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Measurement and calculation of the load.

Existing metering device can determine the distance between


the highest point of the tank and the surface of the liquid,
ie, the empty space of the tank (the term "void" in English
terminology - Ullage), or the distance from the bottom of
the tank to the liquid, ie, depth (the term "Vzliv" in English
terminology - Sounding). Determining the level of cargo
in cargo tanks must be done carefully, taking into account
all the factors affecting the accuracy of the measuring
device.
According to the requirements of the Code Construction and
Equipment of chemical tankers, are 3 main ways of
measuring the level of goods and sampling (Figure 1.)
The open method of measurements - level measurements
during load or selection, sample the atmosphere of the
tank is completely open to the surrounding atmosphere.
Semi-closed method of measurements - during load level
measurement or sampling, only a part of the atmosphere
of the tank, the limited tonnage tube in communication
with the ambient atmosphere.
Underground measurement - measure the level of cargo in
the tank and sampling carried out by the closed method,
using fixed or portable, equipped with gas valves (Vapour
Locks), devices that do not allow the penetration of vapor
from the air tank to the environment.
.

, ..
(

Ullage),
, ..
(
Sounding).
,
.
,
3 (. 1.):

,
.

-
,
, ,
.

-
,

,
1

(Vapour Locks), ,
.
Open

Semi-closed

Closed

Load level in the tank

. 1. Illustration of how measurement and sampling.




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, .( Distance measuring device
All modern tankers are equipped with remote metering devices to
continuously monitor the level of cargo in the tank and its temperature. When using
any measuring device, you must consider not only the accuracy of the devices
mentioned in the passport measuring device manufacturer as accuracy and precision
calibration of these devices and their proper use. Measuring device should ensure
reliability during repeated use. Reliability of measuring device is expressed in
constant amendments under different conditions of measurements. In other words, the
measuring device with low accuracy can be quite a long time, providing a reliable
level measurement of cargo, even with low accuracy. Alternatively, the device can
provide highly accurate measurements of the right goods are only a few times, and
then appearing variable error, forcing be carefully calibrated before each
measurement device. But most of all to work measuring device affects their technical
condition. Painted or rusted surface sensors, broken sight glasses, lack of lubrication
hoisting damaged floats - that's just some of the faults that can cause damage to any
measuring device. To testify "tonnage machine" corresponded to the actual level of
cargo in the tank, measuring devices must be calibrated. Smallest (empty tank) and
the highest (up) reading measuring device shall be indicated on the measuring device,
so as to always be able to check his statement. Further Adjustment of measuring
device by means of special tables or graphs of readings measuring device, the density
of the cargo and its temperature.
Float measuring device)



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(Trim Correction & List
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(Buoyancy Correction Float Correction)
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0,5 %
0,5 %


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0,2 40
0,5 - 160
4

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(Ullage, Temperature, Interface).

. 8.


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(Vapour Locks).
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(Manifold Sample).
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(First Feet
Sample).
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(Running
First Feet).

(Final After Loading Sample).
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(Samples Locker).
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SAMPLE

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Date

Time

LOG

Voyage:____________________
Date: ____________________
Port: ____________________
Terminal:___________________
Type of sample

Cargo

Remarks

. 14. .
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.
,
. (gross quantity)
, ,
(net quantity) ,
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13

+ 20, +15, - 60F,


, .

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.
Total Observed Volume (TOV)
, ,
, , .
( ) Free Water (FW)
, , . ,
,
.
- Gross Observed Volume (GOV) ,

, , , -
.
Gross Standard Volume (GSV)
, +15
. GSV GOV
(Volume Correction Factor- VCF),
ASTM.
Net Standard Volume (NSV)
, .

GSV .
.
.
,
98%
. IBC
,
.

, . , IBC , ,
1- ,
1250 3 , ,
2- 3000 3.

14


:
VL = 98% V

VL - ,
V - 100 % -
-
-

, . ,
.

98 %.
(Design Specific Gravity- DSG)
.
m
V
DSG -
V - 100%
m - .
DSG = 0,98


1,7 1,8 /, 1,4-1,5 /.

(Procedures and Arrangement
Manual).

, ,
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.

, 98 %
FL = 98

DSG
SG

Fl - , %
DSG , /
SG - , /.
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, 98 %
, .

15


98% !
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:

+15 (
+20)
.
(
). ASTM D
2598.
.
COSTALD (Corresponding State of Liquid
Density).
,
:
(Density),
.
: /.
(Apparent Density)
. : /, /, /.
(Relative Density)

, .
,
R.D. 15/15, R.D. 20/4, R.D. 15/20, R.D. 60/60 F ..
,
, ,
.
(Specific Gravity - SG),

( )

16


.
lbs/gal. ( ).

:


(/)
1.00000
0.99913
0.99904
0.99823
0.99707
0.98807

4
15
15,56 (60 F)
20
25
50


/
0.99888
0.99805
0.99796
0.99717
0.99604
0.98702


,

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- ,
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:
:

/

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( ) .
:

/
,
( ) .
:
25/20 0.8764 .
.
, ,
+20 0.99823 / 998,23 /.
+25 :
0.8764 998,23 /= 874,849 /.
- API Gravity (American Petroleum Industry)


,
. API Gravity
:
RD 60/60 =

141,5
141,5
API 60/60 =
131,5
API
+ 131,5
RD 60/60
60/60

, (R.D.) :

17

D15/15 =

RD60/60 999.012
VCF 60

VCF60 Volume Correction Factor - 60


, 54 ASTM
,
,
,
,

XI
ASTM 3 21.
API
Gravity
60 F
1,5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
. 15.

Relative
Density
Density
60/60 F
15 C
1.0639
1063.2
1.0631
1062.4
1.0623
1061.6
1.0615
1060.8
1.0607
1060.0
21. ASTM

API
Gravity
60 F
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Relative
Density
60/60 F
1.0404
1.0397
1.0389
1.0382
1.0374

Density
15 C
1039.8
1039.0
1038.3
1037.5
1036.7

/ ( lbs/ gal)
0.1198264 ,
.

: (Liter Weight),

LW ( /) .

( )
, . ,
(VF) LW,
. ,
LW ,


. :

1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7


1,00108
1,00122
1,00139
1,00161

D = VF LW

SG 15/15 =

VF LW
0,99913

SG 15,6/15,6=

VF LW
0,99903

18

Density Correction Factor (DCF).


DCF .
15
(/)

0,7950

0,8829

0,8126

1,5250

0,7820
(DEG) 1,1190

0,8122

0,9331

0,6824
(IPA)
0,7884

0,7952

0,8830

0,8643

0,9095

0,8703

0,8680
. 16.
.


1
0,00114
0,00105
0,00077
0,00063
0,00095
0,00071
0,00086
0,00071
0,00092
0,00084
0,00095
0,00085
0,00087
0,00089
0,00092
0,00086
10

DCF 1 F DCF 1 , DCF 1 F


1.7985611
.


.

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( +15 , +20 ..)

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,
ASTM 53 (
+15) 23 (
60/60F).
,
,

.
ASTM D 2598.

19




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Ci .

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n R
e l a t i v e D o Fe n) sc i o t ym i x(p 6i oC 0 u / 6n 0 d
o Fe n) s =i t y
R e
l a t i v
e D
0 / 6 0
( 6,

1 0 0
i = 1
,
.

+30 60.

xi Mi

xV
i

t /;
xi ;
Mi ;
Vi .

+30 60
:
Mi
Vi =
{ A -( B t) [ C : ( E - t) ] }

t ,
, , , .
COSTALD.

Corresponding State of Liquid Density ( COSTALD).

. , ,
, , 0,08%.
COSTALD ,
.

.


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20

( ),
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P = m g
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(W1).
, ,

(W2).
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(),
8000 /,
() ( 1013
+20 ) 1,2 /.
,
.
:
M =V
:
V =

M
8000 / 3

M = 1,2

M
= 0,00015M
8000

:
W1 W2 = M + 0,00015 M

M = 0,99985 (W1 W2)

0,99985 ,
, ,
. 1,00015 ( 1,2)
( - ).
( 2).

56 ASTM

21

ASTM 56 ,
,
.

15 (/) 1,1.
, .

1,00015 ( 1,2)

(1,00015 ( 1,2))

500
600
700
800
900
1.000
1.100

498,87
598,89
698,90
798,92
898,93
998,95
1.098,96

1,125
1,110
1,095
1,080
1,065
1,050
1,035

.17. . .

.
:

+15,


ASTM.
+15

ASTM.

. ,
.

ASTM 56 (short table)


Density at 15C

(Kg/L)

Factor for converting


Weight in Vacuo to
Weight in Air

(Kg/L)

Factor for converting


Weight in Air to Weight
in Vacuo

0,5000 to 0,5191
0,5192 to 0,5421
0,5422 to 0,5673
0,5674 to 0,5950
0,5951 to 0,6255

0,99775
0,99785
0,99795
0,99805
0,99815

0,5000 to 0,5201
0,5202 to 0,5432
0,5433 to 0,5684
0,5685 to 0,5960
0,5961 to 0,6265

1,00225
1,00215
1,00205
1,00195
1,00185

Density at 15C

22

0,6256 to 0,6593
0,6594 to 0,6970
0,6971 to 0,7392
0,7393 to 0,7869
0,7870 to 0,8411
0,8412 to 0,9034
0,9035 to 0,9756
0,9757 to 1,0604
1,0605 to 1,1000

0,99825
0,99835
0,99845
0,99855
0,99865
0,99875
0,99885
0,99895
0,99905

0,6266 to 0,6603
0,6604 to 0,6980
0,6981 to 0,7402
0,7403 to 0,7879
0,7880 to 0,8421
0,8422 to 0,9044
0,9045 to 0,9766
0,9767 to 1,0614
1,0615 to 1,1000

1,00175
1,00165
1,00155
1,00145
1,00135
1,00125
1,00115
1,00105
1,00095

. 18. 56 ASTM.

.

ASTM 54 (54
54D ).

()

- GOV.
(15/15) ASTM 21

15 . ,
, ,

+15 .
ASTM 54 (Volume Reduction Factor).
+15 .

,

+15 - GSV.
, .
:
520,844 3
+3. +15,
, 889 /3. .
:
54D,
:
54 D. .
+15.
+15
,
880
882
884
886
888
890


2.5
1,0089 1,0089 1,0089 1,0088 1,0088 1,0088
3,0
1,0085 1,0085 1,0085 1,0085 1,0085 1,0084
3,5
1,0082 1,0082 1,0081 1,0081 1,0081 1,0081

892

894

1,0088
1,0084
1,0081

1,0088
1,0084
1,0081

. 19. 54. ASTM.

23


.

(888 890),
+3, 1,00845.
GOV , GSV
GV VCF = GSV
520,844 1,00845 = 525.245 3.
:
525,245 3 0,889 /3 = 466,943 .

0,99875 56 0,8412 0,9034 :
466,943 0,99875 = 466,359

.

,
,
. ,
,
,
.
,
1 (1 F) - Density Correction Factor (DCF).

(VCF) (DCF).

:
= - DCF t
t = t t C

-
-
t
t (20 15 )
,
.

:
DCF = VCF C

24

,
,

ASTM,
, ASTM 53.

. ,
.

.
(Draught Survey).
,
, , -Draught
Survey. , , ,
-
, Draught Survey-
. :


.

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6-
13 . 6- .
:
, , (
6).
, .

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.
:
. =

.. + .. + (6 .. )
8

..
..
..
.. .
:

25

D. =

D ..
1,025

D .
D . - , .
.. - ,
.
.

-
,
1 /. ,
, .
(Flowmeter)
.
,
, .
,
1 /,
7 /.

:
d 2
Q=
3600
4

Q - , 3/
d - ,
- , /
, , ,
:
.

.

2
2,5
3
4
6
8

2,067
2,469
3,068
4,026
6,065
8,071

0,1451
0,2071
0,3198
0,5507
1,250
2,213

0,1743
0,2487
0,3540
0,6613
1,501
2,658

2,165
3,089
4,769
8,213
18,64
33,01

22
31
48
83
189
334

26

10
12
14
16
18
20
24

10,192
12,090
13,250
15,250
17,250
19,250
23,250

3,529
4,966
5,964
7,901
10,109
12,589
18,370

4,238
5,964
7,163
9,489
12,140
15,119
22,062

52,63
74,06
88,96
117,84
150,77
187,76
273,99

533
749
900
1.192
1.525
1.900
2.772

*
. 20. .
,
(Loading Rate):
LR =

3600 U
t

LR -
U -
c (98%).
t - ,
.
, . (.
).
.
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, - ( ,
, ) .
. , ,
(Remaining on Board R.O.B.)
,
.

27

D1

. 21. .
, ,
(Wedge Formula) :
V=

L B D2
2T

V -
L -
B -
D -
T -
, :



.

, :
D = [ D1 cosec + (Y H tan ) ] tan

D1-
Y -
a -
H - .

:
,
:

28

T
L

.
tan =

(Vessel Experience Factor)


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,
(Ships Figure), (Shore Figure).
, , ,
(Bill of Lading B/L). ,
,
, 0,5%
,
- . ,
,
(Vessel Experience Factor - VEF),


( , 10 ). VEF ,
, ,
, . VEF
.
, VEF ,
.
,
( -)
. , VEF
, , , . VEF
. , VEF
,
0,2% +0,2%.
.

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.
VEF
.
29

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5 .
3- (

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( , , ,
.).
(Bill of Lading)
, 3 :
,
;


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,
:





30

, .
.


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-
.

() ,
,
.

,
,
Quality and Quantity Unknown - .

.
,
,
.
3 ,
.
, (
), .

Copy Non Negotiable.
, ,
.
.

. ,
,
. ,
,
(Letter of Indemnity), .
( Cargo Manifest)
, ,
,
, .
.
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

31

;
;


.
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
DANGEROUS GOODS MANIFEST
Flag state

Masters name

Stowage position on board

Mass (kg) Gross/ Net

Marine pollutant

Flash point in (.c.)

Shipping agent

Subsidiary risk(s)

Packing group

Port of discharge

UN number

Proper shipping name

Port of loading
Numbers & kind of packages

Nos.Mark, number, container ID

Booking No.

Voyage No.

IMO No.

Class

Ships name

Ems

Agents signature__________________ Masters signature ____________________


Place and date

__________________

Place and Date

_____________________

. 22. .
(Certificate of Quality)
, , ,
, .

.
.
(Certificate of Quantity)
,
.
.
.
32

, , ,
.
(Certificate of Origin)
.
.
.

, / .
,
.
.
, ,
, . ,
(Certificate of Tank
Fitness Tank Inspection Certificate Before Loading)
, .
M/V "_______________"
TANK INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
BEFORE LOADING:
This is to certify that
cargo tanks Nos.
before loading at the installation of
and found to be empty and substantially clean to receive the
nominated cargo:
This Statement is based on (Note type of tank inspection)
REMARKS:
Port:
Surveyor

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

Date:

Have been inspected

at

hrs.

Ch.mate

. 23. .

(TankInspection Certificate After Discharge Tank Empty Certificate)
.
M/V "_______________"
TANK INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
AFTER DISCHRGE:
This is to certify that
cargo tanks Nos.
After discharging at the installation of
and found to be empty from cargo of
This Statement is based on (Note type of tank inspection)
REMARKS:
Port:
Surveyor

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

Date:

Have been inspected

at

hrs.

Ch.mate

. 24.

0,5 %,
33

-
(Letter of Cargo Discrepancy Cargo Discrepancy Certificate)
.
LETTER OF PROTEST
Vessel:
Port:
Date:
Cargo:
To Messrs.:

Dear Sirs,
Please be advised that I, Captain _______________ Master of M.V. "______________" hereby
lodge protest on behalf of my Owner / Charterers / Operator and must hold you responsible for any
consequences arising from following fact(s):
Vessel short/overloaded (i.e. exceeding the allowance mentioned in the governing Charter Party).
Difference Ship/Bills of Lading figures:
____________MT.
Arms/hoses connected not in compliance with vessel's standard manifold connections resulting in
delays/excessive
loading/discharging time.
Stoppages in loading/discharging operation.
Delays in berthing/unberthing operation.
Non-compliance with vessel's requested loading rate, which is:
Damage to the vessel while alongside your terminal.
Non-compliance with safety regulations.
Free-water found in cargo after loading, and possible increase due to settling during voyage.
Terminal representative refused to sign Ship's Pump Log.
Not sufficient water alongside berth, i.e. less water than advised in Voyage Instructions.
Terminal instructed vessel to reduce discharging rate.
Other (please specify below).
REMARKS:
I hereby reserve the rights of my principals to revert in this matter as found appropriate and take such
actions as may be deemed necessary. Please acknowledge receipt by signing this letter.
Yours faithfully,
Master
Signature:
Date/time:
Received by:
Name:

Signature:

Date/time:

. 25. .
.
,

,
.
(Ullage
Report Sounding Report). ,
,
. ,


. ,
, , ,
,
34

, , ,
, .
,
: .
:
( ) ?

?
, ,

, .
,
.
: (For Receipt Only)
(For Acknowledge Only).
,
( )

. ,
, .
(Time Sheet)
,
( ) , ,

.
,
,
, , ,
.
.

35

Port
Vessel Ullage Report

Date

After Loading/Before Discharging


Ullage
Tank

Cargo

Observed Corrected
CM

CM

Fwd draft

Aft draft

M.Sh draft

Trim

List

Gross
Observed
Volume
CubM

API
Gravity/
Density
60F

Observed
Temperature

Volume
Correction
Factor

GROSS

Cargo
Weight

Standard
Volume

CubM

B/L

Long Tons

DIFFERENCE

Metric Tons

SHIP'S FIGURE

(Shore - Ship)
MT (Air)
MT (Vac)
LT
CubM

Remark

Bbls
%
VEF

Chief officer
. 26. .

Surveior

36

Statement of Facts
Port:
Terminal:

From:
To:

Date

Time

Port code:

Last port:
Next port:
Voyage:

Vessel:

Time Schedule:

From
Date

ROB
Time

HFO

Comments
MDO

End of Sea passage (EOSP)


N.O.R. tendered
Anchor/Drift due to:
Anchor/Drift due to:
Left anchorage
Pilot on Board
Tugs alongside
First line ashore
All fast
Gangway rigged
Customs / Immigration on
board
Free pratique granted
Cargo surveyor on board
Commenced hose / arms
connection
Completed hose / arms
connection
Commenced ullaging /
inspection
Completed ullaging / inspection
Commenced cargo calculations
Completed cargo calculations
Commenced
Stop, due to:
Resumed
Completed
Commenced ullaging /
inspection
Completed ullaging / inspection
Commenced cargo calculations
Completed cargo calculations
Commenced hose / arms
disconnection
Completed hose / arms
disconnection
Cargo papers on board
Pilot on board
Unrigging gangway
Tugs alongside
Commenced unmooring
Left berth
Tugs away
Pilot disembarked vessel
Commenced of Sea Passage

37

ETA next port

. 27. .

38

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