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FRICTION-DAMPED BRACE (FDB) Of all the methods so far available to extract kinetic energy from a moving body, the

most widely adopted is undoubtedly the friction brake. Nothing has been able to replace the friction brake so far. Reason! Because friction is the most economical, effective and reliable damage-free mean to dissipate energy. Inspired by the principle of friction brake, friction dampers for seismic control of buildings were developed by Pall in mid 1970s. They have gone through rigorous proof testing both in Canada and the U.S. In 1985, NRC Canada successfully proof tested a 3-storey steel frame structure equipped with friction dampers, on a shaking table at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver (Cherry and Filiatrault). In 1986-1987, a 9-storey frame structure with Pall friction dampers in steel bracing was tested on a shaking table at the University of California at Berkeley (Kelly and Aiken). The frame was subjected to 20 different earthquake records. Since 70-90% of energy was dissipated by friction dampers, the primary structure remained elastic. The friction dampers are designed not to slip for wind loads or modified equivalent static earthquake force, whichever is greater. They slip during a major earthquake (DBE), prior to the yielding of frame members. During slipping, it dissipates large amount of seismic energy in friction. It possesses full rectangular hysteretic loop similar to an ideal elastic-plastic loop. Throughout, the brace remains elastic without buckling. The slip loads in tension and compression are equal. A steel brace equipped with friction damper is called friction-damped brace (FDB). Until the friction damper slips, the FDB behaves like a conventional rigid brace. Since friction dampers can be designed to slip very large displacements, it is reasonable to call FDB as super ductile brace. As energy is dissipated mechanically and not through damaging process of yielding, there is no need to replace FDB after an earthquake and they are always ready to face aftershocks and future earthquakes. The first building with seismic dampers in North America was built with Pall friction dampers. They have been used for the seismic protection of more than 200 major buildings in the U.S., Canada, China, Colombia, Indonesia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Philippines. Some major projects in the US are: Boeing Commercial Airplane Factory at Everett, WA the worlds largest building in volume; 6 Boeing Development buildings at Seattle; Moscone West Convention Center in San Francisco; Sharp Hospital in San Diego; St. Joseph Hospital in Seattle; 3-Million Gallon Water Tower in Sacramento; Government Center, Monterey County; Alaska Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Building at SeaTac Airport. In Canada: Concordia Universitys Library, Engineering and Molson Business School Buildings, Montreal; Life Sciences Complex, McGill University; Canadian Space Agency HQ, St-Hubert; Quebec Provincial Police HQ; Palais des Congress, Montreal; Casino de Montreal; Justice Headquarters, Ottawa; St. Vincent Hospital, Ottawa; National Defence Laboratory Building, Ottawa. Compared to alternate retrofit schemes, the use of Pall friction dampers saved Boeing more than $50 million. The City and County of San Francisco chose Pall friction dampers on the recommendations of peer reviews by 3 consultants and three advisors from the U.C Berkley (Kelly, Powel and Wilson). The use of friction dampers saved the City $2.25 million compared to alternate dampers. The test results of prototypes and production dampers far exceeded the requirements of FEMA 356. All friction dampers are proof tested before their shipment. For more information, please visit website: www.palldynamics.com Or contact: Avtar Pall, Ph.D., P.Eng. Tel:514.421.2605, 1.888.421.PALL (7255)