O

AU

AU
(6)
o I
k and AOo respectively are active power / chage rate of
fequency diference and reactive power / change rate of
voltage diference; and QI respectively are the smaller
active power and the smaller reactive power mentioned above,
the value can be given through the operating experience of
dispatching center or be set based on practical applications;
Af and Af respectively are the fequency diference before
transfering and the fequency diference afer transfering
; AUo and AUI respectively are the voltage diference
before transferring QI and the voltage diference afer
transferring QI .
When transfering QI ' the voltage of bilateral sides will
change, at the same time transferring , the fequency of
bilateral sides will change also, and both the active and
reactive power absorbed by load will change according to the
change of voltage and fequency. Introduce the coefcient k
to represent the change, and the value of k ca be set
according to power system situations.
b) Te relative change rates are calculated as in (7)
and (8).
The magnitude of the required power are calculated as in (9)
and (10).
p
Pr
f
=
+
AP
f
(4 
Afre
f
) =
+
k
p
f
A
Af
(4 
Afr
f
)
(9)
Qrf
=
Q
I
+
A
{ (AUI AU
rf) =
Q
I
+ kqu
Q
I
(AUI AU
rf)
AUo AUI
(10)
Pr
f
and Qr
f
respectively are the required active power and
reactive power to meet the paallel conditions; k i and k
P
gu
respectively are correction coefcients of active power /
change rate of fequency diference and reactive power /
change rate of voltage diference; AP
f
and AQu respectively
are the revised value of active power / change rate of
fequency diference and reactive power / change rate of
voltage diference; tr
f
ad AU r
f
respectively are the
fequency diference expected to achieve and the reference
value of voltage diference, they respectively ae smaller tha
the prescriptive maximum fequency diference and voltage
diference and ca be set according to system needs.
Similarly, in the samefequency paralleling, the
calculation of reactive power is the same as that in
diferentialfequency paralleling, while the magnitude of the
required active power are calculated as in (11), (12) and (13).
AP 
ph
O

Ah  Ah
(11)
AP =k AP =k
(12)
ph p ph
O
p
p
h Ah  Ah
Prf
=
+Ap(t tf!
=
+kp
(t t)
th th
(13)
4
A
ph
O
is active power / change rate of phase angle
diference; k
pph
is active power / correction coefcient of
phase angle diference change rate; AP
p
h
is revised active
power / change rate of phase angle diference; APhre
f
is
reference value of the phase angle diference expected to
achieve, it is smaller than the prescriptive maximum phase
angle diference in the parallel conditions, and can be set
according to system needs.
D. Control Strateg of Converters on Bilateral Sides
Through the calculation above, it gets the magnitude and
fow direction of the required power, then it should control the
converter to transfer the required power. According to the
mathematical model structure of threephase VSC in the two
phase synchronous reference fame (d q) , for the symmetric
threephase AC system, in order to facilitate the independent
control of active and reactive power on threephase VSC AC
side, let the initial reference direction of axis q coincide with
the grid voltage vector U , then axis q represents the
reference axis of active component, and ais d represents the
reference axis of reactive component.
The control goal of the entire converter system is
accomplishing independent control of the active and reactive
power transferred between the awaitingparallel bilateral
systems. Since the active power transfer between the awaiting
parallel bilateral systems must keep balance, so there is only
one reference value of active power. And the active power
keeps balance between the AC side ad DC side of converter,
so by controlling the voltage or current of DC side to control
the active power. However, the reactive power keeps balance
between the AC side of converter and the AC system, and the
capacitor on DC side does not required to participate, the
reactive power of bilateral sides can be independently
controlled, so there are two reference values of reactive power
[13].
The basic control methods of converter mainly are constant
DC voltage control, constat active power control, constant
reactive power control and constant AC voltage control, etc.
To insure the active power balance of transmission system and
DC voltage stability, the converter station on one side must
adopt the constant DC voltage control, while the converter
station on the other side should adopt the constant active
power contol or constant AC voltage control which is
determined by whether the active AC system or the reactive
AC network it links with [14]. In this paper, the backtoback
converter on one side controls by the constant active power
and reactive power, and the converter on the other side
controls by the constant DC voltage ad reactive power.
L Control of Circuit Breakr Closing at Parallel Point
In differentialfequency paralleling, under the premise that
the fequency difference and voltage difference meet the
parallel conditions, when the phase angle diference is equal
to the leading angle before zerocrossing, give the order of
circuit breaker closing ; In same fequency paralleling, the
order of circuit breaker closing can be given at any moment if
only the fequency diference and voltage difference meet the
parallel conditions.
As the grid parallel is a ver important operation, the
improper operation will badly impact on power grids, even
cause system oscillation. Therefore, the closing and locking
measures must be taken, and the locking requirements are
stringent, the locking conditions mainly are the voltage
difference locking, the fequency difference locking, the
fequency difference change rate locking and the phase angle
difference locking.
IV. SIMULATION VALIDATION
Take the differentialfequency paralleling as an example,
the simulation schematic circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3.
+ht6I
.
::tv


t )f
f
'
A A
'
 

Hl H
:tv
'
Figure 3. Schematic circuit diagram of diferentialfequency paralleling
A. Converter Once Transfers Required Power for Grid
Parallel
The main parameters of the awaitingparallel system S 1 are
as follows: generator /,1 0.026Hz , U
N
= 13.8kV ; exciter
Vr! = 1.01 ; hydraulic turbine and its goveror Or! = 1.2 ;
transforer T:
13.8/ l21kV
,
120MVA
,
H_ =10.5%
;
transmission line L : R = lQ , L = 0.0191H ; load :
P = 45MW , Q2 =!. (U1
U2
)
, a=1.5 , 0
X
L
k
p! = 0.1, k
q
=

O.I.The main parameters of the awaiting
parallel system S2 are the same as that of S 1 except: exciter
Vre! = 1.0 ; hydraulic turbine and its goveror Ore! = 0.9 ;
load: P = 75MW, Qo = 54Mva .
In the backtoback voltage source converter, the VSC that
links S 1 adopts the constant active power and reactive power
control, VSC that lins S2 adopts the constant DC voltage and
constant reactive power control. In the content below, the
reference values of active power and reactive power ae all the
5
power reference value of VSC on side Sl, the power reference
value of VSC on side S2 is of the same value but opposite
direction. The parameters of PI in the control system are:
KiP = 5 , Kif = 0.0002s , Kvp = 1.5 , Kv
I
= 0.03s .The
simulation Kvp = 1.5 results are shown in Figure 4.
O S1
D.
OO
,
)
D
 1 1 1 1
25 5 75 10 125 15
(a) active power transfer between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
O S1
D
>
e
 t 1 t 1 \
25 5 75 100 125 150
(b) reactive power transfer between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
S1
5.25
5.5
5.0
4.75
4.5
(c) fequency of the awaiting parallel bilateral systems
>
JJ.
C
1JZ.
<
E
JJ.
I I
Z m r
(d) system voltage on bilateral sides of parallel point
:o
:a
:o
(e) fequency difference between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
(f system voltage difference between bilateral sides of
parallel point
1 1
12 15
(g) phase angle difference between bilateral voltages of
parallel point
Figure 4. Simulation results of diferentialfequency paralleling
The Figure 4 reveals that when t = 25s , the bilateral
systems are basically stable, the active power Ptransferred
by system Sl is about 48.94MW, the reactive power Q
SI
is
about
36.01Mvar
, the fequency lSI is about 50.072Hz, the
voltage USI at the parallel point is about 116.06kV ; the
active power P2 transfered by system S2 is about
76.08MW , the reactive power 49.576Hz is about
69.06Mvar , the fequency IS2 is about 49.938Hz , the
voltage US2 at the parallel point is about llO.50kV . // is
about 0.134Hz , /Uo is 5.56kV . Assuing the
synchronization
4 O.l%! =0.05H
parallel conditions
/U 4 %U n = 4.4kV
are
apparently neither the fequency difference or the voltage
difference meets the synchronization parallel conditions.
When t = 40s , start up the backtoback voltage source
converter, according to the fequency and voltage of the
bilateral systems, it can ascertain that the transfer direction of
active power and reactive power is fom system S 1 to system
S2, control the backtoback voltage source converter to
transfer a relatively small
1
and a relatively small Q
I
postulated in advance.
1
and Q
I
both are assumed as l.OM .
When t = 65s , the bilateral systems tend to stabilize, all the
parameters of bilateral systems are in table .
Set k
p
f = 1.2 kqu = 1.0 /U rf = 0.2kV
/U rf = O.2kV , calculate the required active power and
reactive power to satisf the synchronization parallel
conditions and get
le
f = 4.33 MW and
Qref = 7.68Mvar
When t = 65s , control the converter to transfer le
f and
Qref
'
TABLE I
When = 65s the parameters of bilateral systems
parameters
P
U
J
U
oateras,stems
S,
' 49.88MW
U
"37.I3Mvar
J
=50.053Hz
U=115.70kV
S
:
:
=75.28MW
Us:
=67.88Mvar
_
:
=49.951Hz
U
s:
11O.59kV
6
oateras,stems
parameters
S,
S
:
diference ^=0.102Hz, ^U=5.lIkV
When t = 90s , the bilateral systems tend to stabilize again,
all the paraeters of bilateral systems are in table .
TABLE
When = 90s the parameters of bilateral systems
parameters
P
U
J
U
diference
oateras,stems
S,
P=52.59MW
Us.
=44.68Mvar
Js.
=50.0 I 6Hz
U
s.
=114.76kV
S
:
:
=73.16MW
Us:
"61.10Mvar
_
:
=49.990Hz
U
s:
' II L78kV
^=0.026Hz, ^U
:
=2.98kV
Apparently here the fequency dIfference and the voltage
difference meet the synchonization parallel conditions, but
the phase angle diference of the bilateral voltages is
about

114 , it needs wait the slip to cross zero. Here it
doesn't consider the tripping relay actuation time and circuit
breaker closing time, therefore lettYJ = Os , and tYJ = Os will
not affect the simulation, indeed in practice tYJ is unequal to
zero. Figure 4(g) shows that when t = 103s, a slip crosses
zero, check again whether the fequency difference and the
voltage difference meet the parallel conditions when the phase
angle difference is zero, if the conditions are met, give the
closing order to close circuit breaker of parallel point.
Otherwise, recalculate the required power and retransfer until
the fequency diference, the voltage difference and the phase
angle difference meet the parallel conditions, close circuit
breaker of parallel point to complete the parallel operation,
and then exit the backtoback voltage source converter.
However, Figure 4(c) and (e) display that when t = 65s ,to
trasfer the required power at the same time will have impact
on the system, the fequency lSI of system S 1 dops to the
lowest 49.576Hz ,and the fequency 1S2 of system S2 rises to
the highest 50.460Hz ,if the transferred power is higher, the
impact will be greater. In order to reduce the impact of power
transfer on the system, adopt the successively increasing
transfer method, i.e. the transferred power is larger at regular
intervals each time, fnally to reach the value of required
power. Take the thrice increasing transfer as an example to
analyze.
The simulation circuit and its parameters remain the same.
When t 65s , the situation is the same as that of fll
trasfer at the same time, afer calculation and getting that
le
f = 4.33 MW and
Qref = 7.68Mvar , controlling the backto
back converter to transfer power increasingly in three times.
When t = 65s , the transfered power I equals
1
plus
1
/
3
(lef
1)
,i.e. I =
1 +
1
/
3
(lef
1)
,similarly
Q
21
=
Q
I + 13
(Qref 
Q
I
) ; Afer !\5. i.e. when t = 75s , the
transfered power P
22
equals
l
l plus 13
(
Pr!  ) ,i.e.
l2 =
+
2/3
(
Pr!  ) ,similarly
Q22 = QI +
2/3
(Qre! QI)
;
when t = 85s, l3 = le!
' Q23 = Q
r!
'
The simulation results
are shown in Figure 5.
os D.
or
86
ta
<
0
4
1 1 1 1 1 1
:: t: ::
(a) active power transfer between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
S1 D.
G
'
8
>
C
i i i i i i
25 5 75 10 125 15
(b) reactive power transfer between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
S1
D.
5.5
5.25
N e 
:
49.75
49.5
i i i i I I
25 5 75 10 125 15
(c) fequency of the awaiting parallel bilateral systems
11
7
:
115. 0
C
112.5
O
O
110. 0
 t 1 1 1 1
25 5
7
5 10 125 15
(d) system voltage on bilateral sides of parallel point
aaa
asa
aaa
(e) fequency difference between the awaiting parallel
bilateral systems
a
_
:
aa
_ _
7
(f system voltage difference between bilateral sides of
parallel point
aa
Z
t:
(g) phase angle difference between bilateral voltages of
parallel point
Figure 5. Simulation results of diferentialfrequency paralleling based on
successively increasing power
Figure 5( c) reveals that the fequency lSI of system S 1
drops to the lowest 49.867Hz ,and the fequency ,
,
of
system S2 rises to the highest 50.l25Hz , compared with the
onetime fll power transfer in Figure 5( c), apparently the
successively increasing power transfer has a much smaller
impact on system, if the power is transferred in more times,
the impact will be even smaller. But reducing the impact is at
the cost of time, each one more power transfer will cost more
time, while the power system is a constantly changing system,
the extension of time will be detrimental to the grid paralleling.
V. CONCLUSION
To transfer the active power and reactive power between
the awaitingparallel bilateral systems via the backtoback
voltage source converter can adjust the fequency difference,
voltage difference and phase angle difference between
bilateral systems, and make the bilateral systems rapidly meet
the synchronization parallel conditions to complete the
parallel operation. The simulation results show that during
power transfer, adopting the strategy of fll power transfer at
the same time can complete the parallel in the shortest time
but may have great impact on the system. However adopting
the strategy of successively increasing power transfer can
reduce the impact on the system, but the time of parallel is
relatively long. In practice, which strategy to be adopted
depends on the specifc application occasions, the shock
resistance of system, the requirements of parallel speed, the
load variation during paralleling and many other factors
should be taken into comprehensive consideration.
VI. REFERENCES
Periodicals:
[I] Li Gengyin, Lu Pengfei, et a, "Development and Prospects for HVDe
Light," Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol .27,on .4, pp. 77
81,2003.
[2] L Ronstrm, B D Railing, J J Miller, et ai," Cross sound cable project
second generation VSC technology for HVDC," Pais: Cigre Session, pp.
B4102, 2004.
[3] Johansson S G, Asplund G, J asson E, et ai, "Power system stability
benefts with VSC DC transmission systems," Paris: Cigre Session, pp.
B4204, 2004.
[4] Hyttinen M, Laell J 0, Nestli T F, "New application of voltage
source converter (VSC)HVDC to be installed on the gas platform Troll
A," Paris: Cigre Session, pp. B421O, 2004.
[5] ZHAG Guibin , XU Zheng, WAG Guangzhu., "Steadystate
Model And Its Nonlinear Control of VSCHVDC System," .Proceeding
of the CSEE, vol .22,on .I,pp. 1722, 2002.
[6] LI Guangkai, et ai, "Control Strategy for VSCHVDC System Under
Unsymetry of Three Phase Voltae," Power System Technology,
vol .29,on .16, pp. 1620, 2005.
[7] Zhao Chengyong, Li Jinfeng, Li Guangkai, "VSCHVDC Control
Straegy Based on Respective Adjustment of Active And Reactive
Power," Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol .29,on .5, pp. 20
24, 2005
[8] HU Zhaoqing, MAO Chengxiong, LU Jiming , "Application of A
Novel Optimal Coordinated Control to HVDC Light ," Proceedings of
the CSEE, vol .25,on .8,25(8) pp. 4149, 2005.
[9] Y Ming ,LI Gengyin,NIU Tongyi,et aI., "ContinuousTime State
Space Model of VSCHVDC and Its Control Strategy,".Proceeding of
the CSEE, vol .25,on .18, pp. 3439.,2005.
[10] Liu Jiajun, Yao Lixiao, He Changhong, Wu Tiasen., "Research on
rapid power grid synchronization parallel operation system," Asia
Pacifc Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China, 2009.
[II] LIU Jiajun,WU Tiansen,CUI Zhiguo,et a., "A Compound System of
Power Grid Synchronization Based on STATCOM," Automation of
Electric Power Systems, vol .33,on .18, pp. 8791. , 2009.
[l2] CHEN Hairong, ZHAG Jing, PA WuIue., "Statup Control ofVSC
Based on HVDC System ,"High Voltage Engineering, vol .35,on . 5, pp.
11641169,2009.
[13] YA Gagui, CHEN Tao, M Gang,et aI., "Dynaic Modeling ad
NonlinearDecouple Control of HVDC Light System," Power System
Technology, vol .3l,on .6,pp. 4550 ,2007.
[14] Bahrma M P, Johasson J G, Nilsson B A, "Voltage source converter
trasmission technologiesthe right ft for the aplication," IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, pp .18401847, Mach 2003.
VII. BIOGRAPHIES
1ajaaLa(M'1967,F'II) was bor in Shiqua County in Shaaxi Province ,
China, on February II, 1967. Associate professor
ad master tutor in Xi'an University of Technology.,
He received B. Sc ad M.Sc degree from East China
Jiaotong University in June 1989 and Xi'an
Jiaotong University in June 2002 respectively. His
current reseach interest is power system operation
and control and relay protection.
Yeag 1aag (M'1959) was bor in Fujia Province, China, in 1959. He
received B.Sc degree fom Fuzhou University in
1982 ad M.Sc and Ph.D degree from the Graduate
School of China Electric Power Reseach Institute
(CEPR!) in 1984 ad 2002 respectively, all in
electrical engineering. He is chief engineer of CEPR!.
His reseach interests are in power system modeling,
simulation and analysis.
Saa uaadeag (M'1975, A'23) was bor in Weifag city in Shadong
Province, China, on April 23, 1975. He is a 5BHlUI
engineer in the power system analysis ad control
depatment of China Electric Power Research
Institute (CEPR!), Beijing of China. He received his
M.E. degree from Shadong University in 200 I ad
Ph. D. degree from the EPR! of China in 2005. His
current research interest is power system aalysis
and control.
8
MejaaaXae(F'1981, D'25) was bor in Xingping City in Shaaxi Province,
China, on December 25, 1981. She graduated fom
the major of electric power system & automation;
she received B. Sc and M.Sc degree in June 2004
ad April 2007 from Xi'a University of
Technology respectively.
80 La (M'1987, 1'24) was bor in Shiquan County in Shaanxi Province ,
China , on January 24, 1987. He received B. Sc
degree from XIDIA University in June 2009.Now
he is a graduate student at Xi'a University of
Technology.
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