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A Turning Point in History: The Roaring Twenties

Madison Maguire Camryn Wallace Annabelle O' Neill Junior Division Group Web Site

Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Bow, Clara. "Clara Bow: My Life Story" in Photoplay. Chicago: Macfadden Publications, February 1928. The Clara Bow Page. http://theclarabowpage.tripod.com (accessed January 2, 2013). Clara Bow was a women during the 1920s that was a flapper girl, who helped create the "bob" look to help switch gender roles. This first-hand account of her life, was very important to our website, because it helped us understand what a flapper girl was, and what she did in her daily life. Fitzgerald F. Scott. "Dust Jacket Illustration" from Great Gatsby. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925. www.sc.edu (accessed on February 8, 2013). Scott Fitzgerald's cover of his novel the Great Gatsby influenced us to do more research about the novel, and who it impacted. This illustration made us more aware of the feelings in the novel. Leonard, Judy. "Interview with Judy Leonard; The Impact of the Roaring Twenties," telephone interview by Madison Maguire. Judy Leonard grew up during the 1900s, and has a firsthand account of the affect of the Roaring Twenties. This interview helped us understand the opportunities available to women, and how the Roaring Twenties impacted women in the USA. Millay, Edna St. Vincent. "First Fig" in a Few Figs From Thistles, Poems and Sonnets. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1922. www.digital.library.upenn.edu (accessed February 28, 2013). Edna St. Millays Poem, influenced women to try new things. This original poem, influenced Margaret Gorman, and it provided us with more knowledge about literature during the Roaring Twenties, and we used a quote from the poem on our site. Tarkington, Booth. Alice Adams. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1921. www.archive.org (accessed of February 28, 2013).

Booth Tarkington's novel, Alice Adams influenced women like Nellie Tayloe Ross to climb the social ladder, in society and government. This archive of the 1921, novel, helped us understand why it influenced women to climb the social ladder.

Secondary Sources "Alice Adams: By Booth Tarkington" from Wordpress, LibriVox. www.librivox.org (accessed on February 23, 2013). Librivox is a public domain website that has the acoustical liberation of novels. This website provided us with a quote about Booth Tarkington's novel, Alice Adams. "Amelia Earhart: She was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean" from NPR. www.m.npr.org (accessed on February 23, 2013). Amelia Earhart, the first women to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, was influenced by the Great Gatsby, because she wanted to strive for equality with men. This photo connects with the writing on our website, and makes the website more interesting.

BBC Four: Hollywoods Lost Screen Goddess- Clara Bow. Bristol Silents. http://bristolsilents.org.uk/ (accessed Febuary 12, 2013). Clara Bow was very important to the women in the Roaring Twenties. This second-hand account was very useful to our website because it provided a picture of Clara Bow that makes our site look more visually appealing. Benner, Louise. "A New Women Emerges" from TarHeel Junior Historian. North Carolina: NC Museum of History, Spring 2004. www.ncpedia.org/history (accessed January 7, 2012). In this article, by Louise Benner, it explains the jobs and fashion available to women during the Roaring Twenties. This article made us want to read more about the flapper girl. Cavanaugh, Melinda, Becky Bradley. "The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald LSC Kingwood". Lonestar Education. www.lonestar.edu/library (accessed January 20, 2013). In this article, it explains who Scott Fitzgerald was, what his novel was about, and it also shows different views of criticism. After being informed from the article, we decided we still needed more research on "The Great Gatsby".

Charles Richard Lester's picture from The Energex. www.1377731.com/museum/sears.htm (accessed on March 13, 2013). This picture displays a vintage vacuum cleaner advertisement from the 1920s. This picture was helpful because it gave us a better understanding of how companies sold and promoted products to the public. Clara Bow. The Clara Bow Page. http://clarabow.net/ (accessed February 10, 2013). Clara Bow was a big influence to other women to break out of their shells, accept change, and advertise the changes in their clothing. This second-hand account that includes a picture was important to our website because it shows Clara Bow and her haircut, the bob, that shows a big change in fashion that represents changes in society.

Classzone http://www.classzone.com/net_explorations/U7/U7_article3.cfm (accessed on February 25, 2013). This picture displays an advertisement for the sunbeam electric iron. This was helpful because it shows a way that companies tried selling their products by targeting the husbands, so they want to buy their wife their product to relieve them of hours of cleaning. "Contact Information" from Gallantry Press. http://www.gallantrypress.com/contact.html (accessed on February 23, 2013). When we were creating our website, and finding good templates, we decided we needed "headers" at the top of each of our pages. A "header" found on many of our website pages, is this bookshelf photo, from Gallantry Press. Corset History. Lady Waisted. http://www.ladywaisted.com/blog/ (accessed January 26, 2013). Women used corsets to give them the silhouette that they wanted to have. This second-hand account provided a diagram of a 1920s corset that gave women a boyish silhouette to mix up gender roles. Culture 24, http://www.culture24.org.uk/sector%20info/campaigns/art13772 (accessed on February 25, 2013.) This picture displays a women and her Hoover electric washing machine. This picture was helpful because it shows how companies advertised their products, and targeted women

because they were the ones who where cleaning the household, therefore they would be using the products. Delaney, Bill. "Edna St. Vincent Millay" in Dictionary of World Biography: The 20th Century. Salem Press, January 2000. Ebsco Host Databases, Literary Reference Center. www.ebscohost.com (accessed on January 28, 2013). After searching though Ebsco Host Databases, we found an article on Edna St. Vincent Millay that described her life. Edna St. Vincent Millay was a famous poet during the 1900's that wrote hundred's of poems. She is not very well known today, and deserves more credit. This article influenced us to find one of her poems. "Edna St. Vincent Millay became a bestselling poet and a symbol of her time" from Creating America, i713. Original photo from: Underwood & Underwood/Corbis. During the Roaring Twenties, Edna St. Vincent Millay voiced her opinions through poetry. This photo of Edna St. Vincent Millay , located on our website, provided a visualization of our project's thesis. "Edna St. Vincent Millay, ca. 1940" from Maine Historical Society. Portland, Maine: 1940. www.mainememory.net (accessed on February 23, 2013). Edna St. Vincent Millay was a famous poet of the 1920's. This photo helped us make our website interactive, and visually appealing. "Eighth International F. Scott Fitzgerald Conference" from Hofstra University. www.hofstra.edu (accessed on February 23, 2013). Scott Fitzgerald was a famous novelist throughout the Roaring Twenties, who wrote the Great Gatsby. This illustration depicts a picture of what Scott Fitzgerald looks like, that helps you understand who he was. "Famous Hoosiers: Booth Tarkington, Indianapolis, 1869-1946" from Photo Courtesy of Indiana Office of Tourism Development. www.in.gov (accessed on February 25, 2013). Booth Tarkington was a famous novelist of the 1920's, who wrote Alice Adams. This photo (specifically cited as asked) is a visual representation of Booth Tarkington, that makes our website more visually appealing. "Flag Burning Ceremony" from Walk of the Heroes Memorial. http://www.walkofheroes.org/flag-burning-ceremon (accessed on March 1, 2013).

Walk of the Heroes Memorial, provided us with a photo of a flag, that provided a visualization of where our turning point occurred. "F. Scott Fitzgerald" from the New-York Historical Society. Photo in: The Roaring Twenties. New York: Infobase Publishing. The Roaring Twenties novel and the New-York Historical Society, provided us with this photo of author Scott Fitzgerald, who wrote the Great Gatsby. This photo is part of our slideshow on our website, and makes it more visually appealing. History, "The Roaring Twenties," A&E Televisions Networks, http://www.history.com (accessed on January 14, 2013). The A&E website provided information on advancements made in the 1920s. This source was helpful because it gave us a background on what overall happened during the Roaring Twenties to society. Jarmul, David. "In the 1920s a Burst of American Art and Expression Takes Form" from The Voice of America; The Making of a Nation. www.manythings.org/voa/history (accessed on February 18, 2013). This program, written by David Jarmul, provided us with a quote about who the novel, the Great Gatsby influenced. Louise Brooks. Leatherock Hotel. http://www.leatherockhotel.com/LouiseBrooks.htm (accessed January 30, 2013). Women in the early 18th century, like Louise Brooks, cut their hair short to a bob. This secondhand account provided pictures of Louise Brooks to show the haircut. Maguire, Madison, Camryn Wallace, Annabelle O'Neil. " The Roaring Twenties gained women equal status: Men vs. Women". (Photo taken from a public restroom sign). This photo, we took from a public restroom sign, because we believed it could symbolize how the Roaring Twenties gave women equal status with men; this photo is on our thesis page. "Margaret Gorman: 1921, District of Columbia" from Miss America. Miss America: 1921. www.missamerica.org (accessed on February 25, 2013). Margaret Gorman was the first Miss America in the USA; she was influenced by Edna St. Vincent Millay's poem, called "First Fig". This photo adds detail to our website that helps reading comprehension.

Middleton, Ken. American Women Through Time, 1920s; Timeline" Middle Tennessee State University Library. www.capone.mtsu.edu/ (accessed January 22, 2013). This timeline showed American women throughout the 1920s. It included brief descriptions of events that involved Amelia Earhart, Edna St. Vincent Millay and Nellie Tayloe Ross. This source gave us information about women, that influenced us to do more research. Miller, Nina. Making Love Modern : The Intimate Public Worlds of New York's Literary Women. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998. This book by Nina Miller, the Assistant Professor of English at the Iowa State University, is about literature during the 1910s and 1920s, that impacted the US. In this book Nina Miller discusses Edna St. Vincent Millays literature and its affect. We used this book to give us more knowledge on our topic and we also used a quote from page 16 of this novel. "Quotes by Amelia Earhart" from Amelia Earhart. www.ameliaearhart.com (accessed on March 1, 2013). This reliable website provided us with a quote from Amelia Earhart, that we used on our website. Restaurant-ing Through History, http://restaurant-ingthroughhistory.com/ (accessed on February 24, 2013). This picture shows a very early electric dishwasher from the 1920s that was used for cleaning a large number of dishes. This picture was helpful because displayed the topic of inventions in the 1920s, and showed an example of one of the inventions that affected women. Reclamation and Arizona, http://www.usbr.gov/lc/phoenix/AZ100/1930/ (accessed on February 25, 2013). This picture shows a women cleaning dishes and putting them into her electric dishwasher. This picture was helpful because it shows an example of what an electric dishwasher looked like in the 1920s, and how helpful it was. Retro 1920s: Fashion. Arts Stew. http://www.arts-stew.com/retro-1920s/retro-1920sfashion/ (accessed February 10, 2013). In the 1920s, women wore straight dresses that hid their curves and mixed up gender roles. This second-hand account that includes a picture was important to our website because it shows different versions of waist- less flapper clothing.

Science & Society Picture Librarys photo, Hubert Cecil Booth (1871-1955), from Birmingham Stories, http://www.birminghamstories.co.uk/s (accessed on February 25). This picture shows Hubert Cecil Booth, the man who built the first powered vacuum cleaner in 1901. This picture was helpful because it gives more information on the first powered vacuum cleaner from 1901, which is used as an example in our project to support how inventions have improved in the 1920s. ScM Photo Studios picture from Science & Society http://www.ssplprints.com/image/130220/ (accessed on February 24, 2013). This picture shows Hubert Cecil Booths first electric vacuum cleaner from 1901. This picture was helpful because it shows how much vacuum cleaners had changed between 1901 and 1920 with the Air-Way sanitizer vacuum. Stanton, Elizabeth. "Declaration of Sentiment's: Women's Grievances Against Men". www.colorado.edu (accessed on January 14, 2013). Elizabeth Stanton wrote a "Declaration of Sentiments", that this online file summarized. The main point of her "Declaration of Sentiments" was about the equality differences between men and women. This file influenced us to find a topic that involved equality between men and women. Streissguth, Tom. Depression. The Roaring Twenties. New York : Infobase Publishing, 2007. Flapper girls in the 1920s used fashion to display their traits and to show a symbol of change in the United States. This second-hand account was important to our website because it included many pictures that showed fashion in the 1920s and it provided a quote to identify womens fashion. Streissguth, Tom. "Fashion in the Town and Country". The Roaring Twenties. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. This book provided us wih a photo of a girl wearing the fashion, from the 1920s. We incorporated this picture in a slideshow on our website, because it was colorful.

The Great Gala at The Great Overland Station. TSCPL. http://tscpl.org/art (accessed February 11, 2013). Flapper girls started to wear loose-fitting dresses that went just down to just past the knees in

the 1920s to symbolize change. This second-hand account provided a picture of a flapper girl to make the website more visually appealing. "The Great Gatsby, by: Scott Fitzgerald" from NPR. Simon & Schuster:1991. www.npr.org (accessed on February 23, 2013). The Great Gatsby, was a novel written by Scott Fitzgerald that influences Amelia Earhart to strive for equality with men. This photo used on our website, shows a glimpse at the morals of the story, while making our website visually appealing. Also a zoomed in picture of this photo is also located on our website; on the thesis page. "The Pulitzer Prize Thumbnails Project: 1918-1929; Booth Tarkington, Alice Adams". Scan of a book; in public domain. www.pitt.edu (accessed February 22, 2013). Booth Tarkington's novel, Alice Adams influenced Nellie Tayloe Ross to climb the social ladder in society. This photo provides our website with a colorful illustration of the cover of the novel.

The Sealskin of Swimming Apparel, from The American Heritage History of The 20s and 30s (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1970), 101. This picture displays womens look in the 1920s, as well as the significant changes. This picture was helpful because it gave us a better understanding of what women would wear during the Roaring Twenties.

Thomas, Pauline Weston, "1920's Flapper Fashion." Fashion Era. http://www.fashionera.com/flapper_fashion_1920s.htm (accessed January 25, 2013). In the 1920s, women changed their style to something more modern and that represented change. This second-hand account gave us information to use on our website about their attitudes and style.

Underwood & Underwoods picture from The American Heritage History of The 20s and 30s (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1970), 102. This picture shows the actress, Clara Bow, and her signature hairstyle. This picture was helpful because it displayed the short hairstyle that Clara Bow wore in her movies, which caused the women watching those movies to want that style.

Underwood & Underwoods picture from The American Heritage History of The 20s and 30s (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1970), 127. This picture shows Clara Bow and Norma Talmadge, two famous actresses, which displayed the popular 1920s style. This picture was helpful because it showed us that the 1920s signature style had spread to many women during that time. VDTA, http://www.vdta.com/Magazines/NOV09/fc-GaskoNov09.html (accessed on February 25, 2013). This picture shows the Air-Way sanitizor vacuum from the 1920s. This picture was helpful because it gave us a picture of an example that is used in our project to explain some of the products that helped release women from cleaning the household. VDTA, The Air-Way Sanitary System: Looking back at models from 1920-1941, www.vdta.com/Magazines/NOV09/fc-GaskoNov09.html (accessed on February 11, 2013). The VDTA website provided sufficient information about the Air-Way sanitizor vacuum cleaner, and its new improvements during the 1920s. This source was helpful because it gave details about the Air-Way vacuum cleaner and why it was more efficient than before. Warner, Michael, "The Bob." Hair Archives. http://www.hairarchives.com/private/1920s.htm (accessed January 25, 2013). In the 1920s, women cut their hair short to a bob, a haircut just below the ear, to symbolize the change going on in socially. This second-hand account was important to our website because it helped me understand why women really cut their hair short.

WHS Museums picture from Wisconsin Historical Society, http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/ (accessed on February 25, 2013). This picture displays the Hydro Electric Companys electric dishwasher from 1920. This picture was helpful because it shows an example that is mentioned in our project to explain how inventions affected women. Wisconsin Historical Society, "Early Electric Dishwasher, "Wisconsin Historical Society, www.wisconsinhistory.org (accessed on February 11, 2013).

The Wisconsin Historical Societys website gave examples of early dishwashers from the 1920s, such as the Hydro Electric Manufacturing Companys dishwasher. This source was helpful because it provided an example of a new advancement that had a great affect on women. "Wyoming Governors: Nellie T. Ross (D)" from Wyoming Archives. www.wyoarchives.state.wy.us (accessed on February 25, 2013). Nellie Tayloe Ross was the first female governor of the USA. This photo of her, makes our website more relatable. Zelda Fitzgerald. Flapper Jane. http://www.flapperjane.com/July%20August/zelda.htm (accessed January 30, 2013). Zelda Fitzgerald was a very important women in the 1920s, and introduced the traits and style of the flapper girl. This second-hand account was very important to our website because it provided a lot of information on Fitzgerald and also a picture of her.

"1920's Women's Fashions and the Changing Role of Women." Women's Fashions 1920's. http://www.1920-30.com/ (accessed on February 12, 2013). Women in the 1920s had bold personalities that represented a change for women, and their appearance added a lot to that. This second-hand account was important to our website because it gave us information that helped us prove that The Roaring Twenties was a key turning point in the history of the United States.