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Lathyrism in Rabbits
Elizabeth J. Bottcher J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1962;44:717-729.

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Lathyrism
BY
/l,o,,l

in Rabbits
M.D., ROCHESTER,

ELIZABETh

J.

BOTTUIIER,

NEW Hospital,

YORK

the 1)epartmenl
eliaumges ti imi

of Pathology,

I?oehestcr

General

I?och.e.sler

Remnarkable

the

c(inmmective

tissue,

immcludimmg bomie

amid

cartilage ageiits. substance

mvel 1 as aort This suggests


as mna l)e related
l5 emit ities

, have
ali(i

that

beemm prod uced experi mimamiy diseases affeetimig


a Oflifli(i1i

mnermt.ally by the the iuitercelltilar


process
of

lat.hyrogeuiic grouuid

i)rimigs

physiologic niyositis
a.mmetmrysm

t.(i such

mimusele paralysis, l)et.ween

weakness,

exostoses,

ossificaums,

seemimigly diverse slipped epiphyses,


hO.h1 ,I2,Is ,19#{149}The

osteoporosis,
seufll)lttlmce

a.mmd dissecting

the

aorta

re-

tlefect.)
worthy. agents

ttli(l

lathyri&nm imifamit.ile cortical


animals

and Marfaums syndronme (a hereditary metabolic Imyperostosis (Caffeys disease) is especially imotehave mamiy
primiciple,

Experimental by

beemi (time

fed
common

or

iumjected
sweet pea)

with comitain
from

the these

lathyritic agents, which betasubst.ammces have amphibians also

the

hummdreds.
is

Although odoralus
active an

of the has

leguminoseae
beemm ol)tained.

time mimost. active


aunimmopropuiomnt.rik,
m-itFi lieeim

Lathjrus for

Other of tissue effect cattle,


found,

a sinmilar
enuuuerat.e(i \Vhile

pmopensit.y
3,9,12#{149}

disturbimmg
was

time groumid

substance the pigs,


was

the
the was

miiajority

of time work

domme omi rats,

on

( especially
aiitl
the by canmels use

tadpole), mice, uimonkeys, fomvl, guimiea also studied um,u4 (1ommsideraiile variatiomi

horses, partly

pigs, due to
to

(1 iffeuei

of tliffeiemmt species 1 t UI 1 1 nials. The


time two nnmiim

of Lathyrus amid )art.ly (lime to a variation immreaction mvomd s in urolu.th /jrisnl and osl(olath yrisni were ciii mmcd
foruims of the

diffeuemmtiat.e

disease

Iii
the beemm

mimttmi, omily Lat.hyrus seemi only

mietmrolathyrisrn pea
iii

food,

hmts been deserii)ed pu-imiiauily in


amminmals, Time latimyrisun but it has
uu

durimmg tinmes of faniimie Imidia Ui Ost.eolathyrismn


mummy this of time

mi-hen
has

is used for experinmemital skeletal

typical
\Vfls

characteristics to study
coumnect.ive

seemm imm niamiy the effect


tissues

(liseases (.)funami
l)ttmi)05e
Oh

(if

imivestigat.ioii

of experimemmtal
of ral)bits. Time

time vascular

syst.emmm amid

OtheP

skeletal in order

chaumges lroduced were so dramatic that a deseript.iomm seeuns indicated to try to differentiate toxic drug effects, species differeumces, and 1)asic metal)ohc defects produced in lathyrisrn. Rabl)its have beeum used experimemitally much less oftemm than rats. The whole seed of various Latimyrus species except for
mvas fed

(idorttt.us

to ral)bits

by Stocknnami

in

1917,

with

no

effect.,
m4,O3

although

alkaloid

derivatives
umeurolatimyrisni

produced signs suggestive produced by 1)et.a, l)eta-i


liy auiumioacet.omnti-ile

of mmeurolathyrisnn mimmodipropriommitrile

Selye described amid osteolat.hyrism

produee(l

iim ral)i)it.sum#{149}
AND METIIODS

MATII(IAL

lleta-aiimiuiopuopriouiitrile

was

givemi

to

twemity-five

stock to
to

laboratory adult amiinmals.

rabbits, They

unostly mvere rI1 weight,


. of
VOL.
*

femnmnle, fe(l a l)alaneed

rangimmg

froumi (\Vaylme 100 cubic

mveammliuig

(800

grains)
ad is-as
(iliC

anmimmopropriotmitrile
(onresp(ilmde(l

diet per to
it

rabi)it pellets) eeumt.imnet.ers of roughly after three


in l)art Moumroe i)V

lthitum, added grani

ammd one gram of betatheir drimikimig water. per the


fronm

alt.imough
This
Health
44-A, NO.

a daily (lose was mmoted tlmat


sas of

to

four
New

days
grant York.

kilogram animals
the heart

of 1)ody usually
Committee

research

project

siul)l)orte(l

a research

time

Association
4. JUNE 1962

Rochester

amid

County,

717

718 drank less and thereby decreased

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

the

dose.

They

were

kept

on

this

drug

con-

tinuously as long as possible in order The progression of the changes was records of their weight and general wheim they appeared to be dying; nine
and the viscera, bones, and soft;

to ascertain followed by appearance. were found


were

the end stages of the serial roentgenograms The dead. amminials Autopsies
histologically.

disease. and by

were killed only were performed Roentgen-

tissues

studied

ographic

study

of gross

tissue

w-as also
CLINICAL

done.
RESULTS

Within

a few

days

the The

rabbits

became

noticeably

thinner,

with

rougher

fur

than
in one
front.

the
hoppimig

control
two

to

experimemmtal animals soomm i)egamm to have difficulty and would sit with one or more of their legs out to the side. After weeks, a common position was a spread-eagle pose with either both all four hack legs than out to the side so that. (Fig. they 1).
When

animals.

legs sat

or further

these on

animals their tails

sat

imp, with

they

normal

were

sitting

FIG.

1 produced This animal by slipping had ingested of the upper humeral beta-aminoproprioni-

Rabbit epiphysis, true for

shows emaciatioum, roughening of fur, twelve weeks.

position of and drooping

forelimbs of ears.

their

rear

legs

stretched

forward

; they

or more, The
only

tumors younger week, rapidly move

became the weanling

palpable aimimals, animals the

about more lay markedly survived four to

moved hip rapid flat

as little as possible. and shoulder joints. the progression legs out and three and by the weeks. only five with their to

After of chaniges. the

a month After All

one

sides.

lost weight refused to


rabbits

amid became or eat. None rapidly In in

emaciated, beyond six weeks,

end of two weeks The half-grown stmrvived more

deteriorated two months. more limited,

than motion

these, the and emaciation

deformities gradually became more marked, more prominent (Figs. 2-A and 2-B). A fixed survived they or gain
THE

kyphosis developed. While they ate did the experimental

The less

longest that any than the controls, either grow

did

was three eat. In One


OF BONE

and none rabbit,


AND

a half months. of the groups for


JOINT

animals

weight.
JOURNAL

instance,
SURGERY

LATHYRISM

IN

RABBITS

719

FIG.

2-B

2-A: Hoentgenogram shoving elevation of the Periostelmm of the fenmora an(1 hmmuneri and shi)pi1mg of t im( hunmeral eI)il)hVses. This rabbit h:ul had heta-aninoproprioumitrile for three weeks. Fig. 2- 11 : 1 )(Imt genogranm shiovi rmg enmaciation , tumor-li ke overgrowtlm of time simomul(Iers ammd ps (Iisl(Icatioum of time hills, hy)erOStOSis of the femora and humeri, exostoses of the elbows, ribs, arid hmnh our t.raumsvers( llr(1(eSSm 5. Timis aninmal had hoof beta-aninoproprioumitrile for eigimt. weeks. V1ii(Ii

Fig.

\veigiie(l

I 700granms

when

only grams.

I 120
Although

grammms after collapse


liv Thomas

fourteen

started oum beta-amimmopropriomi weeks, while the commtrol ammimal described did not
tips up of the (Fig. I).

i trile weighed weighed 2900

1Ithi)its

nial as
Jim t lie
NO.

of the ear cartilages, as imi papaimi-treated rabl)its, developed


too weak in one and the

by Selye in lathyritic develop in army of these ears drooped


no

tmmiuiimLIs,
r:thlIits

IL floppy

ear
were

imm several observable

if th(V three
1, J1NI

to imold them given

adult
uII62

raiibits

lieta-aniiumoproprionitrile,

VOL.

44-A,

720 clinical changes One died of an seven months, occurred infection and the up after third

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

to nine months, although all lost a little five months, one died with a pneumothorax was apparently well after nine months.

weight. after

ROENTGENOGRAPHIC

FINDINGS

The
in

roentgenographic

changes

found

in

the

young

rabbits the

are bilateral. barely usually

summarized Slippiuig perceptible


was

Table I. The changes were almost always symmetrically of the epiphysis of the head of the humerus, varying from
to complete slipping, occurred in

all

but
TABLE

four
I
IN

rabbits.

This

closely

ROENTGENOGRAPHIC

CHANGES

FOUND

TWENTY-TWO

YOUNG

RABBITS

Number Aumiuals Abnormality


Slipped

of

of shoulder e)iphysls of humerus

Tumor-like Angulated
Abnormality Tumor-like 1)islocation Fracture

overgrowth proximal humerus


of hip overgrowth of the hip of neck of femur

18 15 3 15 2 3 12 16 22 1

Abnormality of knee Elevated periosteum (hyperostosis)


Humerims

Femumr

Phalanx Exostosis or localized About elbow


1)istal Ribs Other Osteoporosis tibia

soft-tissue

density
10 2 8 5 9

of pelvis

followed end of the

1)\ increased humerus,

density, progressing

as

seen

by

roentgenograms, weeks

about

the partially

proximal calci-

within

a few

to a marked,

fled, mottled, of the entire clavicle smoothly demit


or seen

demise enlargement shaft of the humerus 6). Three animals deformity

associated and densities with of the a slipped proximal

with elevation of about the scapula humeral end of the epiphysis humerus animal. starting

the periosteum and tip of the had (Fig. only 3-B). a

(Fig.

angulated

The periosteum as early as one by

of the femur was elevated in every week in the younger animals, usually

This became eviin the mid-shaft

the

became This
change

proximal portion roentgenograms, so large as to


was

of the shaft. At the same time soft-tissue densities, as appeared around the hip joint which, in the late stages, obscure both the hip and the pelvis (Figs. 4-A and 4-B). in all instances the knee joints twelve rabbits soft-tissue but but one. A similar, although with the difference that developed in over densities on less marked, here it was bones animals. nodules processes elongated and pelvis, were presJOINT SURGERY

change
occurred

bilateral
around

umiilateral Exostosis

in eight or

of the localized

affected. calcification insertions faint long at half of the to calcified vertebral sites for

sites corresponding These varied from

to muscle and tendon very small non-calcified in diameter the lower and 2-B). visualized (Fig. ribs,

of over one centimeter and the ribs, especially exostoses were often (Figs. too 2-A poorly

5). The transverse were also frequent as

The flat bone, such to ascertain whether


THE

the mandible or not exostoses


OF BONE
AND

JOURNAL

LATHYRISM

IN

RABBITS

721

FIG.

3-A

Figs.

3-A.

aum(l 3-1
of Fig.

: Sagit.tal
time hiuumrus

sect ioums :01(1


vitim

rouumt geum(Igramns Timese

frouim

t wo

auui nmali

showi

uug shi ji1icd

l)roxinmal
overgrovtim for twelve

eI)ihi\sis aumd \V((ks.

hyierostosis

3-B,

snioot

Ii angiulation.

aum(I exost(Ises. Iig. tvo aumiunals lma(l had

3-A simows a t iuummou-hike i)eta-aImmiumoproIui(Iumit.rmle

eimt. Time pelis of the ammimmils


lamiges
\eme

Ofteli

i)e(ammme fract ured

so toes.

osteopomotie

t hat.

it

was

ext

remnely of two

faimmt

Several

1i.td

Hvperostosis

amid

svelliuig

of

I lie

l)iia-

(iiiselved
It(l of

imm one

amuimimal.

Jim t lie t hiee


of time entire time shaft ovem-

tilt. amii mimals, mmo(lilmi(mll


the feunur Loud
becammie

(liammges
pm(Ixiulmal

W(i(

iiot

((I, Iiut. 1lie


the
of

J)CI1(

1st cmiii

of the eleval

port

ioum (if

tibia,
I lie
clevatiomi

especially l)elvis
of

tibial

tui)erosities,

e(i,

aumtl
after

(iste(ip(.i1(isis
five months

evidemmt.
VOL. 44-A,

Jim the
NO. 4,

raliiiit
JUNE 1962

which

(lied

of au

iumfcctiomm

the

722

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

FIG

4-A

FIG. Figs. 4-A aui(l 4-B : R.oentgenogranoi right hip and hyperost.osis (if time shaft for term weeks.

4-B section shoving This rabbit had tumor and dislocation had beta-aminopro)rioumit.rile of time

and
of the

sagittal
femur.

periosteuni shaft died still

in the

mid-shaft

of the

humerus

resulted

imma slight.
of

broadeimiimg
the 1a1.)1)it.

of the
w-hieh was

bilaterally. Exotoses with a pneumothorax normal after nine months.

developed in the lower two ribs after seven months. The rabbit

which

survived

GROSS

FINDINGS

The of the already

shoulder humeral been head

joint

was

affected for varied the

in from

most

of the

animals. spread-eagle

Slipped pose

epiphyses that epiphyseal


JOINT SURGERY

accoumited This

characteristic widening
THE

has

mentioned.

of the
JOURNAL OF

cartilaginous
BONE AND

L.THYRISM

IX

RABBITS

723

(ross vhuirim

sll((ini(t1 :Ium(I ro(umt.gcn(Igr:umm lma( I li:u I i )(ta-aniumo)n)prioumi

sim(i\viumg (x(Istu )5i5 (If t ime (liSt:Ll t ri be 1(Ir f )murteemm seeks.

Ilout

ioum

(If

time

t i hi:u imu a rabbit

ross

speciuien
(if

formmiation

afl(l a forelinib

roent of

genograun a rai)bit

showing
fed

(x(Ist()s(s

im\l)er(

st ( )5i5,
for

shi p led
eight \v(eks.

epi

l)imysis,

aum( I I un usa

i)eta-auniumoproliui(Immituile

plate 2-B,
a huge

with
3-A,
size,

angulatiomm 3-B, and


stretching

6).

of time head to comimplete slippiumg of the e)iphysis rIlme i)ursal cysts aeconmpammyiumg this sometinmcs
half the foummd overgrowth

(Figs. 2-A, at taimmed


avulsed or more was calcified

length

of

the

imumerus surviviumg rough,

(Fig.

G). mimomiths

lui omme aumimal

all
most.
VOL.

the

muscle
The often

attachmeumts
late
stage

to time shaft.
of

of time imunmerus
irmegular,

were
two friable,

conipletely
poorly

bilaterally.

mmanmiummals

a tumom--like
NO. 4, JUNE m962

44-A,

724

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

lu..
I E\lI(uI)St((Sis smmuu((mmum(hiuug

7-fl
I hue

I im( luuunlmau v(ut(hlua(. lig. ;-. mum(I lug. 7-1 is I im( mm i um vI lied t uLimsv(use l Ir( ((,55(,5 :Lum(l (((Sihi ( )< 4). Ilmis tumiummal Fio. 7-A
(Iumit tile for (igilt \((ks.

I u:uuI-v(u i. I ime hUll

b(imie ostosis

tissue of A

ai)out

time proximmmal
s(apula

portiomi (Figs.
of 4-A

of the 3-A

humerus amid
of the was This

aceompauuied 6). However,


(Fig. about. of time foumid
ifl

l)y a hyperthree 3-B).


(If

the

amid
oumly

clavicle
periosteal

the

amminmals in fifteemi

there
simiiilar of the

was

widemiimmg (Figs.

time cortex overgrovth amid 4-B).

humerm similarity

tuniom--like amiimimals

time
lesions

ui1)
are time

joflmt

at.

the
s

SimOUl(.1(m afl(l hip joints nmay be related of niaxiummuni muscle temision amid stress

to
imi the

the

fact

that
1mm the

botim
late

joimmts
stages,

poimmt over-

rahiiit..

FIG.

8
aimd cyst forunatioum ium time of the scapula (hematoxylin three weeks.
OF BONE AND J(iINT SURGERY

\Iicroscoliir
epiphyseal

section
Plate with X 4). This

of
early

slmoiulder
slipping of

and

eosin,

rabbit

had

had

joint showing disorgammizatioum the epiphysis; also hyperostosis beta-aminoproprionitrile for


THE JOURNAL

LATHYRISM

IN

RABBITS

725

Fuo.
Plmotonmirrogradm
OSteOi(I

9-A
liroliferat.)n
I If

slm(Iwilmg

( im(hIIatOxVhitm

1is(mm(I(Isarconatmms :LuUI ((15111, N 70).

fih)r(Iillast

it

ii fornmat

ion

of

v
P
/li
.

*_

..
m

,i
.,$

(W
..

.., . .
1,
.. . -- .

...tf

i:
,.

r
. -

r:::. s:..

.#{149}1_,

,,

4,
I.
Fuu. 9-B
Proliferation of cartilage

.;:#{149},

, ,, ,
I huot Immii(r(IIIil)im
(iormmatoxhium shoving :111(1 (!O51fl, X

pseudosarcomatxiims

with

formation

of osteoi(1

70).

gnowtlm
( leternmi

was

so

mimarked

that

no
or

relation
hyperostosis

of the
so

mass

to

any

one
seen

muscle
in the

could
humerus

be

mie(l.
Peri(ist.eal elevation commonly

The
tI)(l

feumimmr (ommsisted
4-B,

of a thimi 1mm the femur,

shell this

of boume surrouuiding shell


on the

the
were usually

intact from rough

shaft

(Figs.

4-A,

alm(l 6).
The
Nh. 4, JUNE

usually
flat bones

spiraled

down

trochamiter.
\(iL.
44-A,

hyperostosis
1962

found

the lesser and soft..

726

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

The rii)s, the transverse processes amid spines of the vertebrae, the distal end of time clavicle, and the scapula were commommly involved. The transverse processes amid rii)s were oft.emi so covered that they were several times their- original size;
this 7-A lower swellimigs soft miemv bomme could sometimes simply i)e lifted off the umiderlyimmg
i)Ohle

(Figs.
of

a.mmd 7-B).
ribs.

The

rib) tumors generally


of muscle

most

often revealed

occurred a few

oui the more

posterior amid
were

timird

the

Gross
at

examimiatiomi
the site

exostoses
than

soft-tissue

amid

tendon

insertions

denmommstrated

iiy
rfhi long (Figs.

roentgenograms, was especially


1)Ofles

because some were too poorly true of the pelvis amid mandible were 1mm a usually
few

calcified to cast a siiadomv. (Fig. 10), althouglm oh the


aimd grossly

they 6).

prominent animals, angle was a small

both

roemitgenographieally was foumid omi the closely it could

5 and

miodule

lateral cut. with

rib)
with

(age just beneath the inferior the latissimums dorsi. The pelvis kmiife.

of the scapula and occasionally so soft.

associated

he

MICROS(OPI(.

FINDINGS

Tue
liferative. head

histological
I)egeneration

chamiges
of

were The

of two
was best.

general seemi
(if iii

types, the plates the

degemmerative ()i)1iysea.l
lost its

amid plates
or(Ielly of

prothe
limmear

cartilage

of the

huniermms

and

tibia.

cartilage

N
I.

.,

_____
4..
.

1.

14

Fuu. 1xost.oses of the aumminopro)rioImitrile nman(lii)le vit.h a umoruual for (.igimt. weeks. man(1ih)le

10 (_V ) for (a)nml)aris(Ium. ilmis


rabilit

hm:u1 h:uI

beta-

arrangeunent, cularized. The

i)ecanTme newly

wider
formed

with
trai)eculae

more

imitercellumlar
of

suhistaumee,

amid

became

vas-

the

metaphysis (Fig.

also

were

disorgammized. slipping of the the adjacent ligamentum


in

\Vithimm
epiphysis,

this

disorderly
heunorrhage

plate
became

a space
evi(lemmt

often

developed

8) ; with

periosteumn, teres
two

muscle oceasioumallv
with

amid tendomi
had dislocated of connective hips.

within this space amid beneath imisertions. The fibrocartilage of the disorderly of the arraumgeunemmt muscle,
OF BONE

also
aumimals

a similar tissue

and and

mi-as toni fascia


JOINT

the

Iroliferalion

periosteum,
THE JOURNAL

occurred
SURGERY

AND

LATHYRISM adjacent to hone

IN

RABBITS

727
fibrous and chondro-

with

the

formation

of pseudosarcomatous

osseims The

tissue

amid new hiad a cellular


(if

bomme (Figs.
seen omi the

9-A periosteum

arid
scapula,

9-B).
vertel)ral processes, and
shafts of

1iy)erOst.OsiS, calcified 8).

lommg bones,
mnatle imitact. ostosis cortex of

thick
osteoid IsltUids

imp chiefly

spicules,

(Fig.

the rim
loosely

shafts
fibrous

(if

long cortical
except

of cartilage bones varied homie


in one

a layer oriemmted at right were occasiomiaily from this pattern 4-B). rai)bit

overlying

of spommgy mmew 1)0mw angles to the origimial presemmt. The hyperin that there was

aui external
bone was

of demise

(Fig. older

The marrow of this new spongy where it was red. Subperiosteal amid new bomie, but there proliferatiomi (Figs. 9-A were widely connective

hemorrhage
was

was

seen

only

adjacent

to joints. osteoid, fibroblastic

The exost.oses more cartilage,

were composed of fibroblasts, calcifying cartilage, amid adjacent muscle pseudosarcomatous

and 9-B). separated


tissue.

1mmgeneral, the by this cellular numsele


phase

bummidles and tendon fibers someti mes myxomatous

The
the acut.e

cells
seemm

In

mi very

theniselves young Near

were oft.emi compressed amid amiimals, there was sometimes the periosteum, this cellular eosinophilic material islands of cartilage, the greater was the

multimiucleated. an associated fibrous tissue

moderate

imiflanimatory

reaction.

often cont.aimied bands of hyaline gradually fused wit.h osteoid, irregular 9-A and 9-B). The older the lesion,
The tumor-like

and this fibrous tissue and spongy bone (Figs. amount of bone present. showed original was red,
contained

all
cortical

these
fibrous,

changes
out.limie of

overgrowths about the shoulder, hip, and knee joints together with loss of the normal architecture. The the diaphysis was lost arid the marrow, which normally
loose, and was myxomatous. demonstrated That by this ground substance

was acid

very of

mucopolysaceharide

the

niembranes
Vill(iUS proeesse

the joint huge

dislocated
with occasional

joimits Bursae,

were
hyalimie

stretched
clots.

alcian blue stain. i)ut still showed proliferation microscopic the shoulder trabeculae femur and Sometimes although aorta

The synovial papillary and was apparsymiovial outjoint. and thinned humerus, osteoporosis but

Symiovial

emit

over

the
to

cartilage. cysts, obscured the pelvis were by

varying thin

from

pouchings

Osteoporosis

as evidenced

especially 1)y very tissue


in

prominent or absent

about bone in the

cortex
very
\\.iIs

was
evidemit.

ofteum
in

overgrowth

aceompammied

No
a rather

dissectimig
extemnilve

vertebral processes. by enlargememmt of the bomie. aneurysms of the aorta were found, aneurysmal dilatiomi of the descending

amid

one where

animal had the media aorta type

was

stretched

of this animal, of calcification


No specific

thimm amid contained a caleific deposit. The remainder of the as well as of the other animals, was histologically normal. This was seen, although to a lesser degree, in one control animal. abnormalities however,
adjacemit to

of the

nervous

system

were

found

histologically.

Occasiomially,
fibroblasts

nerves
bones

from cally

Time the

ear cartilages normal was

were found.

were completely ensheathed by the proliferated and muscle insertions. examined histologically, but no apparent deviation Thyroid and parathyroid glands were also histologi-

normal.
COMMENT

The
simimilar site (if to

ehamiges
those

foumid
(iescrii)ed

in

the

rabbits other
betweemi

were aumimals

primarily
.20

skeletal,
1)ut
iii

fuimdamentaliy

imi time

activity. diseases

The of

similarity maui was

osteolathyrism

skeletal

even

more

evidemit

in

the

differing in degree amid the rabbit amid certaimi rabbit than imi the rat,

partly due, possibly, to the difference. The overproduction


VOL. 44-A, NO. 4. JUNE:1962.

larger size of the animal of fibroblasts, osteoid,

amid partly due to a species cartilage, and new bone was

728 reminiscent periosteal of that hemorrhage was scoliosis found in myositis were similar

E.

J.

BOTTCHER

ossificans to that seen

1.

The

periosteal

elevation

and

sub-

in scurvy.
iii

Kyphoscoliosis However, severe of a later experimental

found only to a slight degree in one ammimal similar to that described in rats was fouuid series now being kyphotic, and the conducted probably marked for another due stretchiimg to the purpose.

iii this series. omie ammimal The verteposture capsules

bral column was often fixed and of the animals. The huge size of the bursae suggest the possibility no herniae were found. described mality contracted
loss of elasticity

abmiormal joint

of the

that there Only one in

was a loss of tone of connective tissue. However, animal had dilation of the bowel, similar to that to loss of elastic tissue 18; no histological the bowel of this rabbit. One of the bronchiectasis This could swellings, development that denervating not and which was be confirmed hyperostoses is probably a muscle
suggestive

in the rat and ascribed could be demonstrated coccidiosis


of

abnoranimals of that as in the disturbmmfibril should a

the

and had bronchial and and tension Yeager


at its

severe wall. soft-tissue

histologically. indicate the same prevented

The the the

locat.iomm relatiomi rat, where

of the of stress Hamre


of

exostoses,

to their showed
insertion

developmemit

exostoses

Recent studies with amice in collagen formation formation 4.. That such cause basic injury,
unanswered

electron microscopy in lathyrism and a simple compound as are found is involved. of stress in

suggest that there is a basic that this may be a deficiency as beta-aminoproprionit.riie in these animals The relation to indicates growth, of the

such profound changes structural metabolism and the importance


questions.

that indeed the effect of are

the

production

proliferation

SUMMARY

1. The late effects of lathyrism prionmitrile consisted of impairment soft-tissue 2. In


iii

induced in rabbits by feeding beta-amimmoproof growth, emaciation, slippimig of epiphyses, exostoses, joints, the while in and osteoporosis. combination of factors animals there invariably, (involving, (involving tension, trauma, fibril was oftemm resulted only a severe symmetrically characterfibroblasts and formation, hemis of

swellings, hyperostoses, the shoulder and hip tissue overgrowth,

massive

a few

bowing.

bilateral. 3. istically,

The changes Flat bones The histological the epiphyseal adj acent relation well as

were commonly, although not as well as long bones were affected. changes were both degenerative cartilage) fascia, of these to and proliferative pull, and muscle sheaths). changes to muscle disturbance

periosteum, 4. The
orrhage, as

a fundamental

of collagen

discussed.
REFERENCES 1.
ACKERMAN,

L.V. : J.
Myositis Bone and

Extra-Osseous

1(So-Called
plasms.

Ossificans). Joint Surg.,

Localized Non-Neoplastic Clinical and Pathological 40-A: 279-298, Apr. 1958.

Bone and Confusion

Cartilage Formation with Maligumant NeoSon amid Co.,

2.
3.

BENSLEY, 1910.
1)AsLER,

B.A. : Practical

Anatomy

of the Rabbit.

Philadelphia.

P. Blakistons

\V., and STONER, R.E. : Production of Spinal Curvatures in Rats by Chemically Substances. Experientia, 15: 112-1 13, 1959. 4. R.H., JR., and T0UsIMIs, A.J.: Experimental Lathyrism in the Rat. Nature of 1.)efect in Epiphyseal Cartilage. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., 98 : 843-848, 1958. 5. GARDNER, A.F. ; DASLER, W. ; and WE!NMA,NN, J.P. : Masticatory Apparatus of Albino Rats in Experimental Lathyrism. J. Dent. Res., 37: 492-515, 1958. 6. HAMRE, C.J., and YEAGER, V.L. : Influence of Muscle Section on Exostoses of Lathyritic Rats. A.M.A. Arch. Pathol., 64: 426-433, 1957. 7. HAMRE, C.J., and YEAGER, V.L. : Influence of Denervated Muscles on Exostoses of Rats Fed a Sweet-Pea Diet. A.M.A. Arch. Pathol., 65: 215-227, 1958. i)issimilar FOLLIS, THE
JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY

LATHYRISM

IN

RABBITS

729
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9. 10.

LEVENE, 1)1., and GROSS, JEROME: Alterations in State of Molecular lumduce(1 ill Chick Embryos 1w B-Aminoproprionitrile (Lat.hyrus 1 10: 77l-7.)0, 1959. Mu LLISER, R.V. , aui(1 1)AsmER, W. : Osteolat.imyrism. Histopat.hobogical Senmicarbazide amid Acetone Semicarbazone. A.M.A. Arch. Pathol., PONSETI, IV., and BAIRD, WA. : Scoliosis amid i)issecting Aneurysm

}e(I itim Lathyrus Odoratus Seeds. Am. 1 1 . PONSETI, IV. , and SHEPARD, R.S. : Lesions ill Rats Fed Sweet-Pea (Lathyrus Odoratus) ( )ct.. 1954. 12. SEuYE, HANS: Lat.hvrism. Rev. Canadienne 13. SIYE, H.uNs: Iuidumction by Aminoacetonitrile Britisim j. Pathol., 38: 186-189, 1957. 14. STOCKMAN, RAIPH: Lathyrism. Edinbumrgh
15.

J.

Pathol., of the Seeds.


(Ic

Lesions Prodiuced i)y 427-431, 1959. of the Aorta in Rats 28: 1059-1077, 1952. Skeleton and of Other Mesodermal Tissue J. Bone and Joint Sumrg., 36-A: 1031-1058, 67: 1957. to Giammt 1917.
297-307, 1917.

Biol., 16: 1-82, of a Predisposition

Callums

Formation.

Med.

J.,

19:

277-296,

16. 1 7.
18.

STOCKMAN, STO(KMAN,

19.

20.

The Poisonous Lath.yrus amid Some Other Legimminouus Seeds. j. hygiene, 31 : 550-562, 1931. Tmioiis, IA. : Reversible Collapse of Rabbit Ears after Iimtravenous Papain, and Prevemmt.iorm of Recovery i)T Cortisone. J. Exper. Med., 104: 245-252, 1956. \\ALKER, l).G. : Elastic Fiber Alterations iii Rats Treated with Latimyrims ()doratums. A.M.A. Arcim. Pathol., 64: 434-445, 1957. \VALKER, I).G., aumd WERTSCHAFTER, Z.T. : IIisto)athogenesis of Aort.ic Aneurysms iii time Lathyrums-Fed Rat. A.M.A. Arch. Pathol., 61 : 125-135, 1956. YEAGER, V.I,i., aumd HAMRE, C.J. : Histology of Lathyrus-Immdtmced Exostoses of Rats. The Iumitial Changes at Tendon-Bone Jumnction. A.M.A. Arch. Pathol., 64: 171-185, 1957.

ItALuH: RALPH:

Lathyrisni

in

Man.

Fdinbmurgh Princil)le of

Med.

J.,

19:

%(iL,

44-A,

NO,

4.

JUNE

1962

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