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Chapter 25: The Beginning Of The Twentieth-Century Crisis: War And Revolution The Road to World War I I.

On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was assassinated in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. Although this event precipitated the confrontation between Austria and Serbia that led to World War I, war was not inevitable. Previous assassination of European leaders had not led to war, and European statesmen had managed to localize such conflicts. Although the decisions that Europeans statesmen made during this crisis were crucial in leading to war, there were also a long-range of underlying forces that were propelling Europeans toward armed conflict. Nationalism th I. The system of nation-states that had emerged in Europe in the second half of the 19 century led not to cooperation but competition. A. During an era of frenzied imperialist actions, and the division of Europes great power into loose alliances only added to the tensions B. 3 Emperors League was composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia C. Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy D. Triple Entente was composed of Russia, Britain, and Italy E. Governments that had exercised restraint in order to avoid war wound up being publicly humiliated, whereas those that went to the brink of war to maintain their national interests had often been praised for praised for having preserved national honor. F. Major European states had come to believe that their allies were important and their security depended on supporting those allies, even when they took foolish risks II. Each state was motivated by its own self-interest and success A. Emperor William II of Germany said In questions of honor and vital interests, you dont consult others. B. Statesmen considered war an acceptable way to preserve the power of their national states III. Within each state , there were political and military leaders who thought that war was inevitable and provided opportunities to achieve their goals A. In Germany, there were those who advocated the creation of a German Empire by acquiring parts of Russia B. France wished to regain Alsace-Lorriane, which had been seized by Germans in the Franco-Prussian war C. Austria-Hungary sought to prevent Serbia from creating a large Serbian state at the expense of its own empire D. Britain sought to preserve its world empire Internal Dissent I. Not all ethnic groups had achieved the goal of nationhood. II. Socialist labor movements had grown more powerful and were increasingly inclined to use strikes, even violent ones to achieve their goals Militarism I. Conscription had been established as a regular practice in most Western countries before 1914 A. Russian army 1.3 million men B. French and German army had 900,000 men C. British, Italian, and Austrian armies numbered between 250,000 and 500,000 th II. Militarism also emerged as a powerful force at the beginning of the 20 century A. Vast and complex plans were made for quickly mobilizing millions of men and enormous amounts of arms B. Military leaders insisted that their plans could not be altered The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914 I.