VSC; power grid parallel; power
transfer; control strategy; Simulation
I. INTRODUCTION
A
T present, the research on the application of voltage
source converter in DC transmission is extensive. The
worldwide investigation into voltage source converter in high
voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HYDC) has always
been in active state. The in-depth interational study of VSC
HYDC has been made on both the engineering practicality
and the basic theories [1]. The CIGRE, an authority academic
organization for the interational electric power has set up B4-
37 Working Group in previous years which specializes VSC-
978-l-4244-5940-7/10/$26.002010 IEEE
HYDC trasmission to promote the development of VSC
HYDC technology [2-4]; In addition, recently the CIGRE has
established another B4-39 Working Group making research
on getting the wind power access to power network adopting
VSC-HVDC. In ters of the difculties encountered in
practical engineering, the interational research hotspots cover
how to improve the capacity of VSC-HVDC and reduce losses
and costs, how to improve the safety reliability of VSC
HYDC, as well as the support to AC power grid, the
interaction to AC power grid, ad the protection control when
AC system is out of order, etc. Domestic research on the VSC
HYDC technology started relatively late, and mainly focused
on the modeling, simulation, control and protection strategies
of VSC-HVDC [5-9]. There is less research on the appliance
of VSC to power grid synchronization parallel at present.
Reference [10] was the appliance of VSC to power grid
synchronization parallel with advatages of high speed and
simple operation is brought forwad, which can improve the
automation level of grid synchronization parallel, ad which
can be used in ring network parallel too, the applied range of
the VSC-HVDC technology is expanded, meanwhile the
concept of compound system is put forward; Reference [11]
put forward the power grid synchronization parallel method
based on power transfer, combine this method with the
existing static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)
technology to form a compound system with the fnctions of
power grid synchronization parallel and reactive power
compensation, and the simulations of grid synchronization
paallel and ring network parallel have verifed the validity
and accuracy of this method. However, in this literature the
control strategies of grid parallel are not included, and the
investigations on the relevant issues are not made. This paper
reveals the preliminar studying results of the control
strategies about grid parallel, and put forward the control
strategy of the direction and magnitude of the power exchange,
and simulates them in the PSCAD / EMTDC and the
simulation results have shown the efectiveness and
corectness of this control strategy.
II. POWER GRID SYNCHRONIZATION PARALLEL BASED ON
POWER EXCHAGE
Based on the instantaneous reactive power theor, the park
transformation is adopted to transform the three-phase inverter
output current to the rotating d-q coordinates, in order to
realize the separation of active current and reactive current,
then respectively control the magnitude and directions of them,
and convert DC into AC through the inverter, while control
the active power and reactive power at the same time. The
back-to-back voltage source converter can be used for the
power grid synchronization parallel to achieve the differential
fequency and same-fequency ring network parallel [11].As
in Fig. I.
M
aF
F
L
2BT
Figure I. Block diagram of power grid synchronous paralleling based on
back-to-back VSC
When the fequency difference, voltage diference and
phase angle difference of two power grids are within the
adjusting range of converter, directly using this method can
complete the synchronization parallel. But if they are beyond
the adjusting confme of converter, the dispatching center
commands the fequency regulation power plant to do coarse
adjustment initially, making the fequency diference, voltage
difference and phase angle difference fall within the adjusting
range of converter, then adopt this method to complete the
synchronization parallel. The appliance of this method ca
improve the speed and automation level of grid parallel.
III. CONTROL STRTEGY FOR GRID PALLEL
The control strategy is the core of back-to-back voltage
source converter. While different contol stategies correspond
with different purposes, this chapter introduces the control
strategy when converter is applied to grid parallel, including
the star-up of converter, the calculation of the required power,
the control of bilateral converters, and the control of
synchronization point circuit breaker, etc.
A. Flow o/Grid Parallel Control
Firstly run the back-to-back voltage source converter in
operation mode of parallel based on the dispatching order,
then start the converter, determine whether the fequency
difference, voltage difference, and phase angle difference
meet the synchronization parallel conditions, when the
deviations are satisfed, directly close the synchronization
point circuit breaker and exit the converter to complete the
parallel operation; if them are not satisfed, determine the
direction and magnitude of the required exchange power
according to the fequency diference, voltage difference,
phase angle difference to meet the conditions; control the
bilateral voltage source converters on the basis of the power's
direction and magnitude; use space vector modulation
technique to produce control pulse for each power switch;
when the power exchange last for a certain period of time
based on a certain power value that the fequency and voltage
of system tend to stabilize, repeat the previous steps until the
synchronization parallel conditions are satisfed to fmally
complete the parallel operation. The whole fow of control
strategy is shown in Figure 2:
2
V
Figure 2. Program fowchart of control strategy
B. Start-up o/Converter
The goal of star-up control is to make the DC voltage
rapidly rise to the normal working voltage via the control
mode and auxiliar measures, but rapidly increasing current
and voltage overshoot phenomenon must be forbidden [12].
Before the converter starts up, the DC-link capacitor is not
charged, so the voltage is almost zero. Afer the converter
stars up, the DC voltage will rise nearly to the normal
working voltage. If the converter starts with the normal
working control strategy only and no other measures, the AC
power will charge up the DC-link capacitor through the anti
parallel diode of each bridge a, because the equivalent loss
resistance of converter reactor and power switch tube is
generally low, a huge charge current will appear which may
endanger the safety of converter devices. To reduce the
varing current when converter stas, the current limiting
resistor can be added to the charge circuit in series, when the
DC voltage rises up to a certain value, remove the current
limiting resistor. In this paper the current limiting resistor is
added in series to the AC side of converter.
C Calculation o/the Required Power
Power calculation includes two aspects. One is about
power fow direction, i.e. to which side should the power
transferred fom which side in order to reduce the fequency
difference, voltage difference and phase angle difference of
the bilateral systems; another is about the magnitude of power,
i.e. how much power should be transferred to meet te parallel
conditions of the bilateral systems.
1) Control o/Power Flow
a) There eisting fequenc diference in
diferential-requenc paralleling
I/ is the fequency difference of the awaiting-parallel
bilateral systems, as in (1).
l
=
/,-J (1)
/ is the fequency value of the power grid with higher
fequency; J is the fequency value of the grid with lower
fequency. Based on (1), there are three methods to reduce the
fequency diference 4: decrease
/,
; increase J; decrease
/ or increase J .Keeping the system power constant, to
increase active load of the system will decrease system
fequency, contrarily to reduce active load of the system will
increase system fequency. Therefore to increase active load
of the higher fequency side can reduce /, and to decrease
active load of the lower-fequency side can increase J .
Transfer the active power fom the higher fequency side to
the lower fequency side, then the active load of higher
fequency side increase while the active load of lower
fequency side decrease, i.e. / decreases while J increases,
and this can reach the purpose of reducing Af .
b) There eisting voltage diference in diferential
fequenc paralleling.
Consider fom the angle of the relationship formed by
reactive power balance and voltage level that increasing the
reactive load of the higher voltage side can reduce the voltage
of load node, and reducing the reactive load of the lower
voltage side can increase the voltage of load node, therefore
the reactive power transfer fom the higher voltage side to the
lower voltage side can reduce the voltage diference of the
awaiting-parallel bilateral systems. With regard to voltage
drop, its vertical component mainly depends on the reactive
power. Let the voltages of the power grid synchronization
parallel nodes be Uland U2:
',
,'':',!
(2)
L
Equation (2) displays that the voltage diference of
parallel nodes mainly depends on the reactive power.
When UI ~ U2 , Q2 ~ 0 , that means the reactive power is
positive when it transfers fom the higher voltage side to the
lower voltage side. When UI and
X
I are constat, increasing
Q2 can decrease, contrariwise U2 increases. Therefore,
increasing the system reactive power trasferred by the
higher- voltage side, i.e. the transfer of the reactive power
fom the system to the VSC can reduce U2 , or decreasing the
system reactive power trasferred by the lower- voltage side,
i.e. the transfer of the reactive power fom the VSC to the
system can increase U2 In this way the purpose of reducing
the voltage diference can be achieved.
c) Tere eisting phae angle diference in same
fequenc paralleling.
The phase angle diference in same-fequency paralleling is
mainly caused by the transverse component of the voltage
drop.
In same-fequency paralleling grid, the relationship of active,
node voltage, angle is as follows:
P =
U
p! sin8 (3)
X
2
3
3
.
In (3) or (4), when (d q) precedes U2 ,P ~ 0 , P transfers
fom the leading voltage phase angle terminal to the lagging
voltage phase angle terminal. Therefore, reducing the active
power P transfered by the joint lines of the bilateral systems
can reduce the phase angle diference 8 of the bilateral
voltages. So limit the converter to transfer fom the leading
phase angle side to the lagging phase angle side, and this can
reduce the active power P transfered by the joint lines as
well as the phase agle diference 8 of the bilateral voltages.
According to the fequency, voltage and voltage phase
angle relationship of the awaiting-parallel bilateral systems,
the fow directions of active power and reactive power can be
directly determined: In diferential-fequency paalleling, the
transfer of active power fom the higher fequency side to the
lower fequency side can reduce the fequency diference, and
the transfer of reactive power fom the higher voltage side to
the lower voltage side can reduce the voltage diference. I
same-fequency paralleling, the exchange value of active
power fom the leading phase angle side to the lagging phase
angle side can reduce the phase angle diference, and likewise
the exchange of reactive power fom the higher voltage side to
the lower voltage side can reduce the voltage diference.
The power fow direction is represented by the operational
sign of power, this paper provides that the transfer direction
fom the system to the voltage source converter be taken as
the positive direction and the transfer direction fom the
voltage source converter to the system be taken as the
negative direction.
2) Control of Power Magnitude
The power fow direction can be directly determined based
on the fequency, voltage and phase angle diference of the
bilateral systems, but the power magnitude can not be directly
determined. To the converter control system, only the
fequency and voltage of the awaiting-parallel bilateral
systems can be measured, all the others are unknown, so it is
difcult to directly calculate the required power magnitude
that satisfes the paralleling conditions.
The strategy adopted in this paper is: transfer a relatively
small active power and a relatively small reactive power in
advance, until the system has stabilized; get the chage rates
of active power versus fequency diference, reactive power
versus voltage diference and active power versus phase angle
diference respectively according to the changes of fequency
diference, voltage diference ad phase angle diference, and
fmally calculate the required active power and reactive power
to meet the paallel conditions based on the change rates.
a) Calculation of the required power transferred
by converter in diferential-equenc paralleling.
Firstly, calculate the relative vaing rate, as in (5) and (6):
A
=

fO 4-4
(5)
A
n
-
QI

O
-
AU
-
AU
(6)
o I
k and AOo respectively are active power / chage rate of
fequency diference and reactive power / change rate of
voltage diference; and QI respectively are the smaller
active power and the smaller reactive power mentioned above,
the value can be given through the operating experience of
dispatching center or be set based on practical applications;
Af and Af respectively are the fequency diference before
transfering and the fequency diference afer transfering
; AUo and AUI respectively are the voltage diference
before transferring QI and the voltage diference afer
transferring QI .
When transfering QI ' the voltage of bilateral sides will
change, at the same time transferring , the fequency of
bilateral sides will change also, and both the active and
reactive power absorbed by load will change according to the
change of voltage and fequency. Introduce the coefcient k
to represent the change, and the value of k ca be set
according to power system situations.
b) Te relative change rates are calculated as in (7)
and (8).
The magnitude of the required power are calculated as in (9)
and (10).
p
Pr
f
=
+
AP
f
(4 -
Afre
f
) =
+
k
p
f
A
Af
(4 -
Afr
f
)
(9)
Qrf
=
Q
I
+
A
{ (AUI -AU
rf) =
Q
I
+ kqu
Q
I
(AUI -AU
rf)
AUo -AUI
(10)
Pr
f
and Qr
f
respectively are the required active power and
reactive power to meet the paallel conditions; k i and k
P
gu
respectively are correction coefcients of active power /
change rate of fequency diference and reactive power /
change rate of voltage diference; AP
f
and AQu respectively
are the revised value of active power / change rate of
fequency diference and reactive power / change rate of
voltage diference; tr
f
ad AU r
f
respectively are the
fequency diference expected to achieve and the reference
value of voltage diference, they respectively ae smaller tha
the prescriptive maximum fequency diference and voltage
diference and ca be set according to system needs.
Similarly, in the same-fequency paralleling, the
calculation of reactive power is the same as that in
diferential-fequency paralleling, while the magnitude of the
required active power are calculated as in (11), (12) and (13).
AP -

ph
O
-
Ah - Ah
(11)
AP =k AP =k

(12)
ph p ph
O
p
p
h Ah - Ah
Prf
=
+Ap(t -tf!
=
+kp

(t -t)
th -th
(13)
4
A
ph
O
is active power / change rate of phase angle
diference; k
pph
is active power / correction coefcient of
phase angle diference change rate; AP
p
h
is revised active
power / change rate of phase angle diference; APhre
f
is
reference value of the phase angle diference expected to
achieve, it is smaller than the prescriptive maximum phase
angle diference in the parallel conditions, and can be set
according to system needs.
D. Control Strateg of Converters on Bilateral Sides
Through the calculation above, it gets the magnitude and
fow direction of the required power, then it should control the
converter to transfer the required power. According to the
mathematical model structure of three-phase VSC in the two
phase synchronous reference fame (d q) , for the symmetric
three-phase AC system, in order to facilitate the independent
control of active and reactive power on three-phase VSC AC
side, let the initial reference direction of axis q coincide with
the grid voltage vector U , then axis q represents the
reference axis of active component, and ais d represents the
reference axis of reactive component.
The control goal of the entire converter system is
accomplishing independent control of the active and reactive
power transferred between the awaiting-parallel bilateral
systems. Since the active power transfer between the awaiting
parallel bilateral systems must keep balance, so there is only
one reference value of active power. And the active power
keeps balance between the AC side ad DC side of converter,
so by controlling the voltage or current of DC side to control
the active power. However, the reactive power keeps balance
between the AC side of converter and the AC system, and the
capacitor on DC side does not required to participate, the
reactive power of bilateral sides can be independently
controlled, so there are two reference values of reactive power
[13].
The basic control methods of converter mainly are constant
DC voltage control, constat active power control, constant
reactive power control and constant AC voltage control, etc.
To insure the active power balance of transmission system and
DC voltage stability, the converter station on one side must
adopt the constant DC voltage control, while the converter
station on the other side should adopt the constant active
power contol or constant AC voltage control which is
determined by whether the active AC system or the reactive
AC network it links with [14]. In this paper, the back-to-back
converter on one side controls by the constant active power
and reactive power, and the converter on the other side
controls by the constant DC voltage ad reactive power.
L Control of Circuit Breakr Closing at Parallel Point
In differential-fequency paralleling, under the premise that
the fequency difference and voltage difference meet the
parallel conditions, when the phase angle diference is equal
to the leading angle before zero-crossing, give the order of
circuit breaker closing ; In same fequency paralleling, the
order of circuit breaker closing can be given at any moment if
only the fequency diference and voltage difference meet the
parallel conditions.
As the grid parallel is a ver important operation, the
improper operation will badly impact on power grids, even
cause system oscillation. Therefore, the closing and locking
measures must be taken, and the locking requirements are
stringent, the locking conditions mainly are the voltage
difference locking, the fequency difference locking, the
fequency difference change rate locking and the phase angle
difference locking.
IV. SIMULATION VALIDATION
Take the differential-fequency paralleling as an example,
the simulation schematic circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3.
+ht6I
.
::tv
---

---
t )-f

f
'
A A
'
- --

---
Hl H
:tv
'
Figure 3. Schematic circuit diagram of diferential-fequency paralleling
A. Converter Once Transfers Required Power for Grid
Parallel
The main parameters of the awaiting-parallel system S 1 are
as follows: generator /,1 0.026Hz , U
N
= 13.8kV ; exciter
Vr! = 1.01 ; hydraulic turbine and its goveror Or! = 1.2 ;
transforer T:
13.8/ l21kV
,
120MVA
,
H_ =10.5%
;
transmission line L : R = lQ , L = 0.0191H ; load :
P = 45MW , Q2 =!. (U1-
U2
)
, a=1.5 , 0
X
L
k
p! = 0.1, k
q
=
-
O.I.The main parameters of the awaiting
parallel system S2 are the same as that of S 1 except: exciter
Vre! = 1.0 ; hydraulic turbine and its goveror Ore! = 0.9 ;
load: P = 75MW, Qo = 54Mva .
In the back-to-back voltage source converter, the VSC that
links S 1 adopts the constant active power and reactive power
control, VSC that lins S2 adopts the constant DC voltage and
constant reactive power control. In the content below, the
reference values of active power and reactive power ae all the
5
power reference value of VSC on side Sl, the power reference
value of VSC on side S2 is of the same value but opposite
direction. The parameters of PI in the control system are:
KiP = 5 , Kif = 0.0002s , Kvp = 1.5 , Kv
I
= 0.03s .The
simulation Kvp = 1.5 results are shown in Figure 4.
O S1
D.

OO
,
)
D
| 1 1 1 1
25 5 75 10 125 15
(a) active power transfer between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
O S1
D



>
--e

| t 1 t 1 \
25 5 75 100 125 150
(b) reactive power transfer between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
S1
5.25
5.5

5.0

4.75
4.5
(c) fequency of the awaiting- parallel bilateral systems

>
JJ.
C
1JZ.
<
E
JJ.

I I
Z m r
(d) system voltage on bilateral sides of parallel point
:o
:a
:o
(e) fequency difference between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
(f system voltage difference between bilateral sides of
parallel point
1 1
12 15
(g) phase angle difference between bilateral voltages of
parallel point
Figure 4. Simulation results of diferential-fequency paralleling
The Figure 4 reveals that when t = 25s , the bilateral
systems are basically stable, the active power Ptransferred
by system Sl is about 48.94MW, the reactive power Q
SI
is
about
36.01Mvar
, the fequency lSI is about 50.072Hz, the
voltage USI at the parallel point is about 116.06kV ; the
active power P2 transfered by system S2 is about
76.08MW , the reactive power 49.576Hz is about
69.06Mvar , the fequency IS2 is about 49.938Hz , the
voltage US2 at the parallel point is about llO.50kV . // is
about 0.134Hz , /Uo is 5.56kV . Assuing the
synchronization
4 O.l%! =0.05H
parallel conditions
/U 4 %U n = 4.4kV
are
apparently neither the fequency difference or the voltage
difference meets the synchronization parallel conditions.
When t = 40s , start up the back-to-back voltage source
converter, according to the fequency and voltage of the
bilateral systems, it can ascertain that the transfer direction of
active power and reactive power is fom system S 1 to system
S2, control the back-to-back voltage source converter to
transfer a relatively small
1
and a relatively small Q
I
postulated in advance.
1
and Q
I
both are assumed as l.OM .
When t = 65s , the bilateral systems tend to stabilize, all the
parameters of bilateral systems are in table .
Set k
p
f = 1.2 kqu = 1.0 /U rf = 0.2kV
/U rf = O.2kV , calculate the required active power and
reactive power to satisf the synchronization parallel
conditions and get
le
f = 4.33 MW and
Qref = 7.68Mvar
When t = 65s , control the converter to transfer le
f and
Qref
'
TABLE I
When = 65s the parameters of bilateral systems
parameters
P
U
J
U
o||atera|s,stems
S,

' 49.88MW
U
"37.I3Mvar
J
=50.053Hz
U=115.70kV
S
:
:
=75.28MW
Us:
=67.88Mvar
_
:
=49.951Hz
U
s:
11O.59kV
6
o||atera|s,stems
parameters
S,

S
:
diference ^=0.102Hz, ^U=5.lIkV
When t = 90s , the bilateral systems tend to stabilize again,
all the paraeters of bilateral systems are in table .
TABLE
When = 90s the parameters of bilateral systems
parameters
P
U
J
U
diference
o||atera|s,stems
S,
P=52.59MW
Us.
=44.68Mvar
Js.
=50.0 I 6Hz
U
s.
=114.76kV
S
:
:
=73.16MW
Us:
"61.10Mvar
_
:
=49.990Hz
U
s:
' II L78kV
^=0.026Hz, ^U
:
=2.98kV
Apparently here the fequency dIfference and the voltage
difference meet the synchonization parallel conditions, but
the phase angle diference of the bilateral voltages is
about
-
114 , it needs wait the slip to cross zero. Here it
doesn't consider the tripping relay actuation time and circuit
breaker closing time, therefore lettYJ = Os , and tYJ = Os will
not affect the simulation, indeed in practice tYJ is unequal to
zero. Figure 4(g) shows that when t = 103s, a slip crosses
zero, check again whether the fequency difference and the
voltage difference meet the parallel conditions when the phase
angle difference is zero, if the conditions are met, give the
closing order to close circuit breaker of parallel point.
Otherwise, recalculate the required power and retransfer until
the fequency diference, the voltage difference and the phase
angle difference meet the parallel conditions, close circuit
breaker of parallel point to complete the parallel operation,
and then exit the back-to-back voltage source converter.
However, Figure 4(c) and (e) display that when t = 65s ,to
trasfer the required power at the same time will have impact
on the system, the fequency lSI of system S 1 dops to the
lowest 49.576Hz ,and the fequency 1S2 of system S2 rises to
the highest 50.460Hz ,if the transferred power is higher, the
impact will be greater. In order to reduce the impact of power
transfer on the system, adopt the successively increasing
transfer method, i.e. the transferred power is larger at regular
intervals each time, fnally to reach the value of required
power. Take the thrice increasing transfer as an example to
analyze.
The simulation circuit and its parameters remain the same.
When t 65s , the situation is the same as that of fll
trasfer at the same time, afer calculation and getting that
le
f = 4.33 MW and
Qref = 7.68Mvar , controlling the back-to-
back converter to transfer power increasingly in three times.
When t = 65s , the transfered power I equals
1
plus
1
/
3
(lef
-1)
,i.e. I =
1 +
1
/
3
(lef
-1)
,similarly
Q
21
=
Q
I + 13
(Qref -
Q
I
) ; Afer !\5. i.e. when t = 75s , the
transfered power P
22
equals
l
l plus 13
(
Pr! - ) ,i.e.
l2 =
+
2/3
(
Pr! - ) ,similarly
Q22 = QI +
2/3
(Qre! -QI)
;
when t = 85s, l3 = le!
' Q23 = Q
r!
'
The simulation results
are shown in Figure 5.
os D.
or-
86

ta

<-
0
4
1 1 1 1 1 1
:: t: ::
(a) active power transfer between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
S1 D.

G-
'
8
>

C
i i i i i i
25 5 75 10 125 15
(b) reactive power transfer between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
S1
D.
5.5
5.25
N e-- -
:
49.75
49.5
i i i i I I
25 5 75 10 125 15
(c) fequency of the awaiting- parallel bilateral systems
11
7

:
115. 0
C
112.5
O
O

110. 0

| t 1 1 1 1
25 5
7
5 10 125 15
(d) system voltage on bilateral sides of parallel point
aaa
asa
aaa
(e) fequency difference between the awaiting- parallel
bilateral systems
a
_
:
aa
_ _
7
(f system voltage difference between bilateral sides of
parallel point
aa
-Z
t:
(g) phase angle difference between bilateral voltages of
parallel point
Figure 5. Simulation results of diferential-frequency paralleling based on
successively increasing power
Figure 5( c) reveals that the fequency lSI of system S 1
drops to the lowest 49.867Hz ,and the fequency ,
,
of
system S2 rises to the highest 50.l25Hz , compared with the
one-time fll power transfer in Figure 5( c), apparently the
successively increasing power transfer has a much smaller
impact on system, if the power is transferred in more times,
the impact will be even smaller. But reducing the impact is at
the cost of time, each one more power transfer will cost more
time, while the power system is a constantly changing system,
the extension of time will be detrimental to the grid paralleling.
V. CONCLUSION
To transfer the active power and reactive power between
the awaiting-parallel bilateral systems via the back-to-back
voltage source converter can adjust the fequency difference,
voltage difference and phase angle difference between
bilateral systems, and make the bilateral systems rapidly meet
the synchronization parallel conditions to complete the
parallel operation. The simulation results show that during
power transfer, adopting the strategy of fll power transfer at
the same time can complete the parallel in the shortest time
but may have great impact on the system. However adopting
the strategy of successively increasing power transfer can
reduce the impact on the system, but the time of parallel is
relatively long. In practice, which strategy to be adopted
depends on the specifc application occasions, the shock
resistance of system, the requirements of parallel speed, the
load variation during paralleling and many other factors
should be taken into comprehensive consideration.
VI. REFERENCES
Periodicals:
[I] Li Gengyin, Lu Pengfei, et a, "Development and Prospects for HVDe
Light," Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol .27,on .4, pp. 77-
81,2003.
[2] L Ronstrm, B D Railing, J J Miller, et ai," Cross sound cable project
second generation VSC technology for HVDC," Pais: Cigre Session, pp.
B4-102, 2004.
[3] Johansson S G, Asplund G, J asson E, et ai, "Power system stability
benefts with VSC DC transmission systems," Paris: Cigre Session, pp.
B4-204, 2004.
[4] Hyttinen M, Laell J 0, Nestli T F, "New application of voltage
source converter (VSC)HVDC to be installed on the gas platform Troll
A," Paris: Cigre Session, pp. B4-21O, 2004.
[5] ZHAG Gui-bin , XU Zheng, WAG Guang-zhu., "Steady-state
Model And Its Nonlinear Control of VSC-HVDC System," .Proceeding
of the CSEE, vol .22,on .I,pp. 17-22, 2002.
[6] LI Guang-kai, et ai, "Control Strategy for VSC-HVDC System Under
Unsymetry of Three Phase Voltae," Power System Technology,
vol .29,on .16, pp. 16-20, 2005.
[7] Zhao Chengyong, Li Jinfeng, Li Guangkai, "VSC-HVDC Control
Straegy Based on Respective Adjustment of Active And Reactive
Power," Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol .29,on .5, pp. 20-
24, 2005
[8] HU Zhao-qing, MAO Cheng-xiong, LU Ji-ming , "Application of A
Novel Optimal Coordinated Control to HVDC Light ," Proceedings of
the CSEE, vol .25,on .8,25(8) pp. 41-49, 2005.
[9] Y Ming ,LI Geng-yin,NIU Tong-yi,et aI., "Continuous-Time State
Space Model of VSC-HVDC and Its Control Strategy,".Proceeding of
the CSEE, vol .25,on .18, pp. 34-39.,2005.
[10] Liu Jiajun, Yao Lixiao, He Changhong, Wu Tiasen., "Research on
rapid power grid synchronization parallel operation system," Asia
Pacifc Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, 2009.
[II] LIU Jia-jun,WU Tian-sen,CUI Zhi-guo,et a., "A Compound System of
Power Grid Synchroniz-ation Based on STATCOM," Automation of
Electric Power Systems, vol .33,on .18, pp. 87-91. , 2009.
[l2] CHEN Hai-rong, ZHAG Jing, PA Wu-Iue., "Stat-up Control ofVSC
Based on HVDC System ,"High Voltage Engineering, vol .35,on . 5, pp.
1164-1169,2009.
[13] YA Ga-gui, CHEN Tao, M Gang,et aI., "Dynaic Modeling ad
Nonlinear-Decouple Control of HVDC Light System," Power System
Technology, vol .3l,on .6,pp. 45-50 ,2007.
[14] Bahrma M P, Johasson J G, Nilsson B A, "Voltage source converter
trasmission technologies-the right ft for the aplication," IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, pp .1840-1847, Mach 2003.
VII. BIOGRAPHIES
1|ajaaL|a(M'1967,F'II) was bor in Shiqua County in Shaaxi Province ,
China, on February II, 1967. Associate professor
ad master tutor in Xi'an University of Technology.,
He received B. Sc ad M.Sc degree from East China
Jiaotong University in June 1989 and Xi'an
Jiaotong University in June 2002 respectively. His
current reseach interest is power system operation
and control and relay protection.
Yeag 1aag (M'1959) was bor in Fujia Province, China, in 1959. He
received B.Sc degree fom Fuzhou University in
1982 ad M.Sc and Ph.D degree from the Graduate
School of China Electric Power Reseach Institute
(CEPR!) in 1984 ad 2002 respectively, all in
electrical engineering. He is chief engineer of CEPR!.
His reseach interests are in power system modeling,
simulation and analysis.
Saa uaadeag (M'1975, A'23) was bor in Weifag city in Shadong
Province, China, on April 23, 1975. He is a 5BHlUI
engineer in the power system analysis ad control
depatment of China Electric Power Research
Institute (CEPR!), Beijing of China. He received his
M.E. degree from Shadong University in 200 I ad
Ph. D. degree from the EPR! of China in 2005. His
current research interest is power system aalysis
and control.
8
Me|jaaaXae(F'1981, D'25) was bor in Xingping City in Shaaxi Province,
China, on December 25, 1981. She graduated fom
the major of electric power system & automation;
she received B. Sc and M.Sc degree in June 2004
ad April 2007 from Xi'a University of
Technology respectively.
80 L|a (M'1987, 1'24) was bor in Shiquan County in Shaanxi Province ,
China , on January 24, 1987. He received B. Sc
degree from XIDIA University in June 2009.Now
he is a graduate student at Xi'a University of
Technology.