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Governing Transport Equations for Mass, Momentum and Energy in incompressible flows Approximate representations of the NavierStokes Equations with Specific Applications
Heat Equation Boundary Layer Equations Parabolized Navier Stokes Equations

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Solution of Non-Linear Equation Numerical Differentiation Numerical Integration Solution of System of Linear Algebraic Equations Curve Fitting

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Heat Conduction Flow and Heat Convection Solution of Boundary Layer Flows Solution of Viscous Incompressible Flows by Stream-function Vorticity Formulation Primitive Variable formulation

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Texts and References


1. Hoffman, J.D., Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, Marcel Dekker, 2001. 2. Mathews, J. H., Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall, 1994 3. Anderson, J. D, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mc Graw Hill, 1995. 4. Muralidhar, K. & Sundararajan, T., Computational Fluid Flow & Heat Transfer, Narosa Pub. House, 2003.

Grading pattern
Assignments Periodically 25% Mid-Sem. Exam 6th-14th September 15% Term Project 15th Oct.-15th Nov. 10% Final Exam 17th Nov.-30th Nov. 50%
Copying Assignments will be heavily penalized. Assignments to be submitted just after the lecture. No late submission allowed.

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Contacts
CDEEP Website: http://www.cdeep.iitb.ac.in Course Website: http://moodle.iitb.ac.in/ Instructor: Prof. Atul Sharma
Email: atuls@me.iitb.ac.in Personal Homepage: http://www.me.iitb.ac.in/~atuls Office: Room No. 301-C, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Methods of Investigation
Theoretical Investigation Experimental Investigation

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Theoretical Method of Investigation


Analytical Solution: Possible for certain simple situation only but not for a general fluid flow and heat transfer situations. Numerical Solution: Provides approximate soln. for any fluid flow and heat transfer situations.
Governing Equations, Initial and Boundary Conditions Grid Generation : Discretization of the continuous domain to certain grid points in the domain. Discretization : Converts the differential equation to set of linear algebraic equations Solution Methodology : Solves the set of equations by an iterative

method using an algorithm

Types of Fluid Flow


External (Unconfined) : Free Stream flow across a cylinder. Internal (Confined) : Flow in a channel/pipe. Flow across a cylinder in a channel.

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External Flow: Free Stream Flow Across a Flat Plate


u T
u

TW > T

Convection of u-Velocity and Temperature in X-(Flow) Direction is balanced by the momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion in the Y- (normal) direction. Velocity Boundary Layer Thickness is directly proportional to kinematic viscosity. Thermal Boundary Layer Thickness is directly proportional to thermal diffusivity.

External Flow:
Free Stream Flow across a Cylinder
Streamline
Re=10
8 8.5 9 9.5 10 X 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5

Re=40
8 8.5 9 9.5 10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

Re=20
8 8.5 9 9.5 10

Re=100
X
10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5

8.5

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

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Vortex Shedding Fluid Flow across a Circular Cylinder at Re=100

Internal Flow in a Plane Channel


0 2 1 u1 > u u > u
f 0 u = 1.5u

Inlet Region Entry Length Filled Fully developed Region flow

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Modes of Heat Transfer


Conduction: Energy transfer due to random molecular motion (diffusion) Convection: In addition to energy transfer by diffusion, energy is also transferred by the bulk, or macroscopic, motion of the fluid. Radiation: Energy emitted by matter that is at a finite temperature.

2-D Heat Conduction in a Plate


Temperature Contours
200

80 0.8

Tb1

0.6 0.4

100

90 110 130 150 170 190 120 140 160

200 180 160 140

180

160

140

120

120 100 80

L1

0.2

100

180 200

80

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

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1-d Diffusion Phenomenon: Conduction Heat Transfer


No Flow u=0, T=500C
L L

ICE (00C)

FIRE(1000C)

1-d Advection Phenomenon: Heat Transfer


Flow in X-Direction (ii) u<0, T=1000C
L

(i) u>0, T=00C


L

ICE (00C)

FIRE(1000C)

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1-D Convection Phenomenon: Heat Transfer


Flow in X-Direction
(ii) u=1 m/s, T=400C (iv) u=-1m/s, T=600C (i) u=0 m/s, T=500C
L L

(v) u=-100m/s, T=900C (iii) u=100 m/s, T=100C


ICE (00C) Fire(1000C)

Convective Heat Transfer


Classification
g Forced Free Mixed

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Isotherms for Forced Convective Flow across a Square Cylinder at Re=100

Numerical Methods : Introduction


WHAT? : It is an approximate method for solving mathematical problems, taking into account the extent of possible errors (American Heritage Dictionary). Many problems in continuous mathematics do not possess a closed-form solution. Examples are finding the integrals of exp(-x2) and solving a general polynomial of degree five or higher. Then, one has to go for numerical methods.

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Numerical Methods : Introduction


Types
Direct Methods : Solved exactly by an algorithm such as Gaussian elimination method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. Iterative Methods : Start from a guess and finds successive approximations that hopefully converge to the solution.

Discretization : Continuous problem is converted into discrete problem to obtain approximate solution.

History of Numerical Methods


The field of numerical methods predates the invention of modern computers by many centuries. To facilitate computations by hand, large books were produced with formulas and tables of data such as interpolation points and function coefficients. The calculator was also developed as a tool for hand calculations. This calculators evolved into electronic computers in the 1940s. The development of computer hardware has motivated a lot in the development of numerical methods.

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Errors in Numerical Methods


Machine Error
Round off errors : Difference between the computed approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value. Ex.: 1/7 approximated by 0.142857 with an error of 1/(7 106). Overflow : The result from a computation that exceeds the space designated to hold it. Underflow : The result from a computation that is too small to be expressed properly.

Discretization Error
Difference between the exact solution of continuous problem and exact solution of discrete problem.

Stability of Numerical Methods


An algorithm is numerically stable if an error, once it is generated, does not grow too much during the computation. Problem needs to be well-conditioned : The solution changes by only a small amount if the problem data are changed by a small amount. An art of numerical method is to find a stable algorithm for solving a mathematical problem.

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Some Famous Quotas


No knowledge can be certain, if it is not based upon mathematics or some other knowledge which is itself based upon the mathematical sciences.

Leonardo da Vinci (1425-1519)

Some Famous Quotas


All the mathematical science are founded on relations between physical laws and laws of numbers, so that the aim of exact science is to reduce the problems of nature to the determination of quantities by operation with numbers. James Clerk Maxwell, 1856

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Some Famous Quotas


When you measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind: it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thought, advanced to the stage of science.

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, From Popular Lectures and Addresses, 1891-1894

Some Famous Quotas


Numerical Precision is the very soul of science. Sir DArcy Wentworth Thompson, Scottish biologist and natural scientist, 1917

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Some Famous Quotas


Over the past twenty to thirty years considerable progress has been achieved, and the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is reaching a mature stage, where most of the basic methodology is, and will remain, well established.

Charles Hirsch, Prof. of Fluid Mechanics Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1990

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