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Consumer Perception about AMUL ice cream in

comparison to VaDiLaL ice cream in, Ghaziabad

For Submitted For the Partial Fulfillment Of Degree Of

Master of Business Administration (M.B.A) (Affiliated to Mahamaya Technical University, Lucknow)


Aslam Khan
Roll no. - 1109670011

This is to certify that the project titled CONSUMER PERCEPTION ABOUT AMUL ICE-CREAM IN COMPARISON TO VADILAL ICE-CREAM IN, GHAZIABAD is carried out by Aslam khan Roll No.- 1109670011 under the guidance of Mr. AJAY VARSHNEY towards the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) from Mahamaya Technical University Noida. This is bonafide record of the work carried out by above mentioned student in the certificate. It is further certified that this project has been submitted to Mahamaya Technical University Noida for the partial requirement of curriculum of the study.

Mr. Ajay Varshney

(Faculty, V.I.T.)

Dr.Surendra Tiwari (HOD, MBA)


Research projects are a momentous part of management studies. To manage complexities of the organization in todays changing competitive environment a manager is supposed to have deep knowledge of present market. The present report is prepared on the topic "Consumer Perception about AMUL ice Cream In comparison to VADILAL ice cream in Ghaziabad". The project has been done as a part of course requirement of MBA program .The report emphasis mainly on Amul with other brand in the market. It is based in market research done in Ghaziabad market. The report contains all the detail about all the products of Amul in Ghaziabad city.Its specification and the analysis of the market with the help of questionnaire. The report has been made conclusive and suggestive. I hope that this report will prove to be useful to the organization as and will be able to provide useful information to its readers.

Aslam Khan Roll no. 1109670011 MBA 2nd year

VIET (Dadri G.B. Nagar)

My first regards are to almighty Allah it was my trust and belief on him, which enable me to embark upon this task, move on the righteous path and reside the realism of facts. I feel privileged in expressing profound sense of gratitude and in depthness to Mr. Ajay Varshney who has generously provided the chance to work at the esteemed field of FMCG his guidance, constant encouragement and inspiration where instrumental in the completion of this research he always allowed me to encroach upon her precious time and ensured her generosity with ideas. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Surendra Tiwari (HOD) for his valuable guidance constant supervision and support during the research. I also take the opportunity to thank all those who helped me in completing my projects in various ways.

Aslam Khan

I hereby declare that the information presented is correct to the best of my knowledge and the analysis is as per the norms and guidelines provided for the report. I have utilized the requisite concepts and applied the required methodologies to analyze the primary data collected to reach the conclusion present in the report.

I claim the report to my indigenous work and have not been presented anywise for any purpose, what-so-ever.


Aslam Khan


(Signature of Student t)

Chapter No.

1.1- Introduction Of Project 1.2- Statement of Problem 1.3- Company Profile 1.4- Product Profile

Page No.
07 11 12 18

2. 3. 4. 5.

Objectives Of The Study Need & Scope For The Study Review of Literature 5.1- Research Methodology 5.2- Method of Data Collection 5.3- Tools of Analysis

23 25 28 39 46

6. 7.

Data Analysis And Interpretation Findings Of The Study


8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Limitation Of The Study Conclusion Suggestions Appendix Bibliography



Before business can develop marketing strategies, they must understand what factors influence buyers behavior and how they make purchase decisions to satisfy their needs and wants. Buyers are moved by a complex set of deep and subtle emotions. Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching, purchasing and post consumption of a product or service. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general. Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the rediscovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management personalization,

customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions.

The project is research-based project done in accordance to find the consumer perception about Ice-cream brands. Research based project focuses on exploratory research where I tried to find out perception of consumers towards ice cream and determination of market potential.

Company wanted to know that what is the potential of ice cream in Ghaziabad City, which is developing in fast pace. Questions related to ice cream were asked to make consumers aware about the qualities of ice cream.

Questions have been asked after keeping in mind the motive of the project i.e. to know Consumer Perception about AMUL ice Cream In comparison to VADILAL ice cream existing in the market.

Consumers were asked that what their expectations from the company are whenever they purchase ice cream.


Competitors of AMUL:-

Major dairy products manufacturers

Smith Kline Becham limited Horlicks, Maltova, Viva Malted Milk food, ghee, butter, powdered milk, Milk fluid and other milk based baby food. Condensed milk, skimmed milk powder, Indodan Industries Limited Indiana whole milk powder, dairy milk whitener chilled and processed milk.

Butter, Cheese and other milk products GCMMF Amul

Farex, complain, H .J. Heinz limited glactose,bonniemix, vita milk. Britannia Milkman

Infant Milk food malted Milk food.

Flavored milk, cheese, Milk powder, ghee.

Bournvita Cadbury

Malted food



As we know that customer is the king of any business, It is essential to understand customer expectations their

preferences towards the product and their needs and wants. Without understanding consumer behavior no companies can survive. It serves as a feedback from the consumer and provide the companies the message regarding the consumer attitudes, companies position, competition, opinions of the consumer regarding the product etc. Now a days almost all the companies involves in collecting the data from consumers regarding their product and brand. They employee marketing people to let them know consumer behavior. By keeping all this points in mind, as consumer behavior plays a vital role for any organization, this project CONSUMER




1.2 Company Profile

The Birth of Amul

It all began when milk became a symbol of protest. Founded in 1946 to stop the exploitation by middlemen. Inspired by the freedom movement. The seeds of this unusual saga were sown more than 65 years back in Anand, a small town in the state of Gujarat in western India. The exploitative trade practices followed by the local trade cartel triggered off the cooperative movement. Angered by unfair and manipulative practices followed by the trade, the farmers of the district approached the great Indian patriot Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel for a solution. He advised them to get rid of middlemen and form their own co-operative, which would have procurement, processing and marketing under their control. In 1946, the farmers of this area went on a milk strike refusing to be cowed down by the cartel. Under the inspiration of Sardar Patel, and the guidance of leaders like Morarji Desai and Tribhuvandas Patel, they formed their own cooperative in 1946. This co-operative, the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers Union Ltd. began with just two village dairy co-operative societies and 247 litres of milk and is today better known as Amul Dairy. Amul grew from strength to strength thanks to the inspired leadership of Tribhuvandas Patel, the founder Chairman and the committed professionalism of Dr Verghese Kurien,who was entrusted the task of running the dairy from 1950. The then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri decided that the same approach should become the basis of a National Dairy Development policy. He understood that the success of Amul could be attributed to four important factors. The farmers owned the dairy, their elected representatives managed the village societies and the district union, A they employed professionals to operate the dairy and manage its business. Most importantly, the cooperatives were sensitive to the needs of farmers and responsive to their demands. At his instance in 1965 the National Dairy Development Board was set up with the basic objective of replicating the Amul model. Dr. Kurien was chosen to head the institution as its Chairman and asked to replicate this model throughout the country 14

The Amul Model

The Amul Model of dairy development is a three-tiered structure with the dairy cooperative societies at the village level federated under a milk union at the district level and a federation of member unions at the state level.

Establishment of a direct linkage between milk producers and consumers by eliminating middlemen Milk Producers (farmers) control procurement, processing and marketing Professional management


The Amul model has helped India to emerge as the largest milk producer in the world. More than 15 million milk producers pour their milk in 1,44,246 dairy cooperative societies across the country. Their milk is processed in 177 District Cooperative Unions and marketed by 22 State Marketing Federations, ensuring a better life for millions.


Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), is India's largest food product marketing organization with annual turnover (2011-12) US$ 2.5 billion. Its daily milk procurement is approx. 13 million lit (peak period) per day from 16,117 village milk cooperative societies, 17 member unions covering 24 districts, and 3.18 million milk producer members. It is the Apex organization of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat, popularly known as 'AMUL', which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products which are good value for money. Its success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. It is exclusive marketing organisation of 'Amul' and 'Sagar' branded products. It operates through 47 Sales Offices and has a dealer network of 5000 dealers and 10 lakh retailers, one of the largest such networks in India. Its product range comprises milk, milk powder, health beverages, ghee, butter, cheese, Pizza cheese, Ice-cream, Paneer, chocolates, and traditional Indian sweets, etc. GCMMF is India's largest exporter of Dairy Products. It has been accorded a "Trading House" status. Many of our products are available in USA, Gulf Countries, Singapore, The Philippines, Japan, China and Australia. GCMMF has received the APEDA Award from Government of India for Excellence in Dairy Product Exports for the last 13 years. For the year 2009-10, GCMMF has been awarded "Golden Trophy' for its outstanding export performance and contribution in dairy products sector by APEDA. For its consistent adherence to quality, customer focus and dependability, GCMMF has received numerous awards and accolades over the years. It received the Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award in1999 in Best of All Category. In 2002 GCMMF bagged India's Most Respected Company Award instituted by Business World. In 2003, it was awarded the The IMC Ramkrishna Bajaj National Quality Award - 2003 for adopting noteworthy quality management practices for logistics and procurement. GCMMF is the first and only Indian organisation to win topmost International Dairy Federation Marketing Award for probiotic ice cream launch in 2007. The Amul brand is not only a product, but also a movement. It is in one way, the representation of the economic freedom of farmers. It has given farmers the courage to dream. To hope.To live.

GCMMF - An Overview
Year of Establishment Members No. of Producer Members No. of Village Societies Milk Collection (Total - 2011-12) 1973 17 District Cooperative Milk Producers' Unions (16 Members & 1 Nominal Members) 3.18 Million 16,117 3.88 billion liters

Total Milk handling capacity per day 13.67 Million liters per day Milk collection (Daily Average 201110.6 million liters (peak 13 million) 12) Milk Drying Capacity Sales Turnover -(2011-12) 647 Mts. per day Rs. 11668 Crores (US $2.5 Billion) Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity 3690 Mts. per day

Our Member Unions

1. Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Anand 2. Mehsana District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd, Mehsana 3. Sabarkantha District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Himatnagar 4. Banaskantha District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Palanpur 5. Surat District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Surat 6. Baroda District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Vadodara 7. Panchmahal District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Godhra 8. Valsad District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Valsad 9. Bharuch District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Bharuch 10. Ahmedabad District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Ahmedabad 11. Rajkot District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Rajkot 12. Gandhinagar District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Gandhinagar 13. Surendranagar District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Surendranagar 14. Amreli District Cooperative Milk Producers Union Ltd., Amreli 15. Bhavnagar District Cooperative Milk Producers Union Ltd., Bhavnagar 16. Kutch District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Anjar.

Financial Position of AMUL:

Sales Turnover 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Rs (million) 11140 13790 15540 18840 22192 22185 22588 23365 27457 28941 29225 37736 42778 52554 67113 80053 97742 US $ (in million) 355 400 450 455 493 493 500 500 575 616 672 850 1050 1325 1504 1700 2172

Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. Amul Dairy Road P B No.10, Anand 388 001, India Phone: +91-2692-258506, 258507, 258508, 258509 Fax: +91-2692-240208 Email: gcmm f@amul.com


1.4 Product Profile

List of Products Marketed:

Amul Butter Amul Lite Low Fat Breadspread Amul Cooking Butter

Cheese Range:

Amul Pasteurized Processed Cheddar Cheese Amul Processed Cheese Spread Amul Pizza (Mozarella) Cheese Amul Shredded Pizza Cheese Amul Emmental Cheese Amul Gouda Cheese Amul Malai Paneer (cottage cheese) Utterly Delicious Pizza

Mithaee Range (Ethnic sweets):

Amul Shrikhand (Mango, Saffron, Almond Pistachio, Cardamom) Amul Amrakhand Amul Mithaee Gulabjamuns Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun Mix Amul Mithaee Kulfi Mix Avsar Ladoos

UHT Milk Range:

Amul Shakti 3% fat Milk Amul Taaza 1.5% fat Milk Amul Gold 4.5% fat Milk Amul Lite Slim-n-Trim Milk 0% fat milk Amul Shakti Toned Milk

Amul Fresh Cream Amul Snowcap Softy Mix

Pure Ghee:

Amul Pure Ghee Sagar Pure Ghee Amul Cow Ghee

Infant Milk Range:

Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 (0-6 months) Amul Infant Milk Formula 2 ( 6 months above) Amulspray Infant Milk Food

Milk Powders:

Amul Full Cream Milk Powder Amulya Dairy Whitener Sagar Skimmed Milk Powder Sagar Tea and Coffee Whitener

Sweetened Condensed Milk:

Amul Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk

Fresh Milk:

Amul Taaza Toned Milk 3% fat Amul Gold Full Cream Milk 6% fat Amul Shakti Standardised Milk 4.5% fat Amul Slim & Trim Double Toned Milk 1.5% fat Amul Saathi Skimmed Milk 0% fat Amul Cow Milk

Curd Products:

Amul Flaavyo Yoghurt Amul Masti Dahi (fresh curd)


Amul Masti Spiced Butter Milk Amul Lassee

Amul Ice creams:

Royal Treat Range (Butterscotch, Rajbhog, Malai Kulfi) Nut-o-Mania Range (Kaju Draksh, Kesar Pista Royale, Fruit Bonanza, Roasted Almond) Nature's Treat (Alphanso Mango, Fresh Litchi, Shahi Anjir, Fresh Strawberry, Black Currant, Santra Mantra, Fresh Pineapple) Sundae Range (Mango, Black Currant, Sundae Magic, Double Sundae) Assorted Treat (Chocobar, Dollies, Frostik, Ice Candies, Tricone, Chococrunch, Megabite, Cassatta) Utterly Delicious (Vanila, Strawberry, Chocolate, Chocochips, Cake Magic)

Chocolate & Confectionery:

Amul Milk Chocolate Amul Fruit & Nut Chocolate

Brown Beverage:

Nutramul Malted Milk Food

Milk Drink:

Amul Kool Flavoured Milk (Mango, Strawberry, Saffron, Cardamom, Rose, Chocolate) Amul Kool Cafe Amul Kool Koko Amul Kool Millk Shaake (Mango, Strawberry, Badam, Banana)





As the market share of the Amul Company is not substantial as in other parts of the country, they are facing tough competition from local companies. Company wants to know what common consumer thinks about ice cream and what they expect from their family brand i.e. Amul.

What does company expects to do by solving the problem?

Every company expect something for which it conducts research and try to solve the problem, here also by this project To study the consumer perception of Amul ice-cream in comparison to other brands. Price sensitivity of the consumer. To know the expectations of the consumers. Preference of the consumer. Effect of advertisement on consumer buying behavior.





Before business can develop marketing strategies, they must understand what factors influence buyers behavior and how they make purchase decision to satisfy their needs and wants. This study helpful to know in which stage the brand would be in industrial Life Cycle. This study aims towards collecting information about consumers Psychology towards wireless Amul Ice cream and thus helping AMUL in understanding customers nature and help in developing strategies which will thus help them in increasing their business. It is done to understand what consumers consider while going for purchasing Amul Products. By this study we came to know how the organization retaining and sustaining its customer, The main purpose of this project is to study consumers buying behavior and develop strategies which help AMUL in increasing their market share. This study is mainly focused on various factors that affect consumers buying decision. Such as social, psychological and personal.

The survey was conducted among different groups and all possible local areas in Noida were considered for the study. The sample size was of 150 people who included people from various age groups and different income levels. The data was collected through filling of questionnaire and interview .


The survey helped in understanding the various factors that influenced the buying decisions of the customers and understanding their needs when it comes to Amul Ice cream.

This study helps to understand the satisfactory level of consumers towards the brand. And also understanding the consumer attitudes and their buying

motives by means of company brand image.





Psychologists have long been interested in the topics of buying and shopping behavior. Some major perspectives in psychology such as behaviourism and cognitivism have formulated different theories to explain buying motivation and behavior. The behaviorists stress the process of operant conditioning and individuals history of reinforcement, while the cognitive approach puts its accent on individuals free will and intentional, voluntary action. The views of these two perspectives can be examined in terms of the nature of buying behavior and the process of choice.

Based on their different conception about the nature of buying behavior, the behaviourist and the cognitive theorists have different views on the process of choice when buying. The behaviorists propose that consumer choice begins with an external stimulus such as an advertising message or word-of-mouth communication. Etc. However, the cognitive psychologists adopt a different approach to explain the process of choice. They consider the choice of buying as a rule-following behavior Etc. 30

To the behaviorists, therefore, choice of buying is simply a behavior, the only way of acting in a given set of circumstances defined in terms of controlling contingencies. On the other hand, the cognitive theorists present choice of buying as an outcome of internal, mental deliberation and psychological decision. Actually, although the behaviorists and the cognitive theorists have different ideas of the content of choice, they do share similar view on the unconscious feature of choice (rather involuntary response to discriminative stimulus and the following of rules).

Consumer is the king and it is the consumer who determines what a business is. Therefore, a sound marketing program should start with a careful analysis of the habits, attitudes, motives and needs of consumers. Consumer behavior is prerequisite though the process is highly complicated. At the same time, a firms ability to establish and maintain satisfying exchange relationships depends on the level of understanding of buying behavior. Thus, buying behavior is the decision process and acts of people involved in buying and using products.

Need for Understanding Consumer Behavior

Knowledge of consumer behavior would render immense help for planning and implementing marketing strategies. Secondly, the proof of establishing consumer orientation in the marketing. This is known only when marketing mix is developed to include positive answers to the questions listed in the beginning of this chapter. Thirdly, by gaining a better understanding of the factors that affect buyer behavior, marketers are in a better position to predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies. 31

Finally, consumer is the principala priori of business. The efficiency with which a free market system of enterprise operates, in the last analysis, depends upon the extent of consumer understanding possessed by the business cannot possibly fulfill its obligations in a meaningful and responsive manner. This is exactly the reason why consumer behavior is given importance in modern marketing.

Consumer Decision Behavior

It is a usual behavior with most consumers to seek the objective of creating maintaining a collection of goods and services that provides current and future satisfaction.

The various types of consumer decision-making vary considerably and are classified as follows: Routine response behavior. Limited decision-making, and Extensive Decision-making.

1. Routine decision behavior

- is usually found in the cases of frequently

purchased and low-cost items. They are also aware of alternative brands, for instance, if you intended to buy a particular would switch over to a second preferred brand of their choice. Thus, products that are bought through routine response behavior are purchased quickly with very little mental effort.

2. Limited decision-making -It is pertinent in the case of purchases made

by the consumers less frequently. The investment needed also will be comparably high. Hence, the consumers may acquire information about all possible brands and some amount of mental exercises would follow to arrive at a decision about all possible brands. Thus, limited decision-making requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering and deliberation.

3.Extensive decision-making-

It is required when a consumer wants to

purchase unfamiliar products which is totally new, having high unit value and bought preferably once in his life time. Before such a product is bought, the consumer uses 32

many criteria for evaluating alternative brands and substitute products and spends much time in seeking information and deciding on the purchase. An interesting but a notable point in this connection is that the type of decision-making need not necessarily remain constant. The following illustrates the variations more clearly. Extended Consumer Decisionmaking Limited Consumer Decisionmaking Routine Consumer Decisionmaking Degree of Search
Level of Prior Experience

Frequency of Purchase

Amount of Perceived Risk

Time Pressure

Very High


Very Low

Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behavior:Several factors determine the buying behavior of consumers. These factors may be classified as follows:



Personal Factor:

These include factors unique to a particular person. Numerous personal factors influence purchase decisions:

(a) Demographics
Individual characteristics such as age, sex, race, ethnicity, income, occupation and family life cycle are called demographics. These have a bearing on who is involved in family decision-making.

(b) Life styles

Life style means an individuals pattern of living expressed through activities, interests and opinions. Life style patterns include the ways people spend-time, the extent of their interaction with others, and their general outlook on life and living, people partly determine their own life styles and partly these are shaped by personality and demographics.

(c) Situation.

Situational factors are influences resulting from circumstances, time and location that affect the consumer buying behavior.


Social factors:

The factors that other people exert on buying behavior

are called social factors. These factors are as follows:

(a) Roles and Family

Role means the activities that a person is supposed to perform. A person occupies several positions and, therefore, he/she has many roles.

(b) Reference Group

A reference group is any group that exercises a positive are three major types of reference groupsmembership, aspiration and dissociative. A reference group may serve as an individual, point of comparison and source of information.

(c) Opinion leader

The reference group members who provides information about a specific share that interests members of the group is called opinion leader. An opinion leader is likely to be most influential when consumers have high product involvement buy low product knowledge, when they share the attitudes and values of the opinion leader and when the product details are numerous and complicated.

(d) Social Class

A social class means an open group of individuals with similar social rank. Quite often people in a society are classified into upper, middle and lower classes on the basis of their income and occupation. Consumers belonging to a particular social class tend to have common behavioral patterns. They may have similar attitudes and values. 35

(e) Culture and Sub-cultures

Culture is the aggregate of customs, beliefs, values, and objects that a society uses to cope with its environment and passes on to future generations. Our culture determines what we want and wear,. It also influences how we buy and use products. Cultural changes affect marketing mix.


Psychological factors:
Factors that operate within individuals and determine their general

behavior are as follows:

(a) Perception
Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information to derive meaning. Different people perceive the same thing at the same time in different ways.

(b) Motives
A motive means an internal force that orients a persons activities towards need satisfaction. A set of motives affects a buyers actions. Motives that influence where a person buys products on a regular basis are known as patronage motives. These include location, price, variety, service and behavior of sale people. Marketers use depth interviews, projection and other methods to know and understand the motives of buyers.

(c) Learning
Changes in an individuals behavior due to information and experience are called learning. A consumer tends to repeat purchase actions which create 36

satisfaction. Inexperienced buyers use price as an indicator of quality more advertisements, salespersons, friends and relatives. They also learn by buying and using products.

(d) Attitudes
Attitude refers to an individuals enduring evaluation, feelings and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea. An individuals attitudes remain generally stable and do not vary from moment to moment. Attitudes play a significant role in determining consumer behavior.

(e) Personality
Personality refers to a set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior. An individuals personality is the outcome of heredity and personal experiences. It makes the individual unique.. Personality influences the type of brand and products purchased.

(f) Self-concept
Self-concept of self-image means a persons perception or view of himself. Individuals develop and alter their self-=concept through interaction of

social and psychological dimensions. Research shows that a buyer purchases products that reflect and enhance the self-concept. A persons self-concept may also influence selection of products category and brand.

Consumer Buying decision Process

The process which consumers proceed while making their buying decisions is known as the consumer buying decision process. This process consists of five stages a s shown in following fig. Arrows connect all the elements in the decision process and show the impact of demographics, social factors, and psychological factors upon the process. 37

Arrows show feedback. (a) Shows the impact of social and psychological factors (b) Shows the impact of a purchase on social and psychological factors such as social class. Problem Awareness Informatio n Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Decision Post-purchase Behaviour



Person Specific Influences

Social & Psychologic al Influences


The stages in consumer buying decision process are below: 1.

Problem Recognition

A buyer recognizes the problem when he becomes aware of the desired state and an actual condition. The speed with which a consumer recognizes the problem can be quite fast or slow. Sometimes, a person has a problem or need but is unaware of it. Marketers use advertising, personal selling and other methods to help trigger recognition of such needs or problems.


Information search
After recognizing the problem or need, a buyer search for product information

that can resolve the problem or satisfy the need. There are two types of information search. In the internal search which is our self and external search which consists of friends, relatives, and media. Marketers repeat advertisements and use visuals to increase consumer learning of information.

3. Evaluation of alternatives

A successful information search yields a number of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives. This group of products/brands is called the buyers evoked set. Various objective and subjective characteristics that are important to the buyer are used to evaluate the alternatives. Cost and warranty are examples of objective criteria whereas brand image and style are examples of subjective characteristics.

4. Purchase
In this stage the buyer chooses the product or brand to be bought. Product availability may influence which brand is purchased. The terms of sale (price, delivery, warranty, maintenance agreement, installation and credit arrangement) are settled finally, the actual purchase takes place.

5. Post-purchase behavior
After the purchase, the buyer begins evaluating the product to ascertain if its actual performance meets the expectations. Many criteria used in evaluating alternatives are applied again for this purpose. The outcome of this stage is either satisfaction of dissatisfaction. Shortly after purchasing an expensive product, a buyer doubts whether he make the right decision.

Buying Motives of Consumers

A buying motive means what induces a customer to buy a product. There is a buying motive behind every purchase. But the motive may differ from one buyer to another. Buying motives may be classified as follows:


Internal and External Motives

Internal buying motives are inherent in the minds of consumers. They arise

from the basic needs like hunger, safety, comfort, pleasure, etc. internal buying motives may be rational or emotional.


External buying motives are those which a customer learns or acquires from his environment. Social status, social acceptance, achievement, etc. are examples of such motives. Income, education, occupation, religion, culture, family and social environment influence external motives.

2. Rational and Emotional Motives

Buying motives are those which are based on logical reasoning and consideration of economic consequences. They include the cost, durability and dependability of the product/service. Emotional buying motives are based on personal feelings. These motives include ego, prestige, love and affection, status, pride, etc.

3. Product and Patronage Motives

Product motives are of two types-primary and secondary. Primary buying motives are the reasons due to which consumers buy one class of products rather than another. These motives arise directly from human needs and wants. These include the desire for health, beauty, knowledge, relaxation, recognition, etc. Secondary or selective buying motives induce consumers to buy certain kinds of products. These include desire for convenience, dependability, durability, economy, versatility, etc.





The problem of the research was Consumer perception about Amul ice-cream in comparison to other brands in the market of Ghaziabad.


The purposes for which the study is undertaken are:1. To find out the image of Amul ice cream. 2. To assess the awareness about Amul ice cream qualities. 3. To obtain the opinion of customers t about Amul ice cream with reference of price. 4. To know that what does Customer looks for while buying ice cream. 5. To know the impact of advertisement and promotion on consumer buying behavior. 6. To find out impact schemes on consumer buying decision. 7. To make a comparative analysis of Amul & Vadilal on the parameter 8. To make the suitable suggestion on the basis of it.

The advanced learners dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

Redman and Mory define research as a systematized efforts to gain new knowledge.
In common terms research can define as scientist and systematic search for pertinent information. On a specific topic research comprises defining problems, collecting, organizing and analyzing data, suggesting solutions and researching conclusion so that they fit to the suggested solutions.

Types of Research:
1. Descriptive Research- Descriptive Research includes surveys and factfinding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state affairs, as it exists at present.

2. Analytical Research- In this the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze there, to make a critical evaluation of the material.

3. Applied Research- Applied Research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial business organization. Research aimed at certain conclusion facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. The central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem.


4. Fundamental Research F.R mainly concerned with generalization and with the formulation of the theory. Gathering knowledge for knowledge is sake is termed pure or basic research. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research.

5. Quantitative Research- Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity.

6. Qualitative Research- Qualitative Research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behavior, we quite often talk of innovation research important types of qualities research. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desire.

7. Conceptual Research- Conceptual Research that relates to some abstract ideas or theory. Philosophers and thinkers to develop new concept or to reinterpret existing once generally use it. 8. Empirical Research- Empirical Research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regards for system and theory.


Research Design
A framework or blue print for conducting the marketing research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problems. Provides an accurate snaps sort of sum aspects of market environment. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is the description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The Research design in this study is descriptive research. Researcher selects the descriptive research design due to the following reasons.

To describe the characteristics of relevant groups, such as customers, organizations (School and Institute) and market.

To determine the perception of customer about the product For markets studies; describe the size of market, buying power of the customer, customer profiles.

For market share studies; which determine the proportion of total sales received by company and its competitors?

For image studies; which determine (customers) perception about the company and its products?

For product usage studies; areas in use the projectors are in use. For Advertising studies; which describe media consumption habits and audience profiles for specific, websites, magazines, newspapers and T.V. program.


Research Process

Formulating the research problem Preparing the research design Determining the sample design Collecting the data Analysis of the data Preparation of the report

Sampling terms
(a) Population: - The aggregate of all the elements sharing some common set of characteristics, comprising the universe for the purpose of the marketing researcher problem. (b) Census: - A complete enumeration of the elements of a population or study object. (c) Sample: - A subgroup of the elements of the population selected for the participation in the study. (d) Element: - Objects those posses into society by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made.


Methodology provides the way to systematically solve the problem in hand. It may be considered as a service of studying now the research problem os being solved significantly. The terms methodology answer in which one of the following available method and techniques are relevant and which are not regarding the problem in hand. Hence when whenever a project report is written, the most important think to people mind is the methodology should be systematic. The methodology should be clear in the mind of the researcher because this only thing on which the whole project is based. It provides the guidelines in the mind of researcher to carry out the project. It provides the right approach to precede the research problem.


Research methodology deals with the various methods of research. The purpose of the research methodology is to describe the research procedure used in the research. Research methodology overall includes the research design, data collection method and analysis procedure which are used to explore the insight information form the research problem.


Research Methodology helps in carrying out the project report in by analyzing the various research findings collected through the data collection methods .

Research design is an important and the vital part of the research. Research design is a comprehensive master plan specifying the procedure for collecting and analysis the needed information. Research design provides an excellent framework for the research plan of action. The function of the Research design is to ensure that the required data is in accordance; research design is a blue print for the research study, which guides research in collecting and analysis the data.


Exploratory research design helps the research in getting the insight information from the research problem. Generally all the marketing research projects innuendos exploratory research that helps the researcher in providing the sharp focus of the problem under research. Exploratory research lays emphasis on the discovering of ideas and possible inside to get the information needed to carry out the research has used the exploratory form to research design in the project under study.



Conclusive research design is the design, which helps the researcher in studying the research problem in the conclusive form, this helps the researcher in choosing the possible cause of action from various alternatives to make a rational design. Hence this type of research is being used in this research project.



The success of any project or market survey depends heavily on the data collection and analysis. It is necessary that the data collected is a reliable data in order to achieve the research objective. All data sources can be classified into two data:


1) PRIMARY DATA: - Primary data is the data which are fresh and collected for the first time, and are original in character. There are various Primary data collection techniques, which have helped in data gathering. The primary data collection techniques used in the project is as follows: PERSONAL INTERVIEW METHOD SURVEY METHOD QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD OBSERVATION METHOD EXPERIMENTATION METHOD


2) SECONDARY DATA- Secondary data are those data, which have been already collected or published for the purpose other than specific research need at hand .This data is simply used up by the researcher for his purpose of collected the data and its use is now not the same. The secondary data source here in this project are:


After the questionnaire for the data collection is being prepared. Next step is to; identify the universe for that the sample unit is to be chosen as it is not possible to gather information from the entire universe. Universe of the Study The universe of the study, I have selected all consumers residing in GHAZIABAD and who shopping in Malls, Super Bazaar, near by markets. Sample Size Our project Guide, keeping in view the time consideration, determined the size of the sample arbitrarily. The sample size I have taken 50 units. Targets Respondents All the consumers and individuals (they were housewives, working women, students and professionals) were our target respondents for our questionnaire. Sampling Techniques For the study we have taken a sample size of 50 respondents pose non probability sampling technique. Further we also applied convenience sampling, judgment sampling, as a part of non probabilistic sampling techniques. Marketing Research Tools 50

For conducting our marketing research, I have used questionnaire methods for collecting data abode the consumer preference and effect of television commercial on consumer decision making process with regard to cosmetic products. Sources of information Primary Data: Questionnaire and Ghaziabad Residents. Secondary data: Website Amul.com

Method used for research

Conclusive research Conclusive research is the descriptive research, which helps the marketing executive to take a rational decision The survey was conducted of consumers living in various reputed localities. During the survey personal interview was the technique used to collect the required information. Instrument used-Questionnaire As the name suggests, in this method asking questions to the people who are thought to have the desired information collects data. Question may be in oral and written form. A formal list of such question is called questionnaire. Since the objective of the research was to know the perception of the consumer for the brand and to know the change in their reception after the advertisement/ prompt ion campaign, it was therefore necessary to prepare a questionnaire for the consumers of the product.


In the research, structure non-disguised technique has been used since it provides more objective measurement system. The real objective of the research was not hidden from the respondents they aware of the topic on which they had to respond. Sampling Technique Used & Size of the Sample: Sampling unit Ghaziabad residents Sampling units are Ghaziabad city residents and they are contacted randomly to avoid biasness. Sample Size Sampling extent : Ghaziabad City :150 (Prime Location)

The survey was conducted at the prime locations of City. SAMPLE PROFILE SAMPLING: Random A sample Random sample is a generated by a process that guarantees, in the long run, that every possible sample of a given size will be selected with known and equal probability. Random sampling has been done so that the whole universe could be covered





Indrapuram Govindpuram Dasna Raj Nagar Mansuri Vaishali

30 30 30 15 15 30



Brand awareness
Amul Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls Mother dairy Gloria Go Go Top n Town Dinshaes Softel
brand awareness

People aware
150 150 120 150 135 145 140 135 125 100


160 140 120 100 people aware 80

Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls


Consumers are much more aware about almost all the brands.Amul, Vadilal and Kwality walls are known by every respondent. Softel is the least known brand among all brands taken into consideration.

Amul Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls Mother dairy Gloria Go Go Top n Town Dinshaes Softel People Respond (in %) 20 18 12 15 7 11 4 8 4 1


20 18 16 14 12 RESPONCEIN % 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 brands

Amul Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls Mother dairy Gloria Go Go Top n Town Dinshaes Softel


Customers given highest preference to brand Amul that means it has greatest customer choice or people refer to have Amul ice cream rather then go for other ice creams. Amuls biggest competitors are Vadilal and Kwality walls in Ghaziabad prime locations.



Quality Price Availability Taste Flavor

Responses in percentage
50 60 20 15 5

Responses in percentage

Taste 10% Availability 13%

Flavor 3%

Quality 33%

Price 41%








Majority of consumers consider price and quality of the product while buying any product sice in the cities like Ghaziabad people are price sensitive and educated so quality conscious too. Availability is the second largest factor which influences the purchase.


Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

Responses in percentage
80 45 20 5

opinion about Amul Packaging

80 70 60 50 responces 40 30 20 10 0

Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly disagree



Majority of customers are agreed that company should improve its packaging as it was found during the survey that they had problem with the packaging especially in the summers there is problem of leakage found in the party pack. Thus company should work on this area.

Awareness about Amul ice cream attributes

awareness about Amul Ice Cream attributes

120 100 80 responces 60 40 20 0 Awared Not awere


Majority of customers are not aware about the Amul ice cream special features. Only 26.67% people know that Amul ice cream is made up of real milk not from vegetable oil. Thus company should work on this area. They should increase customer knowledge about the product so that it can increase product value in the market.


Parloures Home Restaurant Others

Responses in Numbers
45 65 30 10


70 60 50 responces 40 30 20 10 0 Parloures Home Restaurant PLACE Others


Majority of consumers in Ghaziabad prefer to have Ice cream at their own place but they also like to have Ice cream at parlors and restaurants. Other places they usually like to have Ice cream at marriages and formal parties.

Product trial

consuption of Amul Ice Cream

140 120 100 80 responces 60 40 20 0 YES NO

Almost all the respondent had Amul ice cream at least once in their life. Majority of them are regular customers. This shows the popularity of the product and customer awareness about the brand AMUL in Ghaziabad.


Consumer perception about the product

Excellent Good Average Not good Very bad

Responses in Numbers
65 55 20 10 0

Consumer Perception

70 60 50 responces 40 30 20 10 0 Excellent Good Average Notgood Very bad



The overall response about the product is positive and customer feel Amul as an excellent product. This show the good market reputation and customer likeness about the product. It also reflects the good image of the brand Amul.

Awareness about Amuls quality


Awareness about amul's quality

140 120 100 Number of responces 80 60 40 20 0 YES rasponce NO


Generally respondent perceive the product quality by viewing esthetics only they feel quality is as it looks they do not know how Amul is different from other brands. Thus company should work on this area. They should increase customer knowledge about the product so that it can increase product value in the market.

Schemes Awareness in customers


People aware
10 8 25 125 150

Schemes Awareness in customers

160 140 No. of 120 Respondent 100 80 60 40 20 0 CASH BULK DISCOUNT DISCOUNT COUPON SCHEME Schemes 1+1 Scheme 25% Extra Scheme


Customers are aware about only two schemes mostly i.e. 1+1 scheme and 25% extra scheme so these are most popular schemes usually. Other schemes like cash discount and bulk discount are mainly for bulk purchases thus these are not popular within general consumers .

Preferred advertising media:


150 45 30 20 53 2

160 140 120 100 NO OF 80 RESPONCES 60 40 20 0 1 MODES



Media is the way which includes both print media and television to aware the customers about Amul ice cream in which majority of respondents come across the advertisements through hoardings and commercials shown in their television. Thus print media is the major source of creating awareness among customer.

Effect of advertisement on buying behavior


No of respondents
130 20

Effect of advertisement on buying behavior 140 120 100 80 No of Respondents 60 40 20 0

YES Responses



It is found that advertisements affect the buying process of consumer as we can see from our survey also around 90% respondent are agree with the fact that advertisements affect the buying process.

Suggestions and Recommendations

After conducting the survey I would like to give few suggestions as follows The company needs to work on the advertising strategy in the Ice-cream division as they are doing in butter division since majority of consumers are not even aware about the schemes run by the company. Although company has good market share in Ghaziabad City due to its Brand name but it could increase its share significantly through massive direct marketing because there are still some untouched area where the product is not regularly available.

There is lot of complaint regarding availability of the product specially in the summers and regarding packaging of one liter party pack thus should be eliminated.


There is no single as such exclusive Amul parlour as it is in Delhi, Ahmadabad and big cities like Bangalore. It is also recommended to open a parlour here also and the preferred location is Indrapuram.

The packaging material of ice cream party pack should be either container or plastic sheets instead of being hard board sheets as it is available in other big cities also.

More schemes should be launched to boost the awareness of the Amul Ice cream and remain in competition with the foreign players.

In Ghaziabad the strength competition of Amul is with local players like Gloria in price terms and Dinshaes and Cream bell in quality. Then it is recommended to introduce the product into two different ranges like one to compete with local players which should be comparatively low price segment and other should be quality product having slightly high price.

To enhance the consumer buying and consuming habit company should apply new promotional tools like mass marketing and customization of the product. Company should introduce Low fat and less sugar Ice cream segment to penetrate new market.

Company should target youth and children for the product like Ice-cream and should know what exactly consumer wants.


An attempt is made to identify the level of awareness and market perception among the respondents towards Amul ice cream. It was found during studies that Amul has a very good


market reputation in Ghaziabad city. They have a huge market share and big customer base. They have a bright future as have many uncovered area and potential customers. Consumers are satisfied with the quality of the product. There are lots of varieties available in the market. Consumers have complaint regarding packaging and some times availability of the product particularly with the brand Cassatta and Fundoo Range. In Ghaziabad the strength competition of Amul is with local players like Gloria and go in price terms and Dinshaes and Cream bell in quality. There are huge opportunities for the company to open a separate Amul ice cream parlour as customers have shown great enthusiasm for it.

A small segment of the respondents think that the Amul is the best brand among suggested option. All the rest of them think that there are other good options also available like Vadilal and Cream bell. Major chunk of the respondents feel that the best feature of Amul is its Quality and taste. The adequate price of the product is the second valuable feature. Customers are highly quality and price sensitive in Ghaziabad. Relatively they are more price sensitive then quality. When asked to recall an advertisement in respect of any schemes launched by company, almost all the respondents were able to recall only one or two advertisements. Majority of respondent are not even aware about many schemes. TV advertising provides a unique blend of sight, color, movement, sound, repetition and presentation of the products. This helps TV commercials to gain advantage over other Media.


1. The data obtained is focused to Indrapuram, Dasna,Govindpuram, Raj Nagar, and Mahanagar other areas are untouched then results may vary. 2. Due to shortage of time study was restricted. 3. Inaccessibility to certain areas also restricted the study to a limited sample size. 4. Customer responses some time affected due to hellow effect or pear influences. 5. Many times consumers hide the exact information and provide what the informs wants.

NAME _____________

Age group
(In years)

BELOW 10 10-15 16-20

21-35 36-45 45-60


Gender Marital Status







______________ _________________ _________________ _______________

Q.1 How many brands among the following are you aware of?
Amul Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls Mother dairy Gloria Go Go Top n Town Dinshaes Softel

Q.2 Which brand do you prefer while buying Ice cream? (Rank 1-10)
Amul Vadilal Cream bell Kwality walls Mother dairy Gloria Go Go Top n Town Dinshaes Softel

Q.3 While buying Ice-cream which factor do you consider most?

o o o

Quality Price Availability


o o

Taste Flavor

Q.4 Do packaging affect buying behavior?

Yes No

Q.5 Does Amul Ice cream packaging attract you?

o o o o

Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

Q.6 Are you aware that Amul Ice cream made up of real milk and not from vegetable oil?
Yes No

Q.7 Does price of Ice cream affect the purchase of branded Ice Cream?
Yes No

Q.8 You like to Enjoy Ice cream at-

o o o

Parlors Home Restaurant 71


Q.9 Have you ever tried Amul Ice cream?

Yes No

Q.10 How do you find Amul Ice cream?

o o o o o

Excellent Good Average Not good Very bad

Q.11 Are you aware with the fact that Amul has been ranked number one brand due to its quality?
Yes NO

Q.12 Do you know about various schemes run by Amul?

Yes No

Q.13 If yes, among them which are known by you?

o o o o o



Q.14 Have you come across any of Amul advertisement?

Yes No

Q.15 Through which media have you come across more of such Advertisement?

o o o o o o




Research Methodology C.R Kothari, Publisher: New Age Publications New Delhi, Publication Date: 03-30-2009 Marketing Management- Phillip Kotler 14th Edition, Publisher: Pearson Education, Topic Analyzing Customer Markets

Business World ,Publisher: Ananda Publications, New Delhi, Edition: July 2012. Indian Journal of Marketing(ISSN-0973-8703). Topic Consumer Behavior. www.amul.com , To check company introduction, list of products. www.Wikipedia.com to know detail about ice cream Industries in India