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Agro-ecosystem management and analysis at farm scale

Weeds and weed control


Per Kudsk Department of Agroecology

Outline
Introduction
Why do we need to control weeds, diseases and pests?

Weed biology Weed population dynamic Weed competition Weed control


Preventive methods Non-chemical methods Chemical weed control

Decision support system (Plant Protection Online)

Introduction

Potential and actual yield


Potential yield CO2 Light intensity Temperature Crop Water Nitrogen Phosphorus

Attainable yield

Actual yield

Weeds Diseases Pests


Goudriaan & Zadoks (1995)

Foto: Knud Tybirk

Pests and yield losses

Oerke, 2006

Effect of Pests and Crop Protection on Maize Production, 2002-04


EC Oerke, unpublished

346.5 M t 0.780 0.349


0.417 0.822 25.4 M t

0.354 0.805 22.1 M t

0.300 M 40.6 0.691

0.286 M t 180.6 0.691

0,610 0,349 M 37.8

t
0.248 M 0.424 29.3

0.237 M 0.523 31.4

t
0.247 M 0.560 41.5

0.255 M 0.447 30.0

0.312 M t 0.632 92.5

0.255 0.583

Production potential 940.3 x 106 t (= 100%)

Production without control 296.7 x 106 t (= 31.6%) Loss potential 68.4%

Production with control 648.5 x 106 t (= 69.0%) Actual losses 31.0%

Effect of Pests and Crop Protection on Rice Production, 2002-04


EC Oerke, unpublished

0.24 272.7 M t 0.71


12.5 M t

17.4 M t

0.22 303.9 M t 0.57

0.23 272.7 M t 0.64

11.6 M t

22.8 M t

Production potential 922.7 x 106 t (= 100%)

Production without control 211.9 x 106 t (= 23.0%) Loss potential 77.0%

Production with control 588.0 x 106 t (= 63.7%) Actual losses 36.3%

Bichel Committee
Committee on assessing the overall consequences of a partial or total phasing-out of pesticide use (1997-98) Main committee and 4 sub-committees Sub-committee on agriculture Sub-committee on production, economics and employment Sub-committee on health and the environment; Sub-committee on legislation

Bichel Committee
Bichel Committee examined 3 scenarios:
Optimised use of pesticides (+scenario)
31% reduction in pesticide use No adverse economic impact on agriculture

Limited use of pesticides (++scenario)


80% reduction in pesticide use 8-23% reduction in the net profit margin 8% reduction in the Gross Domestic Product at factor costs 0,4% reduction in the Gross Domestic Product Phasing out of pesticides (0-scenario) 20-50% reduction in the net profit margin 15% reduction in the Gross Domestic Product at factor costs 0,8% reduction in the Gross Domestic Product

Bichel Committee
0-scenario
Grassland Oilseed rape Winter rye Sugar beets Spring barley Peas Winter barley Winter wheat Potato

10

20

30

40

50

60

Grass seed

Percent yield loss

Bichel Committee
0-scenario

Cherry Strawberry Blackberry Pear Apple

20

40

60

80

100

Percent yield loss

Weed biology

What is a weed?
a plant which virtues have yet to be discovered an unwanted plant (unkraut, malherbe, ukrudt) any plant or vegetation excluding fungi, interfering with objectives or requirements of people (European Weed Research Society)

Reasons for defining a plant as a weed


Reduce crop yields Reduce crop quality Delay and interfere with harvesting Interfere with animal feeding Cause poisoning Taint animal products Plant parasites Reduce crop health Reduce animal and human health Safety hazard Reduce wool quality Prevent water flow Exhibit allelopathy Impact on crop establishment

Fallopia convolvolus Galium aparine in wheat

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Senecio jacobaea in grassland Striga hermontica on maize Cympobogon afronardus in grassland

What are the characteristics of a succesfull weed (Bakers rule)


Germination in many environments Self-controlled germination and great longevity of seeds Rapid seedling growth Early onset of seed production Long period of seed production Self-compatibility Easy cross-pollination High seed output (under favourable conditions) Long and short-distance dispersal of seeds Baker (1965) Competitive

Generation time of weeds


Annual weeds
Winter annuals (germinate in the autumn and produce seeds in the spring) (e.g. Centaurea cyanus, Apera spica-venti)
Germination Germination

Flowering Flowering

Generation time of weeds


Annual weeds
Summer annuals (germinate and produce seeds in the spring) (e.g. Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum)
Germination Germination

Flowering

Flowering

Generation time of weeds


Annual weeds
Facultative winter annuals (germinate either spring or autumn and produce seeds the following summer) (e.g. Stellaria media, Poa annua)

Germination

Germination

Flowering

Flowering

Generation time of weeds


Perennial weeds

Year 1 Winter Year 2

Year 1

Winter

Year 2

Reproduction by seeds e.g. Taraxacum officinale, Rumex sp.

Reproduction by vegetative organs e.g. Circium arvensis, Elytrigia repens

Crops and weeds are associated


Strictly autumn-germinating weed species normally only found in autumn-sown crops (e.g. Apera spica-venti, Centaurea cyanus and Papaver rhoaes) Strictly spring-germinating weed species only a problem in autumn-sown crop if the crop competes poorly Many weeds germinate both autumn and spring (facultative winter annuals) and can survive and produce seeds in both autumn- and spring-sown crops

Weed frequency in crops


Winter wheat
1987-89 2001-04

Winter rye
1987-89 2001-04

Grass seed crops


1987-89 2001-04

A. spicaventi P. annua

2,4% 38,1%

15,8% 61,1%

6,8% 22,1%

26,8% 57,3%

0% 46,8%

0% 60,2%

Andreasen & Stryhn (2008). Weed Research 48, 1-9

Life cycle of a weed

Mature plants

Young plants

Soil seed bank

Soil seed bank


Reservoir of viable seeds (for perennial weeds it is a bank of vegetative organs e.g. buds) Seed banks typically contain from 1000 to 80000 seeds per m2 (lowest number in pastures and intensively managed fields) Seed not uniformly distributed in the field which gives rise to nonuniform weed stands Number of seeds often lower on clay than on sandy soils Three types of seed banks:
Transient (less than 1 year, Senecio vulgaris and some grass species) Short-term persistent (1-5 years, e.g. Viola arvensis) Long-term persistens (>5 years, e.g. Papaver rhoaes, Polygonum sp.)

0.5-5% of the seeds germinate every year

Soil seed bank dynamics

Grundy & Jones 2002

Seed dormancy
Dormancy is a barrier preventing germination when conditions would normally be favourable Fresh seeds have primary dormancy (requirement for afterripening). Primary dormancy is regulated by genetics and environment Conditional dormancy follows primary dormancy. The rate of germination will graudually increase and the requirement to the conditions for germination will decrease Conditional dormancy ensures that seeds primarily germinates when conditions are optimum (e.g. autumn versus spring) Seeds may go from primary to conditional and back to primary dormancy

Dormancy

Radosevic et al. 2007

Germination
Soil moisture influence the germination of most weed species Many weed species with small seeds require light induction for germination (prevents fatal germination from depths from which the seedling cannot survive) Alternating temperatures indicating closeness to the soil surface probably also affects germination

Effect of tillage on germination

Radosevic et al. 2007

Seed production
Seed production varies significantly between weed species:
Poa annua Solanum nigrum Alopecurus myosuroides Sinapis arvensis Apera spica-venti Stellaria media Chenopodium album Tripleurospermum perforatum Papaver rhoeas 500 seeds/plant 500 seeds/plant 600 seeds/plant 1,000 seeds/plant 5,000 seeds/plant 15,000 seeds/plant 20,000 seeds/plant 34,000 seeds/plant 41,000 seeds/plant

Seed persistence
% germination after 6 years
Weed species Tripleurospermum inodorum Fallopia convolvolus Chenopodium album Polygonum aviculare Poa annua Viola arvensis Papaver rhoaes Stellaria media Capsella bursa-pastoris Spergula arvensis Veronica arvensis Senecio vulgaris Cultivated soil 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 4 4 2 1 0,3 Non-cultivated soil 23 26 53 39 24 38 21 22 23 13 33 13 Robert & Feast 1973

Weeds are different from most diseases and pests


The fact that weeds originates from seeds in the soil seed bank makes weeds a chronic problem in contrast to most diseases and pests which can be characterised as epidemic problems. The long-term aspect of weed control strongly influences the attitude of farmers and advisors to weed control practices

Weed population dynamics

Weed population dynamics


Annual cycle vs. sequence of annual cycles
K=ceiling population

r =maximum growth rate

K Nt = -----------------------1 + (K/No -1)e-rt Nt = number of individuals at time t No = number of individuals at time zero K = the carrying capacity of the system r = the maximum unrestricted population growth rate t = time Norris et al. 2007

Germination over time


Accumulated germination (%)

100 75 50 25 0 4-10 90 23-11 90 12-1 91 Date


A. myosuroides Rvehale1 - 60 A. spica-venti Vindaks1 - 21

3-3 91

22-4 91

Life cycle flow diagram

Radosevic et al. 2007

Crop-weed competition

Crop-weed competition

Radosevic et al. 2007

Papaver rhoeas 1988

Yield loss %

Chenopodium album 1986

Papaver rhoeas 1989

Number of weed plants per m2


Efter Conn & Thomas, 1987 og Wilson m.fl., 1995)

Yield loss vs. Apera spica-venti density


Summary of winter wheat trials conducted by DAAS 1997-2007
50 45 40

Yield loss (hkg/ha)

35 30
y = 3,7388Ln(x) - 0,6274

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200

R = 0,1274

250

300

Apera spica-venti plants/m2

Critical period for weed control

Radosevic et al. 2007

Critical period for weed control


Organic winter wheat

Welsh et al. 1999

Critical period for weed control


Organic winter wheat

Weed infested

Weed free

Weed free

Weed infested

Welsh et al. 1999

Weed control

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Crop rotation
50% winter annual crops 100% winter annual crops

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 25 50 100

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 25 50 100


Ploughing

Herbicide dose, % af standard dose

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Choice of cultivar

Competitive wheat variety

Non-competitive wheat variety

Crop competitiveness

Christensen 1994

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Choice of cultivar Crop establisment

Sowing date of winter wheat

Christensen 1993

Sowing density of winter wheat

Christensen 1993

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Choice of cultivar Crop establisment Plant spacing

Uniform plant spacing

= crop plant

Plant spacing
Planting in rows Weed biomass (g/m2)

Crop evenly distributed

Sowing rate (seed pr. m2)


(Fra Weiner et al., 2001)

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Choice of cultivar Crop establisment Plant spacing Cultivation

Crop rotation
50% winter annual crops 100% winter annual crops

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 25 50 100

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 25 50 100


Ploughing No ploughing

Herbicide dose, % af standard dose

Preventive measures
Crop rotation
Annual vs. perennial crops, winter vs. spring annual crops, cover crops etc.

Choice of cultivar Crop establisment Plant spacing Cultivation Preventing introduction of weeds

Introduction of new weed species


Vulpia sp. is an increasing problem in grass seed crops
Ploughing Harrowing 148 No tillage

160

No. Panicles/m -2 in July

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 W. wheat 40% spring crops


0 0 2 1 78

Non-chemical weed control

Chemical weed control


30
5000 100.000
Profile
Evaluation

1-2

Products

Screening

Time

Classification of herbicides by use


Contact (e.g. ioxynil)
Foliage applied Translocated (e.g. SU herbicides) Selective Non-mobile (e.g. prosulfocarb) Soil applied Translocated (e.g. metamitron) Contact (e.g. diquat) Foliage applied

Translocated (e.g. glyphosate)


Non-selective Non-mobile (e.g. fumigants) Soil applied

Translocated (e.g. simazin)

Herbicide selectivity
Selectivity
Metabolism in the crop Herbicide dose (differences in retention on the leaves, differences in depth of germination) Time of application (before crop emergence, crop dormant)

Herbicide selectivity

Herbicide

Herbicide activity
Weed spectrum
Broad-spectrum herbicides (dicot and monocot weeds) Narrow-spectrum herbicides (typically monocot weeds)

Herbicide activity
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
um S. m ed ia rv en si ca in od or V. pe r vi c ul a si re s

Percent control

1/16 N 1/8 N 1/4 N 1/2 N 1N

V. a

T.

Chlorsulfuron

Ioxynil+bromoxynil

P. a

Factors affecting herbicide activity


Weed flora Weed growth stage Crop competiveness Soil type Climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, light, rain etc.) Application technique (including water quality)

Herbicide resistance

Glyphosate resistant crops

EUs new pesticide legislation

Regulation 1107/2009 replacing Directive 91/414/EEC Regulation 1185/2009 on the collection on statistics on PPP COM(2006) 778 final

Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides Directive 2009/127/EC on the placing on the market of pesticide application equipment

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EU Direktive 128/2009
Training of professional users, distributors and advisors Inspection of spray equipment in use Specific measures to protect the aquatic environment and drinking water Reduction of pesticide use or risks in specific areas Harmonized pesticide indicator National Action Plan before 1/12-2012 Integrated Pest Management should be applied by all professional users of pesticides by 1/1-2014

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Definitions of IPM
65 definitions of IPM (Ehler, 2006)
"IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural and chemical tools in a way that minimises economic, environmental and health risks (ENDURE, 2008) ENDURE sees Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as a continuously improving process in which innovative solutions are integrated and locally adapted as they emerge and contribute to reducing reliance on pesticides in agricultural systems

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The 8 IPM principles


1. Harmfull organisms should be prevented e.g. by crop rotation, adequate cultivation techniques, resistent/tolerant varieties and protection of beneficial organisms 2. Harmful organisms must be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such adequate tools should include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warning, forecasting and early diagnosis systems 3. Based on the results of the monitoring the professional user has to decide whether and when to apply plant protection measures. Robust and scientifically sound threshold values are essential components for decision making. 4. Sustainable non-chemical control methods should be preferred to chemical methods if they provide satisfactory control

The 8 IPM principles


5. Apply pesticides specific for the target with the least side effects on human health and the environment 6. Use of pesticides and other forms of intervention should be kept to levels that are necessary, e.g. by reduced doses, reduced application frequency or partial applications 7. Available anti-resistance strategies should be applied to maintain the effectiveness of the products. This may include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action. 8. Based on the records on the use of pesticides and on the monitoring of harmful organisms the professional user should check the success of the applied plant protection measures.

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