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Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular flow subject to wall reactions

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Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular flow subject to wall reactions

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European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids ••• (••••) •••–•••

1 67

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

2 68

3 69

4 European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 70

5 71

6 72

7 www.elsevier.com/locate/ejmflu 73

8 74

9 75

10 76

11 77

Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions

F

12 78

13 79

14 Suvadip Paul, B.S. Mazumder ∗ 80

O

15 81

Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108, India

16 82

17 83

RO

18 a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t 84

19 85

20 Article history: The present paper concerns with the dispersion process in steady and oscillatory ﬂows through an 86

21 Received 20 May 2008 annular pipe in presence of reversible and irreversible reactions at the wall. Method of homogenization, 87

22 Received in revised form 10 September a multiple-scale method of averaging, is adopted for deriving the effective transport equations. The main 88

2008

23

24

25

26

Accepted 29 September 2008

Keywords:

Pulsatile ﬂow

DP

objective is to look into the effect of aspect ratio of the annular pipe on the dispersion coeﬃcient

due to the combined effect of axial convection and radial diffusion in steady and oscillatory ﬂows

along the annulus, subject to the kinetic reversible phase exchange and irreversible absorption at the

outer wall. Results demonstrate that upto a certain critical value of aspect ratio, dispersion coeﬃcient

increases with increase of aspect ratio when the wall is retentive, though the wall inertness may lead

89

90

91

92

27 93

Aspect ratio to decrease of dispersion coeﬃcient with increase of aspect ratio. The results would be useful to the

28 94

Phase exchange medical practitioners working in the domain of catheterized artery.

TE

29 95

Homogenization © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

30 Dispersion coeﬃcient 96

31 Reaction 97

Catheter

32 98

33 99

EC

34 100

35 101

1. Introduction (Sarkar and Jayaraman [9], Mazumder and Mondal [10]) were also

36 102

considered. Dispersion coeﬃcient affected by a reversible phase

37 103

The study of longitudinal dispersion of tracers through an annu- exchange has been studied by Davidson and Schroter [11]; Phillips

38 104

lar straight tube is of considerable interest due to its applications and Kaye [12]. But very few studies includes the effect of both re-

RR

39 105

in the ﬁeld of chemical, environmental and biomedical engineer- versible and irreversible reactions. Though Purnama [13], Revelli

40 106

ing. The ﬁrst fundamental study on dispersion was that of Tay- and Ridolﬁ [14,15] and Ng [16,17] carried out this effect for ﬂow

41 107

42 lor [1] who showed that the dominant mechanism, whereby a through a tube or open-channel, but to the best of our knowl- 108

43 scalar contaminant cloud (or solute) is spread in the steady lam- edge no attempt has been made to examine dispersion phenom- 109

44 inar ﬂow within straight tube, is dispersion – the interaction be- ena through an annular tube considering both reversible and irre- 110

CO

45 tween non-uniform velocity and diffusion across the ﬂow. Aris [2] versible wall reactions. 111

46 extended Taylor’s theory to include longitudinal diffusion and de- Effect of aspect ratio on dispersion was studied by Mondal and 112

47 veloped an approach ‘method of moments’ to analyze the asymp- Mazumder [18], Mazumder and Mondal [10], Sarkar and Jayara- 113

48 totic behaviour of second order moment about the mean. man [9,19] and others. These studies reveal that aspect ratio of 114

49 An exact solution of the diffusion equation was obtained by annular pipe has important contribution in dispersion process. But 115

in all these cases, only the effect of irreversible reaction at the

UN

50 Chatwin [3] to study the dispersion in oscillatory ﬂow. Watson [4] 116

51 used the concept proposed by Chatwin to study the passive con- boundary is considered, though the model demands to have ap- 117

52 taminant dispersion in an oscillatory pressure-driven ﬂow. Jimenez plication in catheterized artery where the reversible reaction also 118

53 and Sullivan [5] used a probabilistic model to study the stream plays important role. 119

54 wise dispersion in unsteady laminar ﬂow. Pedley and Kamm [6] The main objective of the present paper is to examine the in- 120

55 studied the axial mass transport in an annular region in presence ﬂuence of annularity on the transport process under the combined 121

56 of an oscillatory ﬂow ﬁeld. effects of reversible and irreversible wall reactions, when the ﬂow 122

57 There exist a large number of studies on Taylor dispersion un- is driven by a pressure gradient comprising of steady and peri- 123

58 der the sole inﬂuence of irreversible reaction. Some of them con- odic components. The inner wall of the outer tube is lined with 124

59 sidered channel ﬂow (Mondal and Mazumder [7]) or tube ﬂow a very thin layer made up of a retentive and reactive materi- 125

60 (Jiang and Grotberg [8]) while in few cases annular tube ﬂows als. The substance that undergoes Taylor dispersion in the ﬂuid 126

61 is subject to reversible phase exchange and irreversible absorption. 127

62 These boundary reactions are the most important processes con- 128

63 * Corresponding author. trolling the dispersion of solute in catheterized artery. A relatively 129

64 E-mail addresses: bsm46@yahoo.com, bijoy@isical.ac.in (B.S. Mazumder). fast rate of phase exchange and a relatively slow rate of absorption 130

65 131

0997-7546/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

66 doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003 132

Please cite this article in press as: S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder, Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions, European Journal of Mechanics

B/Fluids (2008), doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003

ARTICLE IN PRESS

JID:EJMFLU AID:2359 /FLA [m5G; v 1.65; Prn:14/10/2008; 12:29] P.2 (1-9)

2 S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids ••• (••••) •••–•••

1 were considered. Results are shown how the spreading of tracers Here I 0 and K 0 are respectively the modiﬁed Bessel function of 67

2 is inﬂuenced by the aspect ratio, phase exchange parameter and ﬁrst kind and second kind of order zero with imaginary arguments. 68

3 absorption. The function I 0 and K 0 can be expressed as I 0 (ri 1/2 ) = ber(r ) + 69

4 The insertion of catheter into an artery leads to a formation of i bei(r ) and K 0 (ri 1/2 ) = ker(r ) + i kei(r ) where ber, bei, ker and kei 70

5 an annular region between the catheter and the arterial wall (Mc- are Kelvins functions of order zero. 71

6 Donald [20]). The fact that the lung and blood vessels have con- For ﬂow through a tube (i.e., when b = 0), the steady and un- 72

7 ductive walls (where phase exchange between the arterial wall and steady components of the velocity are given by 73

8 the ﬂowing ﬂuid (blood) and reaction with a reactant secreted by 2 74

r P a2

9 the wall tissue may take place) and the catheter, of course, acts as u s (r ) = 2u s 1 − with u s = 75

10 an impermeable boundary is reﬂected in our boundary conditions. a 8ν 76

11 The model will help us in understanding the indicator technique and 77

F

12 and other mechanisms in the branchial region. The insertion of a 1− i 78

iPψ J 0( δ r)

13 pipe with smaller diameter at the centerline of an artery brings u w (r ) = − 1− . 79

14 the asymmetry to the ﬂow, and the increase of aspect ratio leads ω J 0 ( 1− i

δ a) 80

O

15 to the existence of symmetry of the annular ﬂow. 81

16 3. Governing equation and boundary conditions 82

17 2. Velocity distribution 83

RO

18 Let us consider the transport of a chemical species through the 84

19 We consider a fully developed, axi-symmetric laminar ﬂow of annular gap of a tube. If the species is completely miscible with 85

20 a homogeneous, incompressible viscous ﬂuid through an annular the ﬂuid and C (x, r , t ) is the concentration (mass of species dis- 86

21 pipe having inner radius b and outer radius a (i.e., a > b). We have solved per bulk volume of the ﬂuid) of the mobile phase, then C 87

22 used a cylindrical coordinate system in which the radial and axial satisﬁes the mass transport equation as: 88

23

24

25

co-ordinates are r and x respectively. The ﬂow is assumed to be

unidirectional and so the velocity has only axial component u (r , t )

which satisﬁes the Navier–Stokes equation as:

DP ∂C

∂t

+ u (r , t )

∂C

∂x

∂2C

=D 2 +

∂x

D ∂

r ∂r

r

∂C

∂r

along with the boundary conditions,

, b<r <a (4)

89

90

91

26 92

∂u 1 ∂p 1 ∂ ∂u

27 =− +ν r ∂C 93

28

∂t ρ ∂x r ∂r ∂r = 0, r = b, (5) 94

∂r

where ∂ p /∂ x is the axial pressure gradient, ρ is the ﬂuid density

TE

29 ∂C ∂Cs 95

30 and ν is the kinematic viscosity. −D −ΓC = = k(α C − C s ), r = a, (6) 96

∂r ∂t

31 The horizontal pressure gradient, which drives the ﬂow, consists 97

of steady and harmonically ﬂuctuating components, where D is the molecular diffusion coeﬃcient assumed to be con-

32 98

stant and C s (x, t ) is the concentration (mass of species retained

33 1 ∂p

99

− = P 1 + ψ Re e i ωt per unit surface area of the wall) of the immobile phase. Here Γ ,

EC

34 100

ρ ∂x k and α are the irreversible absorption rate, the reversible reaction

35 101

where P > 0 is the steady part of the pressure gradient, ψ is a rate and the partition coeﬃcient respectively.

36 102

factor such that P ψ is the amplitude of the oscillatory part of the The boundary condition (5) states that there is no net transport

37 103

pressure gradient. of mass through the inner wall of the annular pipe. Last equality

38 104

The no-slip conditions on the surface of the inner and outer of the boundary condition (6) states that the rate of accumulation

RR

39 105

walls of the annular pipe i.e. u (b, t ) = 0 and u (a, t ) = 0, will pro- of the immobile phase in the outer wall is linearly proportional

40 106

duce the following velocity proﬁle, to the departure from local equilibrium between concentrations of

41 107

i ωt

the two phases on the outer wall of the annulus, and the ﬁrst

42 u (r , t ) = u s (r ) + Re u w (r )e (1) equality simply describes the irreversible reaction occurring at the

108

43 109

where the steady component (u s (r )) is given by, surface of the outer wall.

44 110

CO

2

45 r 1 − (b/a)2 r 4. Assumptions

111

46 u s (r ) = K u s 1 − − log (2) 112

a log(b/a) a

47 113

The following assumptions are made for carrying out the per-

48 where u s is the velocity averaged over the annular section given 114

turbation analysis,

49 by 115

UN

50 2 116

Pa 2 1. The length scale for the longitudinal spreading of the chemical

51 u s = and K= 117

4ν K 1 + (b/a)2 + (1 − (b/a)2 )/ log(b/a) cloud is much greater than the annular gap. It is meant that

52

x = O( L ) and r = O(a − b), where L is a characteristic longitu- 118

53 and the unsteady component (u w (r )) of the velocity is 119

dinal distance for the chemical transport. The ratio

54 1−i 1−i iPψ 120

55 u w (r ) = c 1 K 0 r + c2 I 0 r − (3)

= (a − b)/ L 1 (7) 121

δ δ ω

56 is small enough to use as ordering parameter. 122

57 where 2. The oscillation period of the ﬂow is so short that within this 123

1− i 1− i

58

iPψ I 0 ( δ b ) − I 0 ( δ a) period there are no appreciable transport effects along the 124

59 c1 = , tube, though the effect of radial diffusion is not negligible. But 125

60

ω K 0 ( δ a ) I 0 ( 1−

1− i i 1− i 1− i

δ b ) − K 0 ( δ b ) I 0 ( δ a) 126

the annular gap of the tube is so ﬁne that diffusion across the

61 iPψ K 0 ( 1− i 1− i

δ b ) − K 0 ( δ a) entire annular section may be accomplished within this short 127

62 c2 = 1− i 1− i 1− i 1− i time scale. 128

ω I 0 ( δ a) K 0 ( δ b ) − I 0 ( δ b ) K 0 ( δ a)

63 3. The two reactions are of different orders. The reversible phase 129

64 and exchange is much faster than the irreversible reaction. This 130

65

2ν ensures that local equilibrium can be largely achieved over a 131

66 δ= . ﬁnite number of oscillations. 132

ω

Please cite this article in press as: S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder, Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions, European Journal of Mechanics

B/Fluids (2008), doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003

ARTICLE IN PRESS

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S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids ••• (••••) •••–••• 3

1 4. The rate of absorption is much slower than the rate of phase D ∂ ∂ C (0) 67

0= r , b < r < a, (19)

2 exchange and the former is comparable with the advection r ∂r ∂r 68

3 speed down the tube. ∂ C (0)

69

4 5. The Peclet number is equal to or greater than order of unity: = 0, r = b, (20) 70

5

∂r 71

6 Pe ≡ au s / D O(1). (8) ∂ C (0) (0) (0) 72

−D = k αC − Cs , r = a. (21)

7 ∂r 73

8 Under these assumptions, three distinct time scales may be de- Eqs. (19) and (20) obviously imply that the leading order con- 74

9 ﬁned as (Ng [16]), centration is independent of r, i.e., 75

10 76

C (0) = C (0) (x, t 1 , t 2 ).

11 T 0 = 2π /ω = O (a − b)2 / D = O k−1 , (9) (22) 77

F

12 78

−1 The boundary condition (21) then gives

13 T 1 = L /u s = O (a − b)Γ = T 0 /

, (10) 79

(0)

14 2

T 2 = L / D = T 0 /

. 2 Cs = α C (0) . (23) 80

O

(11)

15 81

16 As expected, at the leading order the mobile phase of the chem- 82

Based on these time scales, we may introduce accordingly

17 ical is at local equilibrium with the immobile phase. 83

RO

18 t0 = t , t1 =

t , t2 =

2t (12) For ﬁrst order (O(

)), Eqs. (13)–(15) give 84

19 85

which are, respectively, the fast, medium and slow time variables. ∂ C (0) ∂ C (1) ∂ C (0) D ∂ ∂ C (1)

20 + +u = r , b < r < a, (24) 86

21 ∂ t1 ∂ t0 ∂x r ∂r ∂r 87

22 5. Asymptotic analysis ∂ C (1) 88

= 0, r = b, (25)

23

24

25

26

The relative signiﬁcance of the terms in the transport equation

with the boundary conditions (4)–(6) are indicated below with the

power of

:

DP −D

∂r

∂ C (1)

∂r

− Γ C (0) =

∂Cs

∂ t1

+

∂Cs

∂ t0

(0)

(1)

(1)

= k α C (1) − C s , r = a. (26)

89

90

91

92

27 Averaging Eqs. (24)–(26) w.r.t. the fast time variable t 0 , we get 93

∂2C (1)

28 ∂C ∂C D ∂ ∂C 94

+

u =

2 D 2 + r , b < r < a, (13) ∂ C (0) ∂ C (0) D ∂ ∂ C̄

TE

29 95

∂t ∂x ∂x r ∂r ∂r + us = r , b < r < a, (27)

30 ∂ t1 ∂x r ∂r ∂r 96

∂C

31 = 0, r = b, (14) ∂ C̄ (1)

97

32 ∂r = 0, r =b (28) 98

33 ∂C ∂Cs ∂r 99

−D −

Γ C = = k(α C − C s ), r = a. (15)

EC

34 ∂r ∂t and 100

35 101

Following the asymptotic expansion introduced by Fife and Nic- ∂ C̄ (1) ∂Cs

(0)

(1)

36 −D − Γ C (0) = = k α C̄ (1) − C̄ s , r = a, (29) 102

holes [21], the concentrations C and C s are expressed as, ∂r ∂ t1

37 103

38 where the overbar denotes time average over one period of oscil- 104

C (x, r , t ) = C (0) (x, r , t 1 , t 2 ) +

C (1) (x, r , t 0 , t 1 , t 2 )

RR

40 2 (2)

3 cross-sectional average of (27) subject to the conditions (23), (28) 106

+

C (x, r , t 0 , t 1 , t 2 ) + O

, (16)

41 and (29): 107

(0) (1)

42 C s (x, t ) = C s (x, t 1 , t 2 ) +

C s (x, t 0 , t 1 , t 2 ) 108

3 ∂ C (0) u s ∂ C (0) 2aΓ

43

(2) + + C (0) = 0 (30) 109

44 +

2 C s (x, t 0 , t 1 , t 2 ) + O

(17) ∂ t1 R ∂x R (a2 − b2 ) 110

CO

45 111

and for the multiple-scale asymptotic analysis, the time derivative where

46 112

has been expanded as, 2aα

47 R =1+ (31) 113

48 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ a2 − b 2 114

49 = +

+

2 . (18) 115

∂t ∂ t0 ∂ t1 ∂ t2 is the retardation factor resulting from the reversible partitioning

UN

50 of the chemical into two phases. It is the ratio, when in equilib- 116

51 Here the terms involving a time scale T 1 or larger can be la- rium, of the total mass of the two chemical phases to the mass of 117

52 beled as ‘developed’, while those terms that vanish exponentially the mobile phase per unit length of the annulus. 118

53 as t → ∞ with relaxation time proportional to T 0 are called ‘tran- Using (23) in (26) and eliminating ∂ C (0) /∂ t 1 from (24)–(26) 119

54 sient’ terms. Therefore, transient terms can be neglected for a time and (30), we rewrite Eqs. (24)–(26) as: 120

55 that is a few time larger than T 0 . Since we are interested in a 121

56 time scale equal to or larger than T 1 , we may accordingly ignore ∂ C (1) u s ∂ C (0) 2aΓ 122

all the transient effects. The expansions (16) and (17) contain only + u− − C (0)

57 ∂ t0 R ∂x R (a2 − b2 ) 123

58 the so-called developed concentrations. The terms C (n) and C s

(n) 124

D ∂ ∂ C (1)

59 (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .) are purely oscillatory function of short time vari- = r , b < r < a, (32) 125

60 able t 0 but the oscillatory effect does not show up on the zeroth r ∂r ∂r 126

61 order (i.e., n = 0), and therefore the leading order concentrations ∂ C (1) 127

= 0, r = b, (33)

62 are taken to be independent of the time variable t 0 . ∂r 128

63 Using the expansions (16)–(18) in Eqs. (13)–(15) and equating (1) 129

∂ C (1) u s ∂ C (0) Γ (0) ∂ C s

64 the coeﬃcients of like powers of

from both sides, a system of −D = −α + C + 130

65 differentials equations is obtained.

∂r R ∂x R ∂ t0 131

66 For zeroth order (O(1)) Eqs. (13)–(15) give = k(α C (1) − C s(1) ) + Γ C (0) , r = a. (34) 132

Please cite this article in press as: S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder, Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions, European Journal of Mechanics

B/Fluids (2008), doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003

ARTICLE IN PRESS

JID:EJMFLU AID:2359 /FLA [m5G; v 1.65; Prn:14/10/2008; 12:29] P.4 (1-9)

4 S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids ••• (••••) •••–•••

1 Eqs. (32)–(34) suggest that C (1) and C s are linearly propor-

(1) 1 2 K 2 λ4 67

− r̂ − λ2 − λ −

2 tional to ∂ C (0) /∂ x and C (0) . Accordingly, one can express these ﬁrst 4R 2 2 68

2 2

(1)

3 order concentrations C (1) and C s into a sum of two terms: the 1−λ λ r̂

69

4 ﬁrst term is linearly proportional to ∂ C (0) /∂ x with a coeﬃcient − λ2 log(λ) − log 70

5

log(λ) 2 λ 71

containing steady and oscillatory components, while the second

6 term is linearly proportional to C (0) with a steady coeﬃcient: 1 2 r̂ 72

+ λ log , (46)

7 2R λ 73

8 (1)

i ωt 0

∂ C (0) (0) 74

C = N (r ) + Re B (r )e + M (r )C (35) r̂ 2 − λ2 λ2 r̂

9 ∂x M̂ (r̂ ) = M̂ (λ) − + log , (47) 75

10 2(1 − λ2 ) R (1 − λ2 ) R λ 76

and

11 α̂ 77

∂ C (0) N̂ s = α̂ N̂ (1) + (48)

F

(1)

12

Cs = N s + Re B s e i ωt0 + M s C (0) (36) Da R 78

13 ∂x 79

14 and 80

where the coeﬃcients N (r ), N s , M (r ), M s , B (r ) and B s satisfy the

O

15 boundary value problems given below. 2 81

M̂ s = α̂ M̂ (1) + (49)

16 Substituting (35) and (36) into (32)–(34), and equating the Da (1 − λ2 ) R 82

17 steady term of the coeﬃcient of ∂ C (0) /∂ x, we ﬁnd the equation 83

RO

18 for N (r ) as: where N̂ (λ) and M̂ (λ) are undetermined constants unless a 84

19 uniqueness condition is speciﬁed. 85

D d dN u s Here D a , Γˆ and α̂ are respectively the Damkohler number (rep-

20 r = us − , b<r <a (37) 86

21 r dr dr R resenting the kinetics of the phase exchange at the outer wall), 87

22 absorption parameter (representing the rate of loss on the outer 88

with the boundary conditions

23

24

25

dN

dr

= 0, r = b, (38)

DP wall) and phase partition ratio (retention parameter).

The dimensionless form of the boundary value problem (43)–

(45) is

89

90

91

26 dN u s 92

27

−D = −α = k(α N − N s ), r = a. (39) 1 d d B̂ 93

2

dr R r̂ + η̂ B̂ = û w , λ < r̂ < 1, (50)

28 r̂ dr̂ dr̂ 94

Again equating the steady term associated with C (0) , we

TE

29 95

get M (r ) and M s : d B̂

30 = 0, r̂ = λ, (51) 96

31

dr̂ 97

D d dM 2aΓ

32 r =− , b<r <a (40) d B̂ 98

r dr dr R (a2 − b2 ) 2

= η̂ B̂ s = − D a (α̂ B̂ − B̂ s ), r̂ = 1, (52)

33 dr̂ 99

EC

35 where B̂, B̂ s , û w and η̂ are the dimensionless parameters deﬁned 101

dM as

36 = 0, r = b, (41) 102

dr

37 B Bs uw 103

dM Γ B̂ = , B̂ s = , û w = , η̂ = aη,

38 −D = = k(α M − M s ) + Γ, r = a. (42) u s a2 / D u s a3 / D u s 104

dr R

RR

39 105

40 Similarly, we obtain the following equations for the complex with 106

√

42 η2 = − , Sc = , δ̂ = = , Λ=a . 108

D d dB a2 δ̂ 2 D a Λ ν

43 r = iω B + u w , b<r <a (43) 109

44 r dr dr Because of the complex structure of û w (r̂ ) in Eq. (50), central 110

CO

45 with the boundary conditions, difference scheme has been adopted to solve the equation under 111

46 the prescribed boundary conditions. 112

dB Here Sc is the Schmidt number which is the ratio of viscous

47

= 0, r = b, (44) 113

48 dr diffusion (ν ) to the molecular diffusion (D) and δ̂ is the ratio of 114

√

49 dB the Stokes boundary thickness ( 2ν /ω ) to the outer radius of 115

−D = i ω B s = k(α B − B s ), r = a. (45)

UN

50 dr the annular tube (a). It should be noted that δ̂ is inversely pro- 116

51

Introducing the dimensionless quantities portional to the dimensionless frequency parameter or Womersley 117

52 number Λ which is the product of two dimensionless param- 118

53 r b N Ns eters, the Reynolds number (u s a/ν ) and the Strouhal number 119

r̂ = , λ= , N̂ = , N̂ s = ,

54 a a u s a2 / D u s a3 / D (ωa/u s ). The parameter Λ2 is a measure of the ratio of the time 120

55 M Ms (a2 /ν ) required for viscosity to smooth out the transverse varia- 121

M̂ = , M̂ s = , tion in vorticity to the period of oscillation (1/ω). The number δ̂

Γˆ Γˆ a

56 122

57

2 increases with the oscillation period. Therefore, the higher the fre- 123

ka α Γa

58 Da = , α̂ = , Γˆ = quency, the smaller the value of δ̂ . The Schmidt number Sc is of 124

59 D a D order unity when the ﬂuid is a gas, and is much greater than unity 125

60 the solutions (in dimensionless form) of Eqs. (37) and (40) subject when the ﬂuid is a liquid. Keeping in mind the possible application 126

61 to the prescribed boundary conditions are given by, of this model in catheterized artery, some investigations are made 127

62 taking Sc = 103 . For dispersion to be signiﬁcant, one may expect 128

1 4 K

63

N̂ (r̂ ) = N̂ (λ) + r̂ − λ − r̂ − λ4 2 2 that, δ̂ O(1) or the period of oscillation must be long enough for 129

64 4 4 the Stokes boundary-layer thickness to be at least comparable with 130

65 1 − λ2 2 the annular gap of the tube. 131

66 − r̂ log(λ) − λ2 log(λ) − r̂ 2 − λ2 For second order (O(

2 )), (13)–(15) give 132

log(λ)

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+ + +u

2 ∂ t2 ∂ t1 ∂ t0 ∂x 2 2 2 4 8 2

68

3 − 144R log(λ) λ + 144R log(λ) λ − 99D a λ R 69

∂ 2 C (0) D ∂ ∂ C (2)

4 =D + r , b < r < a, (53) + 162D a λ8 R + 648λ4 R D a + 180λ6 D a − 216λ4 D a + 108λ2 D a 70

∂ x2 r ∂r ∂r

5 71

6 ∂ C (2) − 372R λ2 log(λ) D a + 72D a log(λ)3 λ8 + 72D a log(λ)3 λ4 72

= 0, r =b (54)

7 ∂r 3 8

− 18D a − 144D a log(λ) λ R + 36D a log(λ) λ 2 2 73

8 74

and

9 − 144D a log(λ)3 λ6 R − 219D a R 2 log(λ)2 λ8 75

(0) (1) (2)

10 ∂ C (2) ∂Cs ∂Cs ∂Cs 8 2 4 2 2 76

11

−D − Γ C (1) = + + + 420D a λ R log(λ) + 108D a λ R log(λ)

77

∂r ∂ t2 ∂ t1 ∂ t0

(2) (2) + 108D a λ4 R 2 log(λ) − 144R log(λ)2 + 48D a R log(λ)2

F

12 78

= k α C − C s , r = a. (55)

13 79

2 2 8 2 2

14 Averaging Eq. (53) w.r.t time followed by space subject to

− 33D a R log(λ) − 198D a λ log(λ) − 76D a R log(λ) 80

O

15 the boundary conditions (54) and (55) and using Eqs. (30), (35) + 144D a log(λ)3 λ6 + 180D a λ8 log(λ) + 72D a log(λ)3 λ8 R 2 81

16 and (36) in appropriate places one gets, 82

17 − 60D a R log(λ)2 λ2 − 324D a R log(λ)2 λ4 − 438D a λ8 R log(λ) 83

RO

18 ∂ C (0) u s ∂ C (0) 2aΓ 84

+ζ +χ C (0) − 464D a λ6 R 2 log(λ) + 184D a λ2 R 2 log(λ)

19 ∂ t2 R ∂x R (a2 − b2 ) 85

20 2 (0) + 248D a λ8 R 2 log(λ) + 54R D a + 144D a log(λ)2 λ6 R 2 86

D ∂ C

21 = + DTs + DT w (56) 87

22

R ∂ x2 − 324R λ2 D a − 144λ4 log(λ)2 + 144λ2 log(λ)2 88

23

24

25

26

with

ζ =− M

1

R

−

us

u s

−

2aM s

R (a2 − b2 )

DP − 84 log(λ)2 λ6 R D a − 144λ6 log(λ)2 + 144 log(λ)2

+ 288 log(λ) + 288R log(λ)λ4 − 288λ6 R log(λ)

+ 288R λ2 log(λ) − 45R 2 D a + 288λ6 log(λ) + 234R 2 λ2 D a

89

90

91

92

27 2aΓ N 2aN s 93

− + − N (a ) , (57)

− 432R 2 λ4 D a + 342R 2 λ6 D a − 144λ6 − 288 log(λ) R

28 u s (a2 − b2 ) R R (a2 − b2 ) 94

TE

29 M 2aM s 2 4

+ 216 log(λ) λ D a − 36 log(λ) λ D a − 288 log(λ)λ 2 6 4 95

30 χ =− − + M (a), (58) 96

R R (a2 − b2 )

31 − 432λ2 + 432λ4 − 288λ2 log(λ) + 432R λ2 − 432λ4 R 97

1 u s 2au s N s

32 DTs = N − us + 2 2 , (59) + 144λ6 R 144R 3 − log(λ)2 − λ2 log(λ)2 − 2 log(λ)

98

33 R R R (a − b2 ) 99

EC

35 101

36 DT w = −

1

Reu w B ∗ (60)

+ λ6 log(λ)2 − 2λ6 log(λ) + λ6 D a . 102

37 2R 103

When λ → 0, the dimensionless dispersion coeﬃcient due to

38 where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. steady ﬂow reduces to 104

RR

39 Here ζ and χ are the higher order correction factors to the 105

40 advection velocity and decay rate respectively. D T s and D T w are 1 11 1 1 2α̂ 106

lim D̂ T s = − + + with R = 1 + 2α̂

41 the respective dispersion coeﬃcients due to steady and oscillatory λ→0 R 48 3R 8R 2 R 3 Da 107

42 part of the ﬂuid motion and these are positive deﬁnite. 108

43 Introducing dimensionless quantities, which agrees with Ng [16]. 109

44 The dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ T w due to oscillatory ﬂow has been 110

CO

45

( D̂ T s , D̂ T w ) = ( D T s , D T w )/ u s 2 a2 / D (60a) evaluated numerically from the expression (60a) through (60) with 111

46

the known values of B̂ (r̂ ) and û w (r̂ ). Like steady component, os- 112

and using N̂ (r̂ ), N̂ s , M̂ (r̂ ) and M̂ s from Eqs. (46)–(49), expres- cillatory component of the dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ T w also agrees

47 113

sions (57)–(59) can be written in dimensionless form as, well with Ng [16] when λ → 0.

48 114

It is mentioned here that two different normalization scales

49 ζ = −Γˆ −48 + 48R − 8 log(λ) R D a + 42λ6 log(λ) D a 115

may be used for the dispersion coeﬃcient due to oscillatory ﬂow –

UN

50 116

51 − 18λ2 log(λ) D a − 30λ4 log(λ) D a + 27λ6 R D a − 46λ6 R log(λ) D a (i) when the amplitude of the oscillatory pressure gradient is kept 117

constant and the frequency is varied, in which a direct comparison

52

+ 6 log(λ) D a − 63λ4 R D a − 18λ6 D a + 42λ4 D a − 30λ2 D a between D T s and D T w can be possible, (ii) the ﬂow can be under

118

53 119

54 + 36R log(λ)λ4 D a + 18R λ2 log(λ) D a + 6D a − 9R D a + 45R λ2 D a a volume-cycled oscillation such that the tidal or Stroke volume 120

55 2 6 4

is maintained constant when the frequency is varied in oscillatory 121

+ 24 log(λ) λ R D a − 48 log(λ) − 48R log(λ)λ + 48 log(λ) R pumping.

56 122

57 − 24 log(λ)2 λ4 D a − 24 log(λ)2 λ6 D a + 48 log(λ)λ4 + 96λ2 For the second case, it is desirable to normalize D T w as: 123

58

− 48λ4 − 96R λ2 + 48λ4 R 12R 2 D a log(λ) − λ2 log(λ)λ4 Ď T w = D T w / D V T2 /a6 (60b) 124

59 125

60 − log(λ) + λ6 log(λ) + 1 − 3λ2 + 3λ4 − λ6 , where V T (= (2π a2 /ω)|u w |) is the tidal volume that can be 126

61 deﬁned equal to twice the amplitude of the volume ﬂuctuation 127

χ = −3D a λ4 − 8R + 4D a λ2 − 8λ2 − D a + 8 + 8R λ2

62

2 (Watson [4]). 128

63 + 4λ4 D a log(λ) /4D a R 2 −1 + λ2 , The undetermined constants N̂ (λ) and M̂ (λ) in the expressions 129

64 N̂ (r̂ ) and M̂ (r̂ ) respectively have no effect on the evaluation of ζ , 130

D̂ T s = 144 − 144R + 102 log(λ) R D a − 288λ6 log(λ) D a

65 χ and D̂ T s . One can easily show that all terms involving the un- 131

66 + 144λ2 log(λ) D a − 540λ6 R D a − 18D a log(λ)2 − 54D a λ8 determined constants cancel out. 132

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1 Eliminating ∂ C (0) /∂ t 2 from (53)–(56) and assuming the second 1 u s 2au s U s 2aM s DTs 67

D ΓT s = U + 2 2

− us − M +

2 order concentration of the form R R R (a − b2 ) a2 − b 2 R 68

3

∂ C (0) ∂ 2 C (0) 2aN s u s 69

4 C (2) = U (r ) + Re X (r )e i ωt0 + V (r ) + Y (r ) (61) + ζ N + 2 70

∂x ∂ x2 a − b2 R 2

5 71

and 2aV s 2aΓ

6

+ V − R V (a) + 2 (75) 72

7 a − b2 R 2 (a2 − b2 ) 73

(2) ∂ C (0) ∂ 2

C (0)

8 Cs = U s + Re X s e i ωt0 + [V s + Y s ] (62) and 74

∂x ∂ x2

9 75

1 2aM s DT w

10 where U and V are forced by the steady ﬂow and X and Y by the D ΓT w = − Reu w X ∗ − M + 76

11 oscillatory ﬂow, we ﬁnd the boundary value problems for U as: 2R a2 − b 2 R 77

F

12 2aY s 2aΓ 78

D d dU u s u s 2aΓ + Y − RY (a) + . (76)

13 r = M us − −ζ − N, b<r <a a2 − b 2 (a2 − b2 ) R 79

14 r dr dr R R R (a2 − b2 ) 80

O

15 (63) It may be mentioned here that D ΓT s and D ΓT s are the higher or- 81

16 der corrections to D T s and D T s respectively due to wall absorption. 82

with the boundary conditions Finally, combining the ﬁrst (Eq. (30)), second (Eq. (56)) and

17 83

RO

18 dU third order transport equations (not given in the text), we get the 84

19 = 0, r = b, (64) overall effective transport equation (using the time variable t): 85

dr

20

dU u s 2aΓ ∂ C (0) u s ∂ C (0) 2aΓ

86

21 −D − Γ N (r ) = −(α ζ + M s ) − Ns + (1 + ζ ) + (1 + χ ) C (0) 87

dr R R (a2 − b2 ) ∂t R ∂x R (a2 − b2 )

22 88

= k[α U − U s ], r =a (65)

23

24

25

and that for V is

D d

dV

u s

DP

= D/R + D T s + D T w + D T s + D T w Γ Γ

∂ 2 C (0)

∂ x2

.

DΓ

(77)

89

90

91

26 r = N us − + D T s, b<r <a (66) The dimensionless dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ ΓT s (= u 2Tas2 / D ) can 92

s

27 r dr dr R 93

be evaluated from (75) on substituting the values of Û , V̂ , Û s

28 94

with the boundary conditions and V̂ s . Again one can show that the undetermined constants have

TE

29 95

no effects on D̂ ΓT s . The expression for D̂ ΓT s is too lengthy to provide

30 dV 96

= 0, r = b, (67) it in the text. We have employed the symbolic computer alge-

31 dr bra package MAPLE to perform the tedious algebraic manipulations 97

32 dV u s and computations. 98

−D = αDTs − N s = k[α V − V s ], r = a. (68)

33 dr R In the limit when λ → 0, the expression for D̂ ΓT s , after making 99

EC

34

Similarly the function X satisﬁes the boundary value problem use of R = 1 + 2α̂ , reduces to 100

35 101

36 D d dX 2aΓ Γˆ 61 199 5 3 102

r + iω X = − B + Mu w , b < r < a, (69) lim D̂ T s =

Γ

− + −

37

r dr dr (a2 − b2 ) R λ→0 R2 240 288R 8R 2 16R 3 103

38 104

dX 11 2 3 3 2 4α̂

+ − + − − 1−

RR

39 = 0, r = b, (70) 105

40 dr 24 R 2R 2 R Da R R Da 106

dX 2aΓ which coincides with the expression obtained by Ng [16].

41

−D −Γ B =− B s − i ω X s = k(α X − X s ), r = a (71) 107

42 dr (a2 − b2 ) R The dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ ΓT w (= D ΓT w /(u s 2 a2 / D )) given 108

43

while Y satisﬁes by (76) can be evaluated upon solving (69)–(74) for X , Y and Y s . 109

44 Again it may be shown that the undetermined constants have no 110

CO

r = Re(u w B ) + D T w , b < r < a, (72)

46 r dr dr 2 able for X and Y in general, it may be solved numerically by a 112

47 dY second order central ﬁnite-difference scheme. But for the present 113

48 = 0, r = b, (73) study we have omitted the discussions on D ΓT w . It is only a higher 114

dr

49 order correction to D̂ T w due to irreversible wall absorption. In fact, 115

dY

−D = α D T w = k(α Y − Y s ), r = a.

UN

dr

51 It should be mentioned here that when the frequency of ﬂow 117

52 Introducing dimensionless quantities oscillation is suﬃciently low, its period becomes comparable to the 118

53 advection time-scale. This leads to a considerable simpliﬁed model. 119

54 (Û , X̂ ) = (U , X )/ Γˆ u s a2 / D , The steady and time varying component of the dispersion coeﬃ- 120

55

(Û s , X̂ s ) = (U s , X s )/ Γˆ u s a3 / D , cient resulting from the oscillatory ﬂow can be evaluated. Because 121

56 of the complex form of u w (r ) due to the aspect ratio, the analyt- 122

57 ( V̂ , Ŷ ) = ( V , Y )/ u s 2 a4 / D 2 , ical expressions of transport coeﬃcients are very lengthy and are 123

58 124

( V̂ s , Ŷ s ) = ( V , Y )/ u s 2 a5 / D 2 not presented here. The fast oscillation limit of the transport coef-

59 ﬁcients are also omitted for the interest of space. 125

60 Eqs. (63), (66), (69) and (72) are solved subject to the boundary 126

61 conditions. 6. Results and applications to catheterized artery 127

62 Averaging the transport equation of third order w.r.t. time t 0 128

63 and space and using (35), (36) and (61), (62) in appropriate places The study of mass transport has potential applications to pul- 129

64 and collecting the steady and oscillatory terms associated with monary and cardiovascular ﬂow of living systems (Grotberg [22]). 130

65 ∂ 2 C (0) /∂ x2 , one gets the corresponding dispersion coeﬃcients D ΓT s This paper aims to develop a conception on how catheterization 131

66 and D ΓT w due to steady and oscillatory part of the ﬂuid motion as: may inﬂuence the dispersion in physiological systems. With this in 132

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2 cur simultaneously at the outer boundary (on the walls of blood 68

3 vessel). The catheters are made of inert materials, where no re- 69

4 actions of the blood particles take place. A zero ﬂux boundary 70

5 condition is considered in this study for the inner boundary. The 71

6 results of the present analysis are important in understanding the 72

7 dispersion process through a catheterized artery with a reactive 73

8 and retentive arterial wall. The tube of radius a can be considered 74

9 as a blood vessel and the insertion of another tube of radius b 75

10 (i.e., the catheter) into the blood vessel causes the formation of an 76

11 annular region between the catheter and the arterial walls. Apart 77

F

12 from the pulsatile nature of the blood ﬂow, since lung and blood 78

13 vessels involve conductive walls, to understand the indicator di- 79

14 lution technique and other mechanisms in the bronchial region, 80

O

15 it is important to analyze the dispersion procedure considering 81

16 the wall characteristics. The objective is to provide a correction 82

17 for the catheter induced errors in the measured values based on 83

RO

18 the concept of longitudinal diffusion of tracer materials due to the 84

19 combined action of the convection and diffusion. The parameter λ, 85

20 the ratio of the catheter radius b to the arterial radius a, is varied 86

21 from 0.1 to 0.8 to analyze the effect of the catheter size on dis- 87

22 persion phenomena. The catheterization increases the frictional re- 88

23

24

25

26

sistance to ﬂow through the artery and hence alters the ﬂow ﬁeld

owing to changes of hemodynamic conditions in the artery. The

result of this analysis may provide a correction for catheter inser-

tion in the light of the behaviour of the dispersion coeﬃcient. The

DP 89

90

91

92

27 fast and slow oscillation limits of the dispersion coeﬃcients due 93

28 to oscillatory ﬂow may be of interest in the area of cardiovascu- 94

TE

29 lar system. In the artiﬁcial ventilation of the lung (Grotberg [22]), 95

30 the fast oscillation limits of the dispersion coeﬃcients have signif- 96

31 icant importance. Slow and fast oscillation of the heart is directly Fig. 1. Steady component of dispersion coeﬃcient: (a) against the aspect ratio λ, 97

32 related to the systolic and diastolic pressure of living-body. when the wall is inert (b) against the aspect ratio λ, when the wall is retentive and 98

33 In this paper an asymptotic analysis has been presented for (c) against the retention parameter α̂ for different values of the aspect ratio λ. 99

EC

35 through an annular tube, where the ﬂow is generated using pul- ert wall compared with the retentive wall. It is interesting to note 101

36 satile pressure gradient with non-zero mean. The species is under- that the presence of catheter with increase in size inhibits the dis- 102

37 went linear reversible and irreversible reactions at the inner wall persion process when the wall is inert, whereas for retentive wall, 103

38 of the outer tube. Analytical expressions are derived for the various increase of catheter size enhances the dispersion coeﬃcient if the 104

RR

39 dispersion coeﬃcients due to steady ﬂow with retention and the retention is weak, though strong retention in the wall may dimin- 105

40 combined effect of retention and absorption at the wall; whereas ish the dispersion coeﬃcient. Fig. 1(c) depicts the variation of D̂ T s 106

41 a numerical scheme has been adopted to compute the dispersion with α̂ for different values of the aspect ratio λ. It is observed from 107

42 coeﬃcient due to oscillatory ﬂow. The behaviour of these compo- the ﬁgure that for a ﬁxed aspect ratio λ, D̂ T s increases for small 108

43 nents of the dispersion coeﬃcient under the variation of various values of α̂ within the range 0.2–0.3, reaches a maximum value 109

44 controlling parameters like aspect ratio λ, retention parameter α̂ , and then it decreases with α̂ , because they are much weighted 110

CO

45 oscillation parameter δ̂ (inverse of Womersley number Λ), Schmidt down by the retardation factor R. With the increase of aspect ratio, 111

46 number Sc, Damkohler number D a is described in this section. To the maximum value of D̂ T s decreases. The deviation of D̂ T s from 112

47 relate the present study with arterial blood ﬂow, the Schmidt num- its maximum value increases with the increase of λ i.e., more the 113

48 ber Sc is restricted to the order of 103 . The main emphasis is given value of λ, more sharp the decrease of D̂ T s . 114

49 on how the components of dispersion coeﬃcient change with the The variation of oscillatory component of the normalized dis- 115

persion coeﬃcient D̂ T w with λ for Sc = 103 , δ̂ = 1, D a = 1 is plot-

UN

51 The behaviour of the steady component of normalized disper- ted in Fig. 2(a) for different values of α̂ . It is observed that D̂ T w 117

52 sion coeﬃcient D̂ T s with variation of aspect ratio λ is described increases with the increase of aspect ratio over a wide range (0.0– 118

53 in Fig. 1(a), (b) for different values of α̂ when D a = 1.0. It is ob- 0.85), reaches a maximum value and then within the remaining 119

54 served from the ﬁgures that, D̂ T s shows its decrement [Fig. 1(a)] short range of λ it shows a sudden drop. So unless the aspect ratio 120

55 with the increase of aspect ratio when the wall is perfectly inert of the tube exceeds a critical value, D̂ T w increases as the annu- 121

56 (i.e., α̂ = 0), but for retentive wall (α̂ > 0) the dependence of D̂ T s lar gap of the tube decreases (increase of aspect ratio). The rate of 122

57 on λ shows a little irregular behaviour [Fig. 1(b)]. Fig. 1(b) shows increment of D̂ T w with λ depends on the retention parameter α̂ . 123

58 that for weak retention (α̂ = 0.05, 0.10) D̂ T s is growing with λ The rate is high when the retention is weak. Also increase of α̂ 124

59 over the range 0.0–0.8 and then it suddenly drops in the narrow leads to a decrease of D̂ T w (Fig. 2(b)). It is observed from the ﬁg- 125

60 region of the annulus, but when the retention is strong (α̂ > 0.1), ure that for all λ, D̂ T w decreases monotonically with the increase 126

61 D̂ T s decreases with λ over the whole annular gap. So increase or of α̂ . The effects of phase exchange on D̂ T s and D̂ T w are similar. 127

62 decrease of steady component of the dispersion coeﬃcient with λ Stronger kinetics of the phase exchange (i.e. smaller D a ) will give 128

63 depends upon the retention parameter α̂ . For inert wall, the de- rise to a larger value of either dispersion coeﬃcients (Ng [16]). 129

64 crease of D̂ T s with λ may be due to decrease of mean velocity The dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ T w has been plotted in Fig. 3(a) 130

65 with aspect ratio λ. It may be mentioned here that the magnitude against the aspect ratio λ for different values of δ̂ when Sc = 103 , 131

66 of the steady component of dispersion is very less for perfectly in- D a = 1, α̂ = 0. It is observed from the ﬁgure that for inert wall 132

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1 67

2 68

3 69

4 70

5 71

6 72

7 73

8 74

9 75

10 76

11 77

F

12 78

13 79

14 80

O

15 81

16 82

17 83

RO

18 84

19 85

20 86

21 87

22 88

23

24

25

Fig. 2. Oscillatory component of the dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ T w : (a) against the as-

pect ratio λ for different values of the partition coeﬃcient α̂ and (b) against the

retention parameter α̂ for different values of the aspect ratio λ.

DP 89

90

91

26 92

27 93

28 94

TE

29 95

30 96

31 97

32 98

Fig. 4. Variation of oscillatory component of the dispersion coeﬃcient for different

33 values of the aspect ratio λ; against the Schmidt number Sc for δ̂ = 1, (b) dispersion 99

EC

35 Sc = 103 and α̂ = 1 and (c) the same as (b), but for dispersion coeﬃcient due to 101

volume-cycled oscillation ( Ď T w ).

36 102

37 103

38 inﬂuence of oscillation parameter δ̂ , when it is small, is not that 104

effective on dispersion coeﬃcient for 0 < λ < 0.4 (Fig. 3(b)). How-

RR

39 105

40 ever large oscillation parameter δ̂ has appreciable contribution on 106

41 the oscillatory component of the dispersion coeﬃcient for all λ. 107

42 The behaviour of D̂ T w with the variation of λ is found to be con- 108

43 sistent with the results obtained from Fig. 3(b) even when the wall 109

44 is inert with small δ̂ or when the wall is retentive with large δ̂ . It 110

CO

46 the dispersion coeﬃcient is very less in case of non-retentive wall 112

Fig. 3. Oscillatory component of the dispersion coeﬃcient against the aspect ratio compared to that when the wall is retentive.

47 113

of the annular tube for different values of the oscillation parameter δ̂ : (a) when the

48 wall is inert and (b) when the wall is retentive.

The variation of D̂ T w with Schmidt number Sc is shown in 114

49 Fig. 4(a) for different values of α̂ and λ. It is seen that higher 115

value of Sc leads to smaller D̂ T w for retentive (α̂ = 1) as well

UN

50

(α̂ = 0) and low oscillation parameter (δ̂ ≈ 1), D̂ T w is practically 116

51 as inert (α̂ = 0) wall. As we discussed earlier, based on differ- 117

ineffective with the variation of λ except for a narrow annular

52 ent normalization scales, there exists two dispersion coeﬃcients: 118

gap. Figure shows that for perfectly inert wall, D̂ T w may increase

53 D̂ T w (given by (60a)) and Ď T w (given by (60b)). The former is 119

with λ over a considerable range when the oscillation parame-

54 for a pressure gradient-cycled oscillation, while the latter is for 120

ter δ̂ = 4. When δ̂ is suﬃciently large, it is observed that D̂ T w

55 a volume-cycled oscillation. As shown in Fig. 4(b), (c), the oscil- 121

56

decreases with λ throughout its domain and it agrees well with lation frequency have qualitatively different effects on these two 122

57

the results of Sarkar and Jayaraman [9] and Mazumder and Mon- normalized dispersion coeﬃcients. While D̂ T w increases monoton- 123

58 dal [10]. For ﬁxed but small λ, D̂ T w increases with increase of δ̂ . ically with δ̂ (i.e., the increase of Womersley number Λ inhabits 124

59 As the annular gap becomes narrower, dispersion coeﬃcient de- the dispersion process (Mazumder and Mondal [10])), the oppo- 125

60 creases with λ and apparently ineffective with the variation of δ̂ . site is true for Ď T w . Therefore under a volume-cycled oscillation, 126

61 Fig. 3(b) shows the variation of D̂ T w with λ for different values a larger dispersion coeﬃcient will result from a higher Womers- 127

62 of the oscillation parameter δ̂ when the wall is retentive (α̂ > 0). ley number, because a stronger pressure force needs to be applied 128

63 It is clear from the ﬁgure that the increase of δ̂ leads to an in- to maintain a constant tidal volume. From Fig. 4(b), it is seen that 129

64 crease of D̂ T w . This is because the decrease of δ̂ i.e., increase of D̂ T w asymptotically reaches a steady state after a certain δ̂ and the 130

65 frequency of oscillation results a reduction in the ﬂow within the value of δ̂ depends on α̂ and λ. For a ﬁxed retention parameter α̂ , 131

66 annular region, hence the reduction of dispersion coeﬃcient. The D̂ T w approaches to stationary state earlier if λ is large. 132

Please cite this article in press as: S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder, Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions, European Journal of Mechanics

B/Fluids (2008), doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003

ARTICLE IN PRESS

JID:EJMFLU AID:2359 /FLA [m5G; v 1.65; Prn:14/10/2008; 12:29] P.9 (1-9)

S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids ••• (••••) •••–••• 9

2 critical value, the oscillatory component of the dispersion co- 68

3 eﬃcient D̂ T w increases with decrease of annular gap (increase 69

4 of λ). The rate of increment of D̂ T w with λ depends on the re- 70

5 tention parameter and the rate is high when the retention is 71

6 weak. 72

7 4. The frequency of ﬂow oscillation shows qualitatively differ- 73

8 ent effects on two types of normalized dispersion coeﬃcients 74

9 resulting from the pressure gradient-cycled oscillation and 75

10 volume-cycled oscillation. 76

11 5. With the possible application in catheterized artery, the re- 77

F

12 sults show that the presence of catheter with increase in size 78

13 inhibits the dispersion process when the wall is non-retentive, 79

14 whereas for retentive wall, the insertion of catheter enhances 80

O

15 the dispersion if the retention is weak, though strong retention 81

16 in the wall reduces the dispersion coeﬃcient. 82

17 83

RO

18 Acknowledgement 84

19 85

20 One of us (Suvadip paul) is thankful to CSIR, India for ﬁnancial 86

21 support for pursuing this work. Suggestions of two anonymous ref- 87

22 erees are gratefully acknowledged. 88

23

24

25

26

Fig. 5. (a) Variation of dispersion coeﬃcient D̂ ΓT s against

when D a = 1, Γˆ = 1 and (b) variation of D̂ ΓT s against

kinetics of the phase exchange D a .

α̂ for different values of λ

λ for different values of the

DP

References

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tube, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 219 (1953) 186–203.

89

90

91

92

27 93

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28 94

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TE

29 [3] P.C. Chatwin, On the longitudinal dispersion of passive contaminant in oscilla- 95

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EC

34 [6] T.J. Pedley, R.D. Kamm, The effect of secondary motion on axial transport in 100

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36 of D̂ ΓT s increases with the increase in λ. D̂ ΓT s ﬁrst shows an in- [7] K.K. Mondal, B.S. Mazumder, On solute dispersion in pulsatile ﬂow through a 102

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37 103

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38 it remains almost independent of α̂ . This phenomenon becomes conductive walls, J. Biomech. Eng. 115 (1993) 424–431. 104

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RR

39 [9] A. Sarkar, G. Jayaraman, The effect of wall absorption on dispersion in oscilla- 105

40 a slight increase with λ over the range 0.0–0.8 and within the re- tory ﬂow in an annulus: application to a catheterized artery, Acta Mech. 172 106

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42 the effect of λ on D̂ ΓT s appears to be more signiﬁcant. It is observed annular pipe with reactive wall and application to a catheterized artery, Quart. 108

43 that D̂ ΓT s decreases with increase of D a over the whole range of λ J. Mech. Appl. Math. 58 (3) (2005) 349–365. 109

44 [11] M.R. Davidson, R.C. Schroter, A theoretical model of absorption of gases by the 110

except at the narrow gap of the annular tube, where D̂ ΓT s increases.

CO

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46 112

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47 [13] A. Purnama, The dispersion of chemically active solutes in parallel ﬂow, J. Fluid 113

48 Mech. 290 (1995) 263–277. 114

49 The stream-wise dispersion of tracer materials released in an [14] R. Revelli, L. Ridolﬁ, Inﬂuence of suspended sediment on the transport pro- 115

oscillatory ﬂow through an annular pipe (termed as catheterized cesses of nonlinear reactive substances in turbulent streams, J. Fluid Mech. 472

UN

50 116

(2002) 307–331.

51 artery) with reversible and irreversible reactions at the outer wall 117

[15] R. Revelli, L. Ridolﬁ, Transport of reactive chemicals in sediment-laden stream,

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53 results are compared with the existing results available in the lit- [16] C.O. Ng, Dispersion in steady and oscillatory ﬂows through a tube with re- 119

54 erature when the aspect ratio approaches to zero and are found in versible and irreversible wall reactions, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 462 (2006) 120

good agreement. The following important conclusions that can be 481–515.

55 121

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56 drawn from the present study: exchange on the bottom and air–water exchange on the free surface, Fluid Dy- 122

57 namics Res. 38 (2006) 359–385. 123

58 1. The steady component of D̂ T s decreases with increase of λ [18] K.K. Mondal, B.S. Mazumder, On the solute dispersion in a pipe of annular cross 124

for perfectly inert wall, whereas for retentive wall (α̂ > 0), de- section with absorbing boundary, ZAMM 85 (6) (2005) 422–430.

59 125

[19] A. Sarkar, G. Jayaraman, The effect of wall absorption on dispersion in annular

60 pending upon the degree of retention, it may increase with λ. 126

ﬂows, Acta Mech. 158 (2001) 105–119.

61 2. For non-retentive wall (α̂ = 0) and low oscillation parameter [20] D.A. McDonald, Blood Flow in Arteries, Edward Arnold, 1974. 127

62 δ̂ , D̂ T w is practically ineffective with the insertion of catheter [21] P.C. Fife, K.R.K. Nicholes, Dispersion in ﬂow through small tubes, Proc. Roy. Soc. 128

63 except in a narrow gap, whereas for suﬃciently large δ̂ (low London A 344 (1975) 131–145. 129

[22] J.B. Grotberg, Pulmonary ﬂow and transport phenomena, Annu. Rev. Fluid

64 Womersley number), D̂ T w decreases with λ throughout its do- 130

Mech. 26 (1994) 529–571.

65 main. 131

66 132

Please cite this article in press as: S. Paul, B.S. Mazumder, Transport of reactive solutes in unsteady annular ﬂow subject to wall reactions, European Journal of Mechanics

B/Fluids (2008), doi:10.1016/j.euromechﬂu.2008.09.003

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