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Flowers-

a major diagnostic feature of angiosperm

Flower Sex

- a modified reproductive shoot - reproductive organ of flowering plants (angiosperms) - a modified, determinate shoot bearing sporophylls (stamens and/or carpels), -with or without outer modified leaves (the perianth) Bisexual- having both stamens and carpels Hermaphroditic

Flower Parts:

Unisexual- having only carpels or only stamens Staminate- having only stamens Carpellate- having only carpels Monoecious- unisexual in single individual plant; Dioecious- unisexual in separate individual plant Polygamous- plat with both unisexual and bisexual flowers

Flower Cycle
Complete- having all floral parts Incomplete- lacking on or floral parts

Pedicel- is the flower stalk Bract- generally reduced leaf Receptacle- is the tissue or region of a flower to which the other floral parts are attached Perianth- is the outermost, non reproductive group of modified leaf Corolla- is the inner most series of modified leaves Petal- individual units of corolla Calyx- is the outermost series of modified leaves Sepal- individual units of calyx Gynoecium- refers to all the female organs of the flowers Carpel- the unit of gynoecium Pistil- part of the gynoecium o Style- stalk o Stigma- the pollen-receptive portion o Ovary- contains the ovules Androecium- refers to all the male organs of the flowers Stamen- is the unit of androecium anther- pollen-bearing part filament- stalk-like that bears the anther Hypanthium- a cup-like structure around the ovary bearing along its margin the sepals, petals and stamens Androgynophore- a stalk-like structure that bears androecium and gynoecium

Flower Symmetry

Radial/actinomorphic- 3 or more planes of symmetry Bilateral/zygomorphic- one plane of symmetry Asymmetric- no plane of symmetry

Flower Attachement

Perianth-the

outermost, nonreproductive group of modified leaves

Perianth Shape

of a flower; protects the young flowering parts to aid in pollination

Perianth Cycly-refers to the number of whorls of parts Perianth Whorl-refers to the number of parts per whorl

Tubular- cylindrical Infundibular/Funnel-shaped- funnel shaped Campanulate- bell shaped Slaver-shaped- trumpet shaped Urceolate- urn shaped Rotate- with short tube and wide limbs oriented at right angles to the tube Ligulate- strap or tongue shape

Uniserate
Monochlamydeous- not having separate calyx and corolla

Biserate
Dichlamydeous- distinct calyx and corolla Heterochlamydeous- calyx and corolla are differentiated by color Homochlamydeous- perianth composed of similar parts

Androecium
Stamen Fusion

Monadelphous- one group of stamen connate at filament

Perianth Fusion

Diadelphous- two group of stamen, each connate at filament Epipetalous- with stamens adnate to petals Synadrous- with several united stamens Syngenesious- anther connate, filament distinct

Stamen Type

Aposepalous- unfused and discrete sepals Apopetalous- unfused and discrete petals Apotepalous- unfused and discrete tepals Synseplous- connate; fused sepals Sympetalous- connate; fused petals Syntepalous- connate; fused tepals
*Connation- like parts fused *Adnation- unlike parts fused

Filamentous- with terete stamen stalk Laminar- with a leaflike , dorsiventrally flattened structure sessile- without terete stamen stalk

Stamen Number
monandrous- having one stamen diandrous- having two stamens triandrous- having three stamens polyandrous- having many stamen

Stamen Arrangement

Placentation

didynamous- with stamen in two unequal parts didymous- with stamen in two equal parts tetradynamous- with stamen in two groups of four long and two short marginal parietal axile free-central lamellate marginal

Gynoecium
Ovary Position
superior- with sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached at the base of the ovary inferior- with sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached at the apex of the ovary half inferior- with sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached at the middle of the ovary

Inflorescences-

aggregation of flowers on an individual plant

Inflorescence Parts
Peduncle- stalk of inflorescence Inflorescence axes- branches of inflorescence Bract Flower bract- subtends individual flower Inflorescence bract- subtends entire inflorescence or an inflorescence axis. Involucre- group of inflorescence bracts subtending entire inflorescence, e.g., in compound umbel of Apicaceae, head of Asteraceae Spathe- specialized single inflorescence bract that subtends entire inflor., e.g., spadix of Araceae

Insertion of Floral Parts


Hypogynous- sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached on the base of the ovary Epigynous- sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached on the apex of the ovary Perigynous- sepals, petals, stamens, carpels attached on the rim of hypanthium

Inflorescence Development
determinate- apical meristem of the primary inflorescence axis terminates in a flower; terminal flowers develop first CYME: general term to denote determinate inflorescence monochasium- is a cyme that develops along one axis helicoid cyme- a monochasium in which the branches develop only on one side of each sequential axis

Gynoecial Fusion
apocarpous-with carpel distinct; pistil being simple syncarpous-with carpel connate; pistil being compound

scorpioid cyme- a monochasium in which the branches develop on alternating side of each sequential axis dichasium- is a cme that develops along two axes

indeterminate- apical meristerm of the primary inflorescence axis does not develop into a flower; basal flowers develop first spike/spicate- is an indeterminate flower consisting of a single axis bearing sessile flowers

raceme- indeterminate; single axis; bearing pedicellate flowers panicle- indeterminate; several axes; bearing pedicellate flowers corymb- indeterminate; single axis or/an lateral axes; bearing flat topped convex flowers

Seed
Epigeal- mode of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above the soil Hypogeal- mode of seed germination in which the cotyledons remain under the soil Exalbuminous- lacking endosperm as food reserve Albuminous- endospeermous Aril-a fleshy outgrowth of the funiculus, raphe, or integuments; functioning in animal seed dispersal Endosperm- triploid tissue that develops from mitotic divisions of the endosperm cell ultimately enveloping the embryo functioning as the nutritive tissue of seed Perisperm- seed storage tissue in which the chalazal nucellar cells enlarge and store energy-rich compounds Hilum- funicular scar in seed coat Micropyle- entry of pollen Cotyledon- first seed leaf; storage of food reserves Seed coat Radical- first root of a seed embryo Hypocotyl- region of embryo between roots and epicotyls Epicotyl- first shoot of vascular plant that develops from the embryo Coleoptile- a protective sheath surrounding the epicotyl Coleorhiza- a protective sheath surrounding the radical

fascicle- shot internodes; pedicellate catkin- male spike; elongate axis that falls off after flowering or fruiting spadix- spike with thickened fleshy axis (congested flowers) verticil- a circle of flowers about a stem at the same node

umbel- a determinate or indeterminate flat topped or convex inflorescence with pedicel attached at one point head/ capitulum- a determinate or indeterminate crowded group of sessile, subsessile flowers on a compound receptacle

Inflorescence Position
Terminal- at the tip, top, end; positioned as terminal shoot Axillary- side of the shoot; nodes of the axis Extra-axillary- outside the axillary Leaf-opposed- not between a leaf or a branchlet Cauliforous- directly growing from a woody trunk

Terms:
Naked flowers- no petals or sepals Staminode- (stamen type) sterile stamen Pistillode- (pistil type) sterile pistil Corona- (perianth part) a crown like outgrowth between stamens and corolla

Fruit and Seed Dispersal Mechanism


Anemochory- dispersal by wind Hydromochory- dispersal by water Epizoochory- dispersal by animal Endozoochory- dispersal by animal (eaten) Autochory- dispersal by itself

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