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HISTORY AND RELIGION OF ISRAEL IN ANCIENT TIMES: THE FIRST TEMPLE PERIOD JUS/NES/HIST/RELI 372A The Arizona Center for Judaic Studies The University of Arizona Spring 2008 Dr. Beth Alpert Nakhai Office: Marshall Building, 845 N. Park Ave., Room 422 (520) 626-5762 Judaic Studies Office: 626-5758 Office hours: Tuesday/Thursday 11:00-12:00 or by appointment Course meets Tuesday/Thursday from 12:30-1:45 Course meets in Chavez 105 EMAIL: To email me, you MUST include the course number (372A) in the subject line. bnakhai@email.arizona.edu COURSE DESCRIPTION This course surveys the history and religions of ancient Israel from the late second millennium to the midsixth century BCE. Through your reading and class lectures, you will study such topics as the cultural roots of ancient Israel, the emergence of the Israelite nation, the social world of Israel and Judah, Israelite and Judaean religions, the place of women in Israelite and Judaean society, and the history of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Because the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh, Old Testament) is the primary text documenting the social, political and religious world of ancient Israel and Judah, it will serve as a major resource for our study. The Hebrew Bible is not, however, an unprejudiced history. The people who created and edited this document had their own interests and perspectives, and as such, their text is not an objective one. One must learn how to read the Bible, in order to understand what it says. In this class, you will become familiar with various scholarly approaches used to interpret the Hebrew Bible, in order to understand more fully the history and religions of ancient Israel. Students who are able to read the text in its original Hebrew are encouraged to do so. The Hebrew Bible is not the only resource providing information on ancient Israelite history and religions. Archaeological explorations of Israel and the surrounding lands provides a fascinating glimpse into the physical world of antiquity, welcoming the explorer into the homes and palaces, temples and fortresses, villages and cities of Israel and Judah. Excavations have additionally uncovered an intriguing corpus of textual materials, the study of which will be incorporated into our investigation, as well. CLASS FORMAT This course will use a lecture and discussion format. Some time will be spent each week on the presentation of primary data, but the emphasis of the course is not only in mastering a sequence of facts but also in creating a multifaceted, multi-disciplinary view of the world of Iron Age Israel and Judah. Due to the challenging nature of the topic, students are required to come to class prepared to discuss readings and research. Each student is expected to contribute both orally and in writing to our on-going investigation. There are often no answers to the questions posed in such a course and so each student must become comfortable distinguishing between certainty and hypothesis, and must become adept at reconstructing the past based upon the best data and theoretical concepts available. COURSE OBJECTIVES This course satisfies University requirements for General Education Tier Two Humanities and for Gender, Race, Class, Ethnicity, or Non-Western Area Studies.

REQUIRED TEXTS Bible Any modern scholarly translation of the Hebrew Bible -- Old Testament -- Tanakh is acceptable. Avoid editions that paraphrase, highlight or otherwise simplify or alter the original text. The following Bible has been ordered for this class, and is available at the University Bookstore: The HarperCollins Study Bible: Fully Revised & Updated, eds. H. W. Attridge and the Society for Biblical Literature. San Francisco and New York: HarperSanFrancisco. 2006. Coogan, M. D., ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical World. New York: Oxford University Press. 2001. Available in Reference section of the library. Matthews, V. H. and Moyer, J. C. The Old Testament: Text and Context, 2nd ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. 2005. Additional required readings, indicated in the course syllabus by (ERes), are on Electronic Reserve in the UA Main Library. To access the readings electronically, log onto ERes at: http://eres.library.arizona.edu/ The password for this course is: templeone Since all materials can be found in print version in Traditional Reserves (located at the Circulation Desk of the Main Library), not being able to access course reserves electronically is no excuse for not reading assignments.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS All assigned readings are available in Traditional Reserves (located at the Circulation Desk) or in the Reference area in the UofA Main Library. Along with the assigned readings, there are other books on Traditional Reserve or in the Reference area that are relevant to this class. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, available in the Reference area of the Main Library, is a great resource for all kinds of material relevant to this course. Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. D. N. Freedman, ed. New York: Doubleday. 1992. The composition of the Hebrew Bible, as well as its analysis by scholars throughout the millennia, has most often been a male endeavor. Here are two excellent resources to use for exploring feminist approaches to the Bible and for learning more about women in the Bible. 1998 Newsom, C. A. and Ringe, S. H., eds. The Womens Bible Commentary. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press. Available in Traditional Reserves. 1999 Meyers, C. L., Craven, T. and Kraemer, R. S., eds. Women in Scripture: A Dictionary of Named and Unnamed Women in the Hebrew Bible, the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, and the New Testament. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Available in Reference area of the Main Library. Several recent works present the history and culture of Israel and surrounding lands from an archaeological perspective. 1990 Dever, W. G. Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research. Seattle: University of Washington. 1990 Mazar, A. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 BCE. New York: Doubleday. 1992 Ben-Tor, A., ed. The Archaeology of Ancient Israel. New Haven: Yale University. 1992 Rast, W. E. Through the Ages in Palestinian Archaeology: An Introductory Handbook. Knowledge of geography is essential for an understanding of our topic. There are maps in our textbook and in most study Bibles. Additionally, atlases of the ancient and modern world are available in the Main Library. The rd Macmillan Bible Atlas, 3 edition, edited by M. Avi-Yonah, A. Rainey and Z. Safrai (New York: Macmillan, 1993) is available in Traditional Reserves. There are a number of Bibles in the Reference section of the main library. For one that includes both the Hebrew and the English, see JPS Hebrew-English Tanakh: the traditional Hebrew text and the new nd JPS translation. 2 ed. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1999.

There are several Bibles available in Traditional Reserves. o The New Interpreter's Study Bible: New Revised Standard Version with the Apocrypha, ed. W. Harrelson. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. 2003. The HarperCollins Study Bible: New Revised Standard Version, with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, ed. W. A. Meeks, with the Society of Biblical Literature, 1st ed. New York, NY: HarperCollins. 1993.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS 1) Readings: Students are expected to complete all required reading assignments before class. 2) Examinations: Exam #1: Thurs. Feb. 14th Exam #2: Tues. Apr. 1st th Exam #3: Thurs. May 15 , 11:00-1:00 3) Paper: 4-5 page independent research paper Due: April 22nd, at the beginning of class A guide for writing this research paper will be available on the ERes site for this class, early in the semester. 4) Acts of Charity and Kindness: Due: May 6th, at the beginning of class Because acts of charity and kindness are important themes in the religious traditions we are studying this semester, you are asked to turn in accounts of two charitable and kind deeds you perform this semester. Your acts of charity and kindness should involve things you do to help others without the expectation of remuneration. The written accounts need be no longer than one paragraph each, double-spaced. Staple this assignment to your Visit to a Synagogue paper. Visit to a Synagogue: th Due: May 6 , at the beginning of class You are asked to attend a synagogue sometime during the semester. (Those who were raised in a Jewish religious setting should attend a non-Jewish service). The goal of this exercise is for you to become familiar with the communal worship activities of people from another religious tradition, and to better understand modern religious traditions as they developed from First Temple times. Afterwards, write a one-page double-spaced description and explanation of what you observed. You may also include your own personal reflections on the experience. Staple this assignment to your Acts of Charity and Kindness paper. A list of Tucson synagogues can be found at: http://www.jewishtucson.org/page.html?ArticleID=152439 Call first, to find out days and times of services, dress code and so forth. Try and go to a Shabbat (Saturday morning) service, where the Torah is read.

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6) Attendance: Students are required to attend all classes. If extenuating circumstances such as illness force a student to miss one or more classes, the student remains responsible for the material covered during her/his absence. Absences necessitated by religious observance will be honored, according to University policy. Absences pre-approved by the UA Dean of Students (or Deans designee) will be honored. 7) Disruptive behavior: Students may not use cell phones during class time. Students may not use computers during class time for any purpose other than for taking class notes, Students may not chat, read newspapers, listen to music or otherwise behave disruptively during class time.

8) Threatening behavior: THREATENING BEHAVIOR IS PROHIBITED. Threatening behavior means any statement, communication, conduct or gesture, including those in written form, directed toward any member of the University community that causes a reasonable apprehension of physical harm to a person or property. A student can be guilty of threatening behavior even if the person who is the object of the threat does not observe or receive it, so long as a reasonable person would interpret the makers statement, communication, conduct or gesture as a serious expression of intent to physically harm. Students must abide by the UA policy concerning threatening behavior, which can be read at: http://policy.web.arizona.edu/threatening.pdf 9) Students with special needs: Students with special needs who are registered with the S.A.L.T. Center or the Disability Resource Center must submit appropriate documentation to the instructor if they request special accommodations. 10) Changes to the syllabus: The information contained in the course syllabus, other than the grade and absence policies, may be subject to change with reasonable advance notice, as deemed appropriate by the instructor. 11) Student Policies, Procedures and Codes: For further information, see http://dos.web.arizona.edu/uapolicies/ HONORS STUDENTS In addition to attending all regular classes, Honors Students (section 2H) will attend five special Discussion Sessions, which will be held in the Judaic Studies Conference Room (Marshall 420). These sessions are open to all students in the class, but are mandatory for Honors students. Attendance at these sessions is mandatory for all Honors students. If you cannot attend these sessions, you must switch from Honors (Section 2) to Section 1. These sessions will be held on 1/22, 1/31, 2/21, 3/4, 3/25 and 4/10, from 10:00-11:00, in the Judaic Studies Conference Room (Marshall 420). They may consider the following topics (and other topics, as suggested by students): Ancient texts ancient history: historiography in the ancient Near East How archaeology contributes to the study of biblical Israel Exploring literacy in the ancient Near East The lives of women in the ancient Near East Rather than submitting the 4-5 page term paper required of students in Section 1, each Honors Student will submit a 6-8 page paper. Topics for these papers may be chosen from among those available to Section 1 students, or may be developed individually with faculty approval. Honors Students will th present their paper topics in the Honors Session meetings on April 10 . Feedback from this session will help improve the papers.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Your grade will be determined as follows: Exams: 20% each exam Paper: 30% Synagogue Visit and Good Deeds: 10% Final grades will be assigned according to the following percentages: 90% and above . . . . . A 80% and above . . . . . B 70% and above . . . . . C 65% and above . . . . . D Below 65% . . . . . . . . E

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Students in this class comply with the University Code of Academic Integrity. They will not plagiarize or represent the work of others as their own, nor modify academic work for the purpose of obtaining additional credit. Plagiarism is defined as using the ideas and words of others without indicating whose ideas and whose words they are. Do not plagiarize, even inadvertently. If you quote as few as three words (sometimes only one word, if it is a major idea developed by the writer), use quotation marks and give the reference. If you use ideas only and not the actual words, give the reference but do not use quotation marks. The penalty for cheating or plagiarism in this course is zero credit for any assignment in which it occurs, which means failing the course. In addition, students who cheat will be reported to the Dean of Students. For further information, see: http://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/plagiarism/index.html BIBLICAL CITATIONS Biblical citations are read as follows: Gen 1:1-3:24 indicates Genesis chapter 1 verse 1 through Genesis chapter 3 verse 24.

CLASS SCHEDULE AND ASSIGNMENTS Thurs. Jan. 17 Introduction to the course Why study the Bible? Geography of the ancient Near East Assignment: Matthews and Moyer: pp. 1-10, 31-43 Tues. Jan. 22 Introduction to the resources: Archaeology Anthropology The study of the ancient Near East The Canaanite origins of ancient Israel The Middle and Late Bronze Ages Canaanite religion Assignment: Matthews and Moyer: pp. 10-18 Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age, by W. T. Pitard. Pp. 25-57 in Coogan, ed. HONORS SESSION

Thurs. Jan. 24 Introduction to the Hebrew Bible History of the study of ancient Israel History of the study of the Bible Understanding the Documentary Hypothesis Assignment: Matthews and Moyer: pp. 19-31 In the Beginning: The Earliest History, by M. D. Coogan. Pp. 3-24 in Coogan, ed. Tues. Jan. 29 Creation: two stories two sources Re-viewing the text: feminist approaches to the creation story Assignment: Bible: Genesis 1:1-3:24 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 45-50 Eve and Adam: Genesis 2-3 Reread, by P. Trible. Pp. 74-83 in Womenspirit Rising: A Feminist Reader in Religion, C. P. Christ and J. Plaskow, eds. New York: Harper & Row. 1979. (ERes)

Thurs. Jan. 31 Water, water everywhere: flood stories in Mesopotamia and the Hebrew Bible Assignment: Bible: Genesis 4, 6-11 Introduction to the Epic of Gilgamesh. Pp. 39-49 in S. Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and Others. Oxford and NY: Oxford University. 1989. (ERes) The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet XI. Pp. 109-20 in S. Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and Others. Oxford and NY: Oxford University. 1989. (ERes) Matthews and Moyer: pp. 50-53 HONORS SESSION

Tues. Feb. 5 In search of ancestors: the matriarchs and patriarchs of ancient Israel Assignment: Bible: Genesis 12:1-25:11 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 53-62 Thurs. Feb. 7 National myth-making: Israel leaves Egypt Assignment: Bible: Exodus 1-3:12 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 62-67, 71-73 Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt, by C. A. Redmount. Pp. 58-89 in Coogan, ed. Tues. Feb. 12 Lawgiving: Israelite covenant and ancient Near Eastern law codes Assignment: Bible: Exodus 3:13-15, 6:2-13, 12:1-15:21, 19:1-24:19 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 67-70 NO OFFICE HOURS TODAY

Thurs. Feb. 14 EXAM #1 Tues. Feb. 19 Israel takes Canaan or does it? The Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges Views of Israelite settlement Assignment: Bible: Joshua 2:1-2:24; 6:1-27; 10:1-12:24; Judges 1:1-2:15 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 73-81 Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel, by L. E. Stager. Pp. 90-131 in Coogan, ed. NO OFFICE HOURS TODAY

Thurs. Feb. 21 Early Israel in Canaan: The Judges of early Israel Assignment: Bible: Judges 6-8 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 81-99 "There Was No King in Israel" The Era of the Judges, by J. A. Hackett. Pp. 132-164 in Coogan, ed. HONORS SESSION

Tues. Feb. 26 Early Israel in Canaan: Religion in the era of the Judges Women in the Iron I Assignment: Bible: Judges 4-5 NO OFFICE HOURS TODAY

Thurs. Feb. 28 The making of the Monarchy Issues in state formation Samuel the prophet and Saul the king Assignment: Bible: 1 Sam 3:1-21; 7:2-8:22; 9:15-10:27; 31:1-13 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 101-111 Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy, by C. Meyers. Pp. 165-205 in Coogan, ed. Tues. Mar. 4 The United Monarchy: David, Nathan and Solomon Assignment: Bible: 1 Samuel 16: 1-18:58; 2 Samuel 1:1-27; 5:1-12; 7:1-16; 1 Kings 1:1-2:12; 4:20-34; 5:1-6:1; 9:15-28 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 111-120 HONORS SESSION

Thurs. Mar. 6 The United Monarchy (continued) Israel and Judah: the nation splits Rehoboam and Jeroboam I Assignment: Bible: 1 Kings 11:26-16:20 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 120-123 A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria, by E. F. Campbell Jr. Pp. 206-218 in Coogan, ed. Tues. Mar. 11 Prophecy: an overview Assignment: Matthews and Moyer: pp. 123-133 Thurs. Mar. 13 Israel: the dynasty of Omri and the prophet Elijah Assignment: Bible: 1 Kgs 16:21-1 Kgs 22:53 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 133-142 A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria, by E. F. Campbell Jr. Pp. 218-228 in Coogan, ed. SPRING BREAK: NO CLASSES ON MAR. 18 AND MAR. 20

Tues. Mar. 25 Assyria: Near Eastern imperialism Israel: the dynasty of Jehu Assignment: Bible: 2 Kgs 9:1-10:36 Amos 1:1-15; 9:1-15; Hosea 1:1-2:23; Isaiah 6:1-8:4; 36:1-39:8 A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria, by E. F. Campbell Jr. Pp. 228-236 in Coogan, ed. HONORS SESSION

Thurs. Mar. 27 Eighth century prophets Amos, Hosea and First Isaiah Israel: The destruction of the northern nation Assignment: Bible: 2 Kings 16:1-17:41 A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria, by E. F. Campbell Jr. Pp. 236-241 in Coogan, ed. Matthews and Moyer: pp. 143-175 Tues. Apr. 1 EXAM #2 Thurs. Apr. 3 Judah: From Rehoboam to the destruction of Israel Assignment: Bible: 2 Kings 11:1-12:21 Tues. Apr. 8 Judah: The reign of Hezekiah Assignment: Bible: 2 Kings 18:1-20:21 Into Exile: From the Assyrian Conquest of Israel to the Fall of Babylon, by M. Cogan. Pp. 242-252 in Coogan, ed. Thurs. Apr. 10 Judah: Manasseh and Josiah The early Deuteronomists Assignment: Bible: 2 Kgs 22:1-23:30 Into Exile: From the Assyrian Conquest of Israel to the Fall of Babylon, by M. Cogan. Pp. 252-262 in Coogan, ed. HONORS SECTION COME PREPARED TO DISCUSS YOUR TERM PAPER

Tues. Apr. 15 Religion in Judah: an overview Assignment: Archaeology Reconstructs the Lost Background of the Israelite Cult. Pp. 121-166 in Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research, by W. G. Dever. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1990. (ERes) Gender and Archaeology in Israelite Religion, by B. A. Nakhai. Religion Compass 1/5(2007) 51228. (ERes) Thurs. Apr. 17 The nation of Judah: Jeremiah and the Babylonian threat Assignment: Bible: 2 Kings 23:31-24:20; Jeremiah 1:1-19; 21:1-22:17; 45:1-5 Matthews and Moyer: pp. 184-195

Tues. Apr. 22 The destruction of Jerusalem: 587 BCE Assignment: Bible: 2 Kings 25:1-30; Jeremiah 39:1-18 Into Exile: From the Assyrian Conquest of Israel to the Fall of Babylon, by M. Cogan. Pp. 262-275 in Coogan, ed. Matthews and Moyer: pp. 195-197 TERM PAPERS DUE TODAY AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS Thurs. Apr. 24 Daily life in the Iron Age Assignment: The Household in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism, by J. Blenkinsopp. Pp. 169-185 in The Blackwell Companion to the Hebrew Bible, L. G. Perdue, ed. Oxford, England and Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2001. (ERes) Tues. Apr. 29 Women in Iron Age Israel and Judah Assignment: Everyday Life: Women in the Period of the Hebrew Bible, by C. Meyers. Pp. 244-251 in The Womens Bible Commentary, C. A. Newsom and S. H. Ringe, eds. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press. 1993. (ERes) Material Remains and Social Relations: Womens Culture in Agrarian Households of the Iron Age, by C. Meyers. Pp. 425-44 in Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina, W. G. Dever and S. Gitin, eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. 2003. (ERes) Portrayals of Women in the Hebrew Bible, by S. Niditch. Pp. 25-45 in Jewish Women in Historical Perspective, 2nd ed., J. R. Baskin, ed. Detroit: Wayne State University. 1998. (ERes) Thurs. May 1 NO CLASS Meeting of the Board of Trustees, American Schools of Oriental Reseach, Philadelphia. Assignment: Complete Visits and Acts of Kindness assignments Review for Exam #3 Tues. May 6 Course summary VISITS AND ACTS OF KINDNESS PAPERS DUE TODAY, AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS

Thurs. May 15 EXAM #3 11:00-1:00 Chavez 105