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Chapter 2:

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Multiple Choice
c. contains many small holes d. all of these 1. An igneous rock that contains vesicles ____________. a. is also extrusive b. is also fine grained 2. As the rate of cooling increases (speeds up), the size of the crystals that form ____________.

a. increases b. decreases c. is not affected 3. Which one of the following is an igneous rock? a. limestone b. rhyolite c. slate d. shale

4. Intrusive rocks ____________. a. are generally fine grained b. form at Earth's surface c. are quite often vesicular d. are also termed volcanic e. none of these 5. Granite and gabbro ____________. a. have a similar mineral composition

b. have a similar texture c. a. and b. d. are in no way similar 6. Obsidian exhibits this texture. a. aphanitic b. glassy c. porphyritic d. phaneritic e. pyroclastic

7. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit this texture. a. fine grained

b. glassy c. porphyritic

d. coarse grained e. pyroclastic 8. This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes. a. aphanitic b. glassy c. porphyritic d. phaneritic

e. pyroclastic 9. Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock. a. basalt b. andesite c. granite d. diorite e. gabbro

10. From the following, select the coarse grained rock, which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar. a. basalt b. andesite c. granite d. diorite e. gabbro

11. This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America. a. basalt b. andesite c. granite d. diorite e. gabbro 12. Which of the rocks listed below is popular building stone?

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a. b. c. d.

basalt andesite granite diorite

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth


e. gabbro

13. The texture of an igneous rock _________. a. is controlled by the composition of magma b. is the shape of the rock body c. determines the color of the rock d. is caused by leaching e. records the rock's cooling history 14. Igneous rock is formed ____________.

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a. by the weathering of preexisting rocks b. by changes in mineral composition c. at great depth within Earth d. by crystallization of molten rock 15. Sedimentary rocks ____________. a. may contain fossils b. hold important clues to Earth's history

c. are layered d. may be economically important e. all of these 16. Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of ______. a. color b. type of bedding c. mineral composition

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d. particle size 17. Sedimentary rocks compose approximately ____________ of Earth's outermost 10 miles. a. 20% b. 30% c. 50% d. 75% e. none of these 18. Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)? a. conglomerate b. shale c. both conglomerate and shale d. neither conglomerate nor shale

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19. Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks? a. quartz and olivine b. calcite and clay c. halite and feldspar d. clay and quartz e. dolomite and gypsum

20. Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except a ____________. a. swamp b. salt flat c. river floodplain d. delta

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21. Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ____________. a. shale b. sandstone c. conglomerate d. chert e. breccia

22. Sedimentary rocks account for about ____ percent of rock exposures on the continents. a. 5 b. 20 c. 35 d. 50 e. 75

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23. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ____________. a. limestone b. dolomite c. chert d. rock salt e. sylvite

24. Which of the following lists presents forms of coal in the correct order from the lowest grade to the highest grade? a. lignite, bituminous, anthracite b. bituminous, anthracite, lignite c. anthracite, lignite, bituminous d. lignite, anthracite, bituminous e. anthracite, bituminous, lignite

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25. Metamorphism may result from________. a. heat b. pressure c. chemical action d. any or all of these e. only heat and pressure

26. Many metamorphic rocks ____________. a. are extremely fossiliferous b. have a linear orientation of minerals c. are unaltered sedimentary rocks d. all of these e. none of these

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27. Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism? a. certain minerals may recrystallize b. the rock becomes more compact c. crystals may grow larger d. all of these e. a. and b. 28. When certain minerals recrystallize with a preferred orientation that is

perpendicular to the direction of the compressional force, the rock is said to exhibit ____________. a. shear b. foliation c. aureole d. all of these e. none of these

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29. The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ____________. a. marble b. mica schist c. phyllite d. gneiss e. hornfels

30. This metamorphic rock is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals ____________. a. phyllite b. mica schist c. quartzite

Testban k

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d. gneiss e. marble 31. This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone. a. phyllite b. mica schist c. quartzite d. gneiss

e. marble 32. The process of metamorphism involves ____________. a. formation of rock from magma b. transformation of preexisting rock c. decomposition of preexisting rock d. mass movement of rock material e. only Precambrian rocks

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33. This metamorphic rock is particularly prized as a building stone. a. marble b. gneiss c. gabbro d. phyllite e. mica schist 34. The agents of metamorphism are _______.

a. b. c. d. e.

uplifting and folding foliation and deposition contact and regional deformation heat, pressure, and chemical fluids slaty and platy cleavage

35. The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ____________. a. folding b. heat

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c. stress d. sheer e. strain 36. What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following lowgrade metamorphism? a. marble b. mica schist c. slate

d. gneiss

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth


e. none of these 37. Through metamorphic activity _________. a. sandstone can change to marble b. granite can change to clay minerals

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c. slate can change to shale d. granite can change to gneiss e. limestone can change to quartzite

38. Most of the heat for contact metamorphism is supplied by ____________. a. frictional heating along a fault b. radioactive elements c. deep burial within Earth d. a nearby mass of magma e. heat trapped by cap rock

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True-False:
39. Bowen's reaction series helps to explain different igneous rock textures. 40. When the crystals composing an igneous rock are visible to the unaided eye, we say the texture is coarse grained. 41. Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock. 42. One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral composition.

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43. The fine-grained equivalent of granite is rhyolite. 44. Quartz is easily weathered to clay. 45. The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale. 46. Anthracite coal is a metamorphic rock. 47. When a sandstone contains appreciable quantities of feldspar, the rock is called arkose.

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47. Evaporites have a biochemical origin. 49. Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks. 50. Mineral composition is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks. 51. Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among the various chemical sedimentary rocks.

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52. Mineral composition is the primary basis for distinguishing among the various chemical sedimentary rocks. 53. The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized. 54. Most limestone has a biochemical origin. 55. Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sandsized particles.

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Testban k
56. During metamorphism the material undergoing deformation remains a solid. 57. Gneiss rhymes with ice. 58. The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism.

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59. Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism. 60. Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building. 61. Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks.

Completion:

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62. Pioneering investigations into the crystallization of magma were carried out by ____________. 63. Obsidian exhibits a ____________ texture. 64. Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their mineral composition and ____________. 65. Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their texture and ____________. 66. The two most common minerals in detrital sedimentary rocks are _________ and _________.

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67. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ____________. 68. When a sedimentary rock consists of angular, gravel-sized particles, it is called ____________. 69. The type of limestone commonly seen decorating caves is known as ____________. 70. Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called ____________.

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71. ____________ refers to the processes by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks. 72. Two common ways in which sediments are lithified are compaction and ____________. 73. Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is ____________. 74. The partial decomposition of plant remains in an oxygen-poor swamp creates a layer of soft, brown material that is not yet coal. This material is known as ____________.

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75. List three agents of metamorphism. ____________, ____________, ____________ 76. Metamorphism that occurs because of close proximity to a mass of magma is called ____________ metamorphism.

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

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Answers to Chapter 2 Test Questions Multiple Choice:


1. d 2. b 3. b 11. b 12. c 13. e 21. a 22. e 23. a 31. c 32. b 33. a

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

e b b d c c c

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

d e d e a d b

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

a d b d b a d

34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

d b c d d

True- False:

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39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

false true false true true false false true true false

49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58.

true false false true false true false true true true

59. false 60. true 61. false

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Completion:
62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. N.L. Bowen glassy texture mineral composition clay, quartz limestone breccia travertine 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. cementation layers (beds) peat heat, pressure, chemical fluids contact

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70. evaporites 71. Lithification

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