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13.1: a) s. rad 10 38 . 1 2 s, 10 55 .

4
3
2
3
1
= = = = =

f T
T

f

b) s. rad 10 53 . 5 2 s, 10 14 . 1
3 3
Hz) 220 ( 4
1
= = =

f

13.2: a) Since the glider is released form rest, its initial displacement (0.120 m) is the
amplitude. b) The glider will return to its original position after another 0.80 s, so the
period is 1.60 s. c) The frequency is the reciprocal of the period (Eq. (13.2)), = =
s 60 . 1
1
f
Hz. 625 . 0

13.3: The period is s 10 14 . 1
3
440
s 50 . 0

= and the angular frequency is = =
T

2
s. rad 10 53 . 5
3


13.4: (a) From the graph of its motion, the object completes one full cycle in 2.0 s; its
period is thus 2.0 s and its frequency . s 5 . 0 period 1
1
= = (b) The displacement varies from
m, 20 . 0 to m 20 . 0 + so the amplitude is 0.20 m. (c) 2.0 s (see part a)

13.5: This displacement is
4
1
of a period.
s. 0500 . 0 so s, 200 . 0 1 = = = t f T

13.6: The period will be twice the time given as being between the times at which the glider
is at the equilibrium position (see Fig. (13.8));
m. N 292 . 0 kg) 200 . 0 (
s) 60 . 2 ( 2
2 2
2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

m
T

m k

13.7: a) kg. 084 . 0 c) s. rad 7 . 37 2 b) s. 167 . 0
2
1
= = = = = =

k
f
m f T

13.8: Solving Eq. (13.12) for k,
m. N 10 05 . 1
s 150 . 0
2
kg) 600 . 0 (
2
3
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

T

m k

13.9: From Eq. (13.12) and Eq. (13.10), Hz, 66 . 2 s, 375 . 0 2
1
m N 140
kg 500 . 0
= = = =
T
f T
s. rad 7 . 16 2 = = f

13.10: a) ) ( so , ) sin(
2 2
2
2
t x x t A a
dt
x d
x
= + = = is a solution to Eq. (13.4) if
A a
m
k
2 b) .
2
= = a constant, so Eq. (13.4) is not satisfied. c) ,
) ( t i
dt
dx
x
i v
+
= =
= = = =
+
m k t x x Ae i a
t i
dt
dv
x
x
2 2 ) ( 2
if (13.4) Eq. o solution t a is ) ( so , ) (

13.11: a) s, m 8.29 Hz) )(440 m)(2 10 (3.0 b) ) Hz) )(440 ((2 cos mm) 0 . 3 (
3
= =

t x
), Hz) )(440 sin((2 ) s m 10 34 . 6 ( ) ( c) . s m 10 29 . 2 Hz) 440 ( ) mm)(2 0 . 3 (
3 7 2 4 2 2
t t j = =
. s m 10 34 . 6
3 7
max
= j

13.12: a) From Eq. (13.19), m. 98 . 0
0 0
= = =
m k
v

v
A b) Equation (13.18) is
indeterminant, but from Eq. (13.14), ,
2
t
| = and from Eq. (13.17), sin . so , 0
2

+ = > | |
c) )). ) s rad sin((12.2 m) 98 . 0 ( so , sin )) 2 ( ( cos t x t t = = +

13.13: With the same value for , Eq. (13.19) gives m 383 . 0 = A and Eq. (13.18) gives
( ). rad 02 . 1 rad/s) (12.2 cos m) (0.383 and + = t x
, 58.5 rad 02 . 1
kg N/m/2.00 300 m) (0.200
m/s) 4.00 (
arctan = =
|
|
.
|

\
|

= |

and x = (0.383 m) cos ((12.2 rad/s)t + 1.02 rad).

13.14: For SHM, ( ) . m/s 71 . 2 m) 10 1 . 1 ( Hz) 5 . 2 ( 2 ) 2 (
2 2 2 2 2
= = = =

x f x a
x

b) From Eq. (13.19) the amplitude is 1.46 cm, and from Eq. (13.18) the phase angle is
0.715 rad. The angular frequency is rad/s, 7 . 15 2 = f so
. rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 cos ) cm/s 359 (
rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 sin ) s cm 9 . 22 (
rad) 715 . 0 rad/s) ((15.7 cos cm) 46 . 1 (
2
+ =
+ =
+ =
t a
t v
t x
x
x


13.15: The equation describing the motion is ; sint A x = this is best found from either
inspection or from Eq. (13.14) (Eq. (13.18) involves an infinite argument of the arctangent).
Even so, x is determined only up to the sign, but that does not affect the result of this
exercise. The distance from the equilibrium position is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) m. 353 . 0 5 4 sin m 600 . 0 2 sin = = T t A

13.16: Empty chair:
k
m
T 2 =
N/m 993
s) (1.30
kg) 5 . 42 ( 4 4
2
2
2
2
= = =

T
m
k
With person in chair:

kg 120 kg 5 . 42 kg 162
kg 162
4
N/m) 993 ( s) 54 . 2 (
4
2
person
2
2
2
2
= =
= = =
=
m

k T
m
k m T




13.17: kg 400 . 0 , 2 = = m k m T
s 09 . 2 2
N/m 60 . 3
m 300 . 0
) m/s 70 . 2 kg)( 400 . 0 (
gives
: calculate to m/s 70 . 2 Use
2
2
= =
+ =

= = =
=
k m T
x
ma
k ma kx
k a
x
x
x


13.18: We have ). 2 ) s 4.71 cm/s)sin(( 60 . 3 ( ) (
1
t t v
x
=

Comparing this to the general
form of the velocity for SHM:
2
s 4.71
cm/s 60 . 3
1

A
= |
=
=


(a) s 33 . 1 s 71 . 4 2 2 T
1
= = =


(b) cm 764 . 0
s 71 . 4
s cm 60 . 3 s cm 60 . 3
1
= = =

A
(c )
2 2 1 2
max
s cm 9 . 16 ) cm 764 . 0 ( ) s 71 . 4 ( = = =

A a

13.19: rad) 42 . 2 s) rad cos((4.16 cm) 40 . 7 ( ) ( a) = t t x
2 2
2 2 2 2
max
max
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
s m 216 . 0 s m ) 0125 . 0 )( 50 . 1 0 . 26 (
. s m 0.303 is Speed
s m 303 . 0 s m ) 0125 . 0 ( ) 0740 . 0 ( 50 . 1 0 . 26
m 0125 . 0 gives s 00 . 1 at evaluated ) ( e)
N 92 . 1 so d)
s m 308 . 0 gives
m 0740 . 0 cm 40 . 7 c)
m N 0 . 26 ) 2 ( so 2 b)
s 1.51 so 2 s) rad (4.16 , When
+ = = =
= = =
= =
= = =
= = = +
= =
= = =
= = =
m kx a
x A m k v
x t t x
kA F kx F
m k A v kA kx mv
A
T m k k m T
T T T t


13.20: See Exercise 13.15;
s. 0.0871 )) (2 0.3 6))( 1.5 arccos( ( = = t

13.21: a) Dividing Eq. (13.17) by ,
. sin , cos
0
0
| = | = A

v
A x
Squaring and adding,
,
2
2
2
0 2
0
A

v
x = +
which is the same as Eq. (13.19). b) At time , 0 = t Eq. (13.21) becomes
,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
0 2
2
0
2
0
2
kx v

k
kx mv kA + = + =
where
2
k m = (Eq. (13.10)) has been used. Dividing by 2 k gives Eq. (13.19).

13.22: a) s. m 1.48 m) 10 Hz))(0.60 392 ( 2 ( ) 2 (
3
max
= = =

A f v
b) J. 10 96 . 2 s) m kg)(1.48 10 7 . 2 (
2
1
) (
2
1
5 2 5 2
max max

= = = V m K

13.23: a) Setting
2
2
1
2
2
1
kx mv = in Eq. (13.21) and solving for x gives .
2
A
x = Eliminating
x in favor of v with the same relation gives . 2
2
2
A
x
m kA v = = b) This happens four
times each cycle, corresponding the four possible combinations of + and in the results of
part (a). The time between the occurrences is one-fourth of a period or
( )
8
3
8 4
3
4
1
2 4
2
2 2
, , c) . 4 /
kA kA

K U E K E U T = = = = = =

13.24: a) From Eq. (13.23),

m/s. 1.20 m) 040 . 0 (
kg 0.500
m N 450
max
= = = A
m
k
v

b) From Eq. (13.22),
m/s. 11 . 1 m) 015 . 0 ( m) 040 . 0 (
kg 0.500
N 450
2 2
= = v
c) The extremes of acceleration occur at the extremes of motion, when , A x = and
2
max
m/s 36
kg) (0.500
m) N/m)(0.040 450 (
= = =
m
kA
a
d) From Eq. (13.4), . m/s 5 . 13
2
kg) (0.500
m) 0.015 N/m)( 450 (
= =

x
a
e) From Eq. (13.31), J. 36 . 0 m) N/m)(0.040 450 (
2
2
1
= = E

13.25: a) ( ) = = = = =

max
2 2 2 2 2
max
. m/s 5.13 m) 10 0 . 18 ( Hz) 85 . 0 ( 2 ) 2 ( v A f A a t t
m/s 961 . 0 2 = = fA A . , m/s 57 . 2 ) 2 ( b)
2 2
= = x f a
x

( ) m/s. 833 . 0 m) 10 0 . 9 ( m) 10 0 . 18 ( Hz) 85 . 0 ( 2
) 2 (
2 2 2 2
2 2
= =
=

x A f v

c) The fraction of one period is ) 2 1 ( arcsin ), 0 . 18 0 . 12 ( and so the time is ) 2 ( T
arcsin
1
10 37 . 1 ) 0 . 18 0 . 12 (

= s. Note that this is also arcsin A x ) ( .
d) The conservation of energy equation can be written
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
kx mv kA + = . We are
given amplitude, frequency in Hz, and various values of x . We could calculate velocity
from this information if we use the relationship
2 2 2
4 f m k = = and rewrite the
conservation equation as
2
2
1
4
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
2
x A
f
v
+ = . Using energy principles is generally a good
approach when we are dealing with velocities and positions as opposed to accelerations and
time when using dynamics is often easier.

13.26: In the example,
m M
M
A A
+
=
1 2
and now we want , So .
2
1
1 2
1
2 m M
M
A A
+
= = or
M m 3 = . For the energy,
2
2 2
1
2
kA E = , but since
1 4
3
1 4
1
2 1 2
1
2
or , , E E E A A = = is lost to heat.

13.27: a) J 0284 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
= + kx mv .
b) m. 014 . 0
kg) (0.150 N/m) 300 (
m/s) 300 . 0 (
m) 012 . 0 (
2
2
2
2
0 2
0
= + = +

v
x
c) = = s m 615 . 0 mA k A

13.28: At the time in question we have
2 2
s m 40 . 8 ) ( cos
s m 20 . 2 ) sin(
m 600 . 0 ) ( cos
= + =
= + =
= + =
|
|
|
t A a
t A v
t A x


Using the displacement and acceleration equations:
2 2 2
s m 40 . 8 m) 600 . 0 ( ) ( cos = = + t A |
1 2
s 742 . 3 and 0 . 14

= = To find A, multiply the velocity equation by :
2 1 2
s m 232 . 8 ) s m (2.20 ) s 742 . 3 ( ) ( sin = = +

| t A
Next square both this new equation and the acceleration equation and add them:
m 840 . 0
m 7054 . 0
) s 742 . 3 (
s m 3 . 138 s m 3 . 138
s m 3 . 138 s m 56 . 70 s m 77 . 67
) ( cos ) ( sin
) s m 40 . 8 ( ) s m 232 . 8 ( ) ( cos ) ( sin
2
4 1
4 2
4
4 2
2
4 2 4 2 4 2 2 4
2 2 2 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4
=
= = =
= + =
+ + + =
+ = + + +

A

A
A
t t A
t A t A
| |
| |


The object will therefore travel m 0.240 m 600 . 0 m 840 . 0 = to the right before stopping
at its maximum amplitude.

13.29: m k A v =
max

s m 509 . 0 Then
m. 0405 . 0 ) ( so
: find to Use
s 158 ) 2 ( so 2
: find to Use
max
max max
max
2 2
= =
= = =
= = =

m k A v
m k a A m kA a
A a
T m k k m T
m k T


13.30: Using
0
0
L
F
k = from the calibration data,
kg. 00 . 6
Hz)) 60 . 2 ( (2
m) 10 (1.25 N) 200 (
) 2 (
) (
2
1
2
0 0
=

= =

f
L F
m

13.31: a) m. N 10 1 53
m) 120 . 0 (
) s m (9.80 kg) 650 (

3
2
= = =
l
mg
k
b) s. 695 . 0
s m 9.80
m 120 . 0
2 2 2
2
= = = = =
g
l

k
m
T
A


13.32: a) J 92 . 3 so , 0 , 0
spring grav
= = = U K U .

b) At the top of the motion, the spring is unstretched and so has no potential
energy, the cat is not moving and so has no kinetic energy, and the gravitational potential
energy relative to the bottom is J 3.92 m) 050 . 0 ( ) m/s kg)(9.80 00 . 4 ( 2 2
2
= = mgA .
This is the total energy, and is the same total for each part.

c)At equilibrium the spring is stretched half as much as it was for part (a), and so
J 98 . 0 so and J, 1.96 J) 92 . 3 ( J, 0.98 J) 92 . 3 (
2
1
grav 4
1
spring
= = = = = K U U .

13.33: The elongation is the weight divided by the spring constant,
cm 97 . 3
4
2
2
2
= = = =

gT
m
mg
k
w
l A .

13.34: See Exercise 9.40. a) The mass would decrease by a factor of 27 1 ) 3 1 (
3
= and so
the moment of inertia would decrease by a factor of ) 243 1 ( ) 3 1 )( 27 1 (
2
= , and for the
same spring constant, the frequency and angular frequency would increase by a factor of
6 . 15 243 = . b) The torsion constant would need to be decreased by a factor of 243, or
changed by a factor of 0.00412 (approximately).

13.35: a) With the approximations given, , m kg 10 72 . 2
2 8 2
= =

mR I
2 8
m kg 10 2.7 or

to two figures.
b) rad m N 10 3 . 4 ) m kg 10 72 . 2 ( Hz) 2 2 ( ) 2 (
6 2 8 2 2
= = =

I f .

13.36: Solving Eq. (13.24) for k in terms of the period,
m/rad. N 10 91 . 1
) m) 10 kg)(2.20 10 00 . 2 )( 2 1 ((
s 00 . 1
2

2
5
2 2 3
2
2
=

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= k

I
T


13.37:
( )
. m kg 0152 . 0
s) (265 125) ( 2
m/rad N 450 . 0
) 2 (
2
2 2
=

=
k
=
f
I

13.38: The equation ) t ( cos + O = describes angular SHM. In this problem, . 0 =
a) ). cos( and ) sin(
2
2
2
t t
dt
d
dt
d
O = O =
b) When the angular displacement is ) cos( , t O = O O , and this occurs at , 0 = t so
1. cos(0) since , and 0, sin(0) since 0
2
2
2
= = = = O
dt
d
dt
d

When the angular displacement is ). cos( or ), cos( , 2
2
1
2
t t = O = O
O

. 2 1 ) cos( since ,
2
and ,
2
3
) sin( since
2
3
2
2
2
=
O
= =
O
= t

dt
d
t

dt
d

This corresponds to a displacement of 60 .

13.39: Using the same procedure used to obtain Eq. (13.29), the potential may be
expressed as
]. ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 [(
6
0
12
0 0

+ + = R x R x U U
Note that at . ,
0 0
U U R r = = Using the appropriate forms of the binomial theorem for
| |
0
R x << 1,
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
~
2
0 0
2
0 0
0
2
7 6
6 1 2
2
13 12
12 1
R x R x
R x R x
U U

(

+ =
2
2
0
0
36
1 x
R
U
.
2
1
0
2
U kx =
where
2
0
/ 72 R U k = has been used. Note that terms in
2
u from Eq. (13.28) must be kept
; the fact that the first-order terms vanish is another indication that
0
R is an extreme (in this
case a minimum) of U.


13.40:
( ) ( )
Hz. 10 33 . 1
kg) 10 66 . 1 ( 008 . 1
N/m) 580 ( 2
2
1
2 2
1
14
27
=
t
=
t
=

m
k
f

13.41: , 2 g L T t = so for a different acceleration due to gravity , g'
( ) s. 60 . 2 s m 71 . 3 s m 80 . 9 s 60 . 1
2 2
= = ' = ' g g T T

13.42: a) To the given precision, the small-angle approximation is valid. The highest
speed is at the bottom of the arc, which occurs after a quarter period, s. 25 . 0
2 4
= =
g
L T t

b) The same as calculated in (a), 0.25 s. The period is independent of amplitude.

13.43: Besides approximating the pendulum motion as SHM, assume that the angle
is sufficiently small that the length of the spring does not change while swinging in the
arc. Denote the angular frequency of the vertical motion as
L
g kg
m
k
= ' = = e e
e
and
0

,
4 0 2
1
w
kg
= = which is solved for k w L 4 = . But L is the length of the stretched
spring; the unstretched length is ( ) ( ) m. 00 . 2 N/m 50 . 1 N 00 . 1 3 3
0
= = = = k w k w L L

13.44:


13.45: The period of the pendulum is ( ) s. 36 . 1 100 s 136 = = T Then,
( )
( )
. s m 67 . 10
s 1.36
m 5 . 4 4
2
2
2
2
2
= = =

T
L
g
13.46: From the parallel axis theorem, the moment of inertia of the hoop about the nail is
( ). 13.39 Eq. in with , 2 2 so , 2
2 2 2
R d g R T MR MR MR I = = = + = Solving for R,
m. 496 . 0 8
2
2
= = gT R

13.47: For the situation described, L d mL I = = and
2
in Eq. (13.39); canceling the factor
of m and one factor of L in the square root gives Eq. (13.34).

13.48: a) Solving Eq. (13.39) for I,
( )( )( ) . m kg 0987 . 0 m 250 . 0 s m 80 . 9 kg 1.80
2
s 940 . 0

2
2 2
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

mgd

T
I
b) The small-angle approximation will not give three-figure accuracy for
rad. 0.400 = From energy considerations,
( ) .
2
1
cos 1
2
max
I mgd = O
Expressing
max
O in terms of the period of small-angle oscillations, this becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) . s rad 66 . 2 rad 0.40 cos 1
s 940 . 0
2
2 cos 1
2
2
2 2
max
=
|
.
|

\
|
= O
|
.
|

\
|
= O

T


13.49: Using the given expression for I in Eq. (13.39), with d=R (and of course m=M),
s. 58 . 0 3 5 2 = = g R T

13.50: From Eq. (13.39),
( )( )( ) . kg.m 129 . 0
2
100 s 120
m 200 . 0 s m 9.80 kg 80 . 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

T
mgd I