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experiences that he can utilize in motivating them.

He must know the adjustments children have to make at various stages of development: the physical, emotional, and social problems they face in growing up. He must develop the special skills needed in gathering information about children. c. Understanding of teaching principles and skills in the use of techniques for their implementation. Present-day teaching demands that a teacher must possess a general understanding of other branches of knowledge. If a teacher expects to help children understand and appreciate the world they live in, he must understand the interrelation and interdependence of the various areas of knowledge. Children at present have a wide range of interests, background, experiences, and abilities. d. understanding and appreciation of the teaching profession. The degree of a teachers success depends to a great extent on his attitude towards his job. Teaching involves varied relationships among various individuals. A teacher must know how to work effectively, not only with pupils but also with all other persons involved in the school. He must be aware of the value of high ethical professional relationships. Vanhus (1998) pointed out that an integrated applications program requires instructors to perform three critical responsibilitiesdiagnose, prescribe, and evaluate. Diagnose student skills and needs. Trying to make all students fit the traditional mold is analogous to giving everybody two aspirins regardless of whether

they a have a headache or not. Students come from diverse backgrounds, bringing with them varying levels of skills, and having a wide range of career objectives. Prescribe instructional activities that build on strengths and shore up weaknesses. To maximize learning, instruction must be tailored to avoid duplicating skills that have been mastered and providing additional time to build skills in areas of deficiencies. Instruction should also be tailored to meet career objectives. Some career objectives require in-depth skills in word processing and basic skills using spreadsheet applications, whereas other career objectives require in-depth skill using spreadsheet applications and basic word processing skills. Evaluate student progress. Evaluation completes the cycle and provides the basis for determining if students have mastered the material taught and can move on, or if they need to recycle the activities. An instructor who keeps abreast of trends, understands their implications, and designs an instructional program, ensures that graduates develop lifetime employability skills that have a relevant and successful keyboarding/office technology program. According to Lawman (1998), the success of teaching depends on the teacher whose competencies are divided into three main groups: personal quality what the teacher must be; competencieswhat the teacher must be able to do; and behavior controlwhat the teacher must now. Stem (2006) expressed that there are three key dimensions of work climate: (1) clarityan environment provides clarity when the group knows its roles and

responsibilities within the overall organization; (2) supportin a supportive environment, staff members feel that they have the resources and backing the need to achieve the work groups goal; (3) challengean environment of challenge offers group members opportunities to test their abilities, take reasonable risks in solving problems, and discover new ways of working to become more effective. According to her, all three dimensions are needed to improve performance. Lindahl (2007) stated that large-scale organizational improvement does not occur in a vacuum or sterile environment. It occurs in human systems, organizations, with existing beliefs, assumptions, expectations, norms, and values, idiosyncratic to individual members of those organizations and shared among them. These shared cultural traits and individual perceptions of climate can greatly affect the school improvement process. Mayer and Aller (1999) identified three mindsets that can characterize an employees commitment to the organization: Affective Commitment. This is defined as the employees positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed is strongly aware of the goals of the organization and desirous to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he wants to. Continuance Commitment. The individual commits to the organization because he perceives high costs of losing organizational membership,

including economic costs (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers), which could be incurred. Normative Commitment. The individual commits to and remans with an organization because of feelings of obligation that may be derived from many sources. These components of commitment are not mutually exclusive: an employee can simultaneously be committed to the organization in an affective, normative, and continuance sense at varying levels of intensity. Mayer and Herscovitch (2003) argued that at any point in time, an employee has a commitment profile that reflects high or low levels of all three of the mindsets identified by Meyer and Aller, and that different profiles have different effects on workplace behavior like job performance, absenteeism, and the chance that the organization member will quit. Robbins (1999) emphasized that job performance may be viewed as function, the capacity to perform, the opportunity to perform, and the willingness to perform. Capacity to perform relates to the degree to which an individual possesses task relevant skills, abilities, knowledge, and experiences. Unless an employee knows what is supposed to be done and how to do it, high levels of job performance are not possible. Tranverns (1999) agreed with Robbins by maintaining that performance is greatly a product of individual skills. The talented people are more capable of higher levels of performance than those individuals who are less able. Supervisors should, therefore, seek out high quality performers if they want to have high-performing

department. However, to realize high performance levels fully, supervisors need to deal with two other elements in the relationship: the impact of the work group on individual workers, and abilities of the supervisors. The greater the motivation potential on the work environment and the better the integration of the workers into this environment, the more likely it is for the supervisors to realize the benefits of a motivated work force. These plus the third elementeffective supervisionare measures to realize the achievement of high performance. Local Literature Gregorio (2001) opined that the teacher is the high priest of the future. It is upon the education of the young, in its broadest sense that the future welfare of the individual, the home, the community, the nation, and the world depends. It is upon the teachers that the government places the burden of keeping the flame of knowledge and civilization burning. Because of this great responsibility,

Commonwealth Act No. 578 was approved in 1940 to include teachers as persons in authority. He cited that the most important determinant in the school situation is the teacher. A good teacher, however, is not necessarily one born with a teaching instinct but created through years of effort and experience. These are some of the outstanding qualities of successful teachers as perceived by Gregorio: 1) A good knowledge of the subject matter. This refers to the understanding of the subjects taught. The teachers knowledge of the subject matter. This refers to the understanding of the subjects taught. The teachers knowledge of the subject matter

is an importat factor in effective teaching; 2) AltruismA teacher should have a heart yearning for the good of others. No person should go into the teaching profession with a selfish motive; 3) AmbitionA teacher should ascribe to the principle that education is a lifelong process. This can be achieved by reading professional literature and attending teachers conventions and other enriching activities. Acero, Javier, and Castro (2000) emphasized the measures of an effective teacher. According to them, an effective teacher is one who has honed his skills in the art of teaching and who demonstrates proficiency in the use of language, adopts varied teaching strategies, recognizes change, applies innovations, revises techniques for optimum results, and allows himself to be guided by acknowledge principles and theories in education. An effective teacher allows himself to grow professionally, and his efficient performance is always a result of his educational preparation, including attendance at seminars and workshops. His personal characteristics include compassion and understanding; hence, he gives allowance for personal limitations of students and looks at learners as individuals with peculiar needs and interests. Custodio (1998), in her views regarding the dignity and vocation of women in the teaching profession, stated that every person who contributes to integral human formation is an educator. Teachers have made human formation their very profession. The teachers are called upon to prepare young people to open them more and more to reality and to develop in themselves a clear idea of the meaning of life. They are e4xpected to be professionally competent and at the same time

possess an authentic vocation to the teaching profession. They need to have a sense of dedication, possess moral authority, and profess love for the students. They must have integrity and a sound critical sense; they must be well-balanced, respectful, responsible, secure, and hopeful; and they must be able to communicate. It s noteworthy to mention that teaching is not only a matter of techniques, but it is a part of a revelation of oneself to others, an exploration of the intellect, the personality, the circumstances, and social inter-relations. Lardizabal, et al. (2002) cited that in the Philippines, classroom teachers are rated by their supervisors to help them improve their teaching performance. In rating a teacher, the following are used as criteria: instructional competencies (teaching skills, guidance skills, management skills, development skills) and personal/social competencies. Villame (1998) believed that the most important factor in the teaching and learning of any subject is the harmonious relationship between the teacher and the learner. No one should be imposing superiority on the other, or the other demeaning himself due to false beliefs. Teachers must have genuine care and concern for their students, not shortchange them. They continue to update themselves and think of strategies to make their teaching better understood. Teachers of the present generation have to face the dilemma of competing with the tools of a technological society. These developments brought about by the rapid change I technology for the past decade provides fast-paced activities that e\students enjoy. Given this environment condition, teachers must be highly creative to hold students attention.

Dorado (1998) acknowledged that the teachers are constantly faced with the challenge of presenting their lessons effectively, lessons that utilize explanations, lectures, and discussions requiring verbal structuring and directing in order to progress systematically and effectively. The tasks of exposing students to new experiences and information, clarifying and explaining ideas, expounding principles and issues, or establishing relationships and evidences demand that teachers play the role of a presenter. Though innate professional competencies and personal characteristics are very vital to a teachers performance, the climate of the organization also plays an important role in improving the employees performance. This is proven by the following literature. Sison (1998) stated that employee self-development is one of the objectives of good employer-employee relations. This can be made possible only when management has created a healthy climate for individual growth and development in the company. Employees have varied talents, character traits, and abilities that should be considered and utilized to advantage by management. Ignacio (2000) agreed that organizational climate is very important to improve employee performance. He further expressed that satisfactory working conditions are very important to make workers perform their work well and be satisfied with their jobs. Working conditions have a direct bearing on the health, safety, and efficiency of the work force. The health of the employees is always the concern of management because health is directly related to efficient work performance.

Abasolo (1998) emphasized that the organizational climate of a company may be either favorable or unfavorable. The organizational climate is the psychological environment existing within an organization that affects all human activities. It is that attitude and feelings that people have about the organization, their supervisors, their peers, and their jobs. It refers to the tendency to agree or disagree. Organizational climate may be compared to a barometer to measure the mood, the confidence, the trust, the feelings, the understanding, and/or the degree of uprightness in an organization. When working conditions are satisfactory, when the management has a high degree of trust and confidence in its employees, when employees are encouraged to participate in problem-solving or decision making, and when decisions can be made at the lowest competent level of an organizational climate is considered good. Physical plant and facilities are also factors to consider when looking at the performance of the members of an educational institution or organization. Colinares (2002) quoted the UNESCO World Survey of Education: The quality of educational process depends upon the level of education and professional training of teachers, the nature of their method of teaching, the materials and equipment they and their pupils have at their disposal, the scope and balance of the curriculum of school, and the advisory services that can be drawn upon by teachers to help them in their classroom work. Colinares also stated that improving schools does not only mean improving the quality only of teachers, principals, teaching and administering, curricula, facilities, and materials as though they were separate entities, but rather, it means improving all of these together. For when schools are improved, instruction is

enhanced leading to effective teaching. On the other hand, for teachers to be effective, they need (1) a manageable class size, (2) available and suitable instructional materials, (3) high expectations for student achievement, (4) an orderly school climate, (5) system for monitoring a students progress, (6) a strong and supportive principal, and (7) a school or identity that is felt in the classroom. Rodriguez and Enchancis (1999) stated that clean and pleasant working areas and recreational facilities are examples of physical factors and amenities that provide added inducements for employees to work effectively. The non-physical environment, such as the absence of excessive status differentiation among employees and the absence of patent favoritism can also help employee acquire a sense of solidarity with the company and their co-workers, and find meaning in their work. Organizational commitment increases performance. Salvador, Gomez, and Fua-Geronimo (2008) stated that culture of the educational organization informs the teacher as what it means to teach, what teaching methods are available and approved for use, what the pupils or are likewhat is possible, and what is not. Organizational culture also plays a large in defining the teachers commitment to the task. It evokes the energy of the teachers to perform the task, the loyalty and commitment to the organization and what it stands for, and the emotional bonds of attachment to the organization and ideals. These give rise to teachers willingness not only to follow the rules and norms governing their behavior in the organization but, more than that, to accept the ideals of the organization as their own personal

values and therefore, to work energetically to achieve the espoused goals of the organization.

Foreign Studies Lee (2001) focused his study on identifying and examining academic performance indicators to improve the teaching and learning process in higher education. The goal of the study was to determine what key performance indicators would position academic programs in addressing future challenges and opportunities facing higher education. The study piloted the health science division at Rochester Community and Technical College, which included fifteen career and technical programs and three general science areas. The findings of the study suggested that quality approaches that focus on key performance indicators and benchmarking strategies offer opportunities to determine how educational institutions can improve and grow in the future. It also suggested that engagement of faculty in activities that help define and assess performance indicators can create a better understanding and enhance their ability to make systematic changes. Perie (2001) stated that college success is multi-determined with a number of contributing influences, including academic factors. This study attempted to provide an organizing model of the college success literature that was based on previous and current stress-coping theories. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated regression analyses that validated the view that college success is multi-determined. Summer and Wolfe as cited by Aleta (1998) observed that high achieving students did best with experienced teachers.

Chidolue (1999), in her study of the relationship between teacher characteristics, learning environment and student achievement and attitude, concluded that a significant positive relationship exist between teacher experience, teacher locality and student attitude and achievement, respectively. Teacher qualification is essential but needs to be supported by experience is essential in students affective and cognitive development, it has been proposed that teachers be adequately motivated in order to ensure that they remain in the profession. Teacher salary and teacher attitude are positively related, thus indicating that attitude is a function of salary. It was argued that there is a significant, positive relationship between the direct environment and the student attitude and achievement. However, it would appear that further research designed with an experimental framework of role-playing teachers is necessary in order to ascertain whether the superiority of the direct classroom environment over the indirect is a general phenomenon.

Local Studies Etullo (1998) stated that the quality of learning of the child is related to the quality of the teaching done by the teacher. This means that the quality of education the child gains is a reflection of the teachers competencies in teaching. Much depends on the competence of the teacher to develop the intellect and the potential of the learning in becoming a well-rounded and useful member of society. Faypon (1999) stated that teaching duties are the things that the teachers are legitimately held responsible for knowing and doing. Knowledge of the subject

matter, instructional competence, assessment competence, professionalism, and other duties to the school and the community are among these duties. In a study made by Aler (1999) regarding the competence of the CSIS facility members of the Centro Escolar University College of ACS and the students performance in professional computer subjects, the level of teachers competence was evaluated by the students based on five areas of concern, namely, principles and methods of teaching, knowledge of the subject matter, motivational teacher behaviors. He came up with the following findings: 1. Principles and methods of teaching. The students gave a Very Satisfactory rating of their teachers ability to apply the principles and methods of teaching where the mean rating was 90.37 percent with a standard deviation of 5.00. This result indicates that the teachers present their lessons in proper order and understandable way. 2. Knowledge of the subject matter. The teachers received a Very Satisfactory rating when evaluated in this area with a mean rating of 85.71 percent and a standard deviation of 6.52. This result means that the students assessed the teachers as capable of talking fluently and smoothly on the subject matter. They also believed that the teachers are capable of answering questions in an intelligent and knowledgeable manner. 3. Motivational teacher behavior. With regard to motivational teacher behavior, the teachers were rated Superior with a mean rating of 91.33 percent and a standard deviation of 5.49. This result implies that the teachers are efficiently

in classroom management and that students are given challenging learning tasks, problems, or assignments. 4. Personal teacher characteristics. The students believed that the teachers have favorable character traits as evidenced by the Very Satisfactory rating they gave. The mean rating was 88 percent and the standard deviation was 6.33. The teachers were rated Very Satisfactory in such aspects as showing self-confidence, coming to class regularly and punctually, and making themselves available for consultation and assistance. 5. Absence of average teacher behavior. Among the five areas of concern with regard to teachers competence, the teachers were rated Low in the area of absence of aversive teacher behavior. The mean rating was 83 percent with a standard deviation of 8.23. This means that the students viewed their teachers as showing mannerisms or behaviors that are distracting, such as gestures done repeatedly. Based on the study conducted by Manantan (1998) in his unpublished doctoral dissertation, the area on personal teacher characteristics obtained the highest mean scores from the administrators and faculty. These mean results affirm the importance of desirable traits in teaching effectiveness more than anything else. Personal qualities are seen as primary requisites of a good teacher. The students believe that principles and methods of teaching have to be given priority by the faculty. The students thought that the faculty should lessen or minimize aversive behaviors because these negative acts tend to slow down their progress. Despite many pronouncements to the contrary, the teacher is still regarded as the key factor

in the learning process. The teachers vital de4cisions in the classroom would spell the difference between achievement and non-achievement of the educand. Teacher welfare and teaching performance are given primarily attention because of their perceived connection with student achievement. In a study made by Rizada (2000) ion the determinants of students performance in mathematics in a special science high school program, the teachers personal characteristics were listed as independent variables. When correlated, teachers personal characteristics, such as age, educational attainment, and length of service, were found to be not significant while teachers civil status was significant. Laureta (2000) focused her study on the analysis of the teachers personality traits and teaching competence and their effects or relationship to the academic performance of third year high school students of NAMEI Polytechnic Institute. The teachers physical appearance ranked first as the personality trait that relates most to the students academic performance as far as the students were concerned. Voice quality ranked second, and teachers rapport with students, colleagues, and administrators ranked third. The teachers communication skill, specifically the ability to speak in a wellmodulated voice, ranked first as the teaching competence that relates most to the students academic performance. This was followed by teaching skills, management skills, and motivational skills as second, third, and fourth in rank, respectively. The teachers personality traits were3 found to have a significant relationship to the students academic performance since a moderate correlation of .4451 was

obtained. The teaching competence was found insignificant because of its weak correlation of .2114. One of the findings of Bello (1198) revealed that the length of service of the teacher is a factor that influences the academic achievement of the students. Ordua (1998) stated that the length of teaching experienced was a positive and direct predictor of student achievement in various subjects in secondary schools. De guzman (2000) concluded in his study that college freshmen had better performance in mathematics when their teachers have ten to fifteen years of teaching experience. The study of Ancheta (2000) revealed that organizational climate affects teaching performance. It further revealed that teachers are not regularly informed and consulted and teachers are discouraged from participating in decision-making. These factors lead to poor teaching performance. The study of Panaligan (1993) found out the job factors like compensation, working conditions, job tenure, and opportunity for advancement, significantly affect teaching performance. The study made by zarate (1999) revealed the same thing: that organizational climate is a predictor of job performance. The schools physical facilities play an important part in the development of the child. This is second to the influence of the teacher. Gaffud (1998) reiterated that the physical plant and facilities of a school should be adequate for the attainment of the objectives of the institution.

A study was conducted by Juada in 1999 about factors associated with performance of master teachers in Region VI. He found out that there were significant differences in the job performance of master teachers of various ages and educational qualification groups, but there were no significant differences in job performance when the master teachers were grouped according to sex, length of teaching experience, grade level assignment, and type of school division. Job performance of employee is more sensitive to job involvement and organizational commitment attitudes of employees than any other factors. In the study conducted by Trino (2005) about job performance of employees in a Research center in Western Visayas, results revealed that differences between employees job performance and selected personal characteristics were not significant, suggesting that the employees personal characteristics have no influence on employees job performance were not significantly related while the attitude on job involved, organization-committed employees, and employees job performance were highly significant and significant, respectively.

Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed Literature and Studies The review of related literature and studies enriched the proposed study in depth and breadth. The works of Ryan, Acero, Javier, Castro, and Faypon gave measures of teacher competence and effectiveness. The present study measured faculty performance based on two aspects: instructional competencies and personal, social, and leadership qualities.

The teacher and his performance are the main ingredients of effective teaching-learning process. Just like the present study, the works of Vanhuss, Gregorio, Custodio, Lardizabal, Villame, Dorado, Lee, and Etullo emphasized this point. Moreover, Juada found out that age and educational qualification have significant effects on teacher performance. The findings of Aler, Manantan, Laureta, Bello, Ordua, De Guzman and the views of Lawman pointed out the effect of teachers professional qualities as well as his personal qualities on the achievement of efficient teaching and learning. The present study also ventured on the same idea. The views of Stem, Sison, Ignacio, Abasolo, and Lindahl and the findings of the studies of Ancheta and Panaligan strengthened the idea that organizational climate as well as job-related factors are very important in the improvement of employee performance. The local literature of Rodriguez, Enchanis, and Colinares stated that besides teacher characteristics, equipment, material, and facilities were also crucial to faculty performance. The foreign literature of Meyer. Aller, and Herscovitch and the local literature of Salvador, Gomez, and Fua-Geronimo dealt on organizational commitment has a significant effect on performance. Physical plant and facilities, organizational climate, and organizational commitment are identified as independent variables of the present study. The different literature and studies, both foreign and local, provided the researcher witj enough insights and theories which, when integrated, guided the

researcher in formulating the statement of the problem, the hypotheses, and in determining the scope and limitations of the study. They also provided significant bases for analysis and interpretation of data revealed by the present study. The current study is not a duplication of any of the reviewed related studies.