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UMCSC Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Debrecen Hungary Principles of physical and rehabilitation medicines part

UMCSC Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Debrecen Hungary

Principles of physical and rehabilitation medicines part 2

Zsuzsanna Vekerdy MD, PhD

INTERVENTION APPROACHES – AN OVERVIEW

  • 1. Remediation

  • 2. Compensatory strategies

    • 1. Enviromental modifications

  • 2. Use of assistive technology devices

Remediation

Definition: remediation pertaines to the resolution of functional or structural deficits or the aqusition of new skills in the area of skilled movement, cognition or social function. – usually an ACITVE LEARNING PROCESS

Setting a GOAL – remediation strategy (e.g. operant conditioning, etc.)

Learning process (Snel): aquisition maintenance

„Scaffolding”

fluency

generalization

Remediation strategies cont.

Restoration of self-esteem

– positive social reinforcement for the patient and the family members

- negative reinforcement – avoiding unpleasent experiences and consequences

Remediation strategies cont.

Restoration of biological, physiologic or neurologic processes – technics derived

from neuroscience, biomechanics, motor control, etc.

Objective: to recover sufficient perception, cognition, voluntary movement to enable task performance in safe and effective manner

Combine / alternate with adaptive or /and compensatory approaches

Compensatory strategies

  • 1. To teach an individual to perform a taskt within his or her capacities – example: conductive education (Pető)

  • 2. To modify the enviroment to permit accomplishment of the task despite limitations in ability or skills – example:

use of systems, devices

  • 3. To provide an agent or assisting person with task requirements or perform them entirely – example: mom- child diad

Enviromental

modifications

Enviromental modifications Personal barrier Enviromental barrier
Personal barrier
Personal barrier

Enviromental barrier

Enviromental modifications Personal barrier Enviromental barrier

Assistive Technology Devices (ATDs)

Low-tech

Simple, inexpensive devices

High-tech e.g. Remote control

Personal Care Attendance (PCA)

Crucial issue is to define the self-care and ADL activities that will require assistance

daily based regularly based (weekly) rare tasks

ROLE OF THE PRM SPECIALISTS

European definition of Physical and Rehabilitation Médicine (PRM)

This proposal was set up during the General Assembly of Ljubljana (March 2003) and validated in Antalya (October 2003

Specialists in PRM have a holistic approach

to people with acute and chronic

conditions, examples of which are musculo-skeletal and neurological disorders, amputations, pelvic organ dysfunction, cardio-respiratory insufficiency and the disability due to chronic pain and cancer.

Medical tasks in rehabilitation

Management

Consultation in acute / intensive care Decision about rehabilitation (need / time / type ) Leading the team Managing the care of patients Home care / rehabilitation: eligibility, prescriptions, advice

Pharmacotherapy

• Spasticity control • Pain management • Treatment of depression, epilepsy, mood disorders • Continuation of previous medications (MD, hypertonia, arrythmia, etc.)

Medical tasks in rehabilitation

Surgical interventions

• Corrective surgery (amputations, deformities, etc.) • Pain releif (PAO, revision of amputees, etc.) • Reconstructive sugery

Other

• Manual therapy • Nutrition / special feeding technics • Prescription of assistive technology devices, orthoses and protheses

Special problems

  • 1. Spasticity and pain management

  • 2. Continence

  • 3. Immobility syndrome (pressure sores, contractures, PAO, osteoporosis, etc.)

  • 4. Eating and swallowing disorders (malnutrition)

  • 5. Behavioral and mood disorders, complience problems

Treatment of spasticity

physiotherapy

general

p.o.pharmacot.

ITB
ITB

SDR

 

Orthopedic

BTX-A
BTX-A

surgery

reversible

irreversible

orthoses

focal

BTX-A: Botulinum-A toxin ITB: Intrathecalis Baclophen

SDR: Selective dorsal rhizotomy

Pain control

Analgetic drugs – baseline pain control

Paracetamol / non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, slow-release narcotics, etc.

TENS (transcutan electric nerve stimulation) Distraction Aromatherapy Relaxation technics Reinforcement and coping strategies Virtual realty therapy

Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)

Immobility syndrome

Involved body structures and functions Central nervous system (CNS) Cardiovascular system Respiratory system Gastrointestinal organs Urinary system Musculosceletal system Skin

CNS

Axiety Sleep disorders depression Behavioral problems Mood disorders Intellectual deterorientation

EACH ONE INFLUENCES NEGATIVELY THE REHABILITATION PROCESS

Cardiovascular function

• Orthostatic hypotension (SCI ! – sitting / standing position)

• Tachycardia • Reduced cardiac reserv capacity • Thrombosis or /and embolisation

Gastrointestinal

Loss of apetite Weight loss

Hypoalimentation / hypoproteinemia / malnutrition

constipation

Respiratory function

• Reduced vital capacity and functional vital capacity

• Weak expectoration capacity • Pneumonia, brochitis

Urinary system

• Bladder incontinence

• Recurrent uro-infections (PERMANENT CATHETER!! / INTERMITTENT)

• Bladder-stones • Secondary spastic bladder

continence

• Bowel and bladder control

– Oral pharmacotherapy – Intravesical pharmacotherapy – Neuromodulation – Electrotherapy – Intravesical – Physical training (bladder training) – Special assistive devices – Behavioral therapy – Surgical interventions

Musculosceletal system

Weakness /reduces strength in

muscles fatigue

Muscle atrophy

contractures

Fibrotic degeneration of muscles

osteoporotic – high risk of fractures

Heterotop ossification X-ray / MRI

Skin

• Infecions (bacterial, fungal)

Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy

Goal: to reach as much independence as possible with people who have functional limitations in everyday life activities

Objectives: activities specifically aim at improving personal skills

Main activity areas:

Development of motor functions Training with prostheses Development of cognitive functions

ADL activity training Assistive devices training Preparations for active life

Social training

Objectives of OT

• Improving motor and sensory abilities • Relearn skills in self-directed activities (personal grooming, household activities, etc.) • Teach compensatory stretegies • Use special tools

• Changes in home enviroment – safety, barrier-free, facilitate functioning

• Apraxia treatment

Example for occupational therapy:

feeding /eating problems

Main goals • Feeding (oral)

• Independent eating skills with special assistance

• Independent eating without assistive devices

Target groups

• Adults

• Stroke

TBI

• Children

• Cerebral palsy • TBI • Other CNS lesions • Mental retardation • Autism

Special utensils

Special utensils

Other facilities

Other facilities
Other facilities
Other facilities
Other facilities

Communication and speech

Speech and language disorders (speech, language, fluency, voice)

Communication problems

Commonly assotiated disorders:

stroke, TBI, MS, CP, other chronic neurological disorders

Speech and language problems after brain injury

Aphasia

Motor Sensory mixed

Dysarthria

Dystonic cerebral palsy

Mutism

Communication

Speech Writing Gestures Sign language Symbols (Bliss) Communation devices

Bliss symbols man logos woman human roof parent family *
Bliss symbols
man
logos
woman
human
roof
parent
family
*

Augmentative communication devices

Augmentative communication devices

Augmentative communication devices

Augmentative communication devices

Further readings

J.A.DeLisa (ed): Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation /Principles and practice/ 4th

ed. 2005. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Baltimore, NY, London, BA, HK, Sydney, Tokyo

White Book On Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. 2006 www.euro-prm.org

M.P.Barnes, A.B.Ward (eds): Textbook of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2000. Oxford University

Press

G.E. Molnar (ed): Pediatric Rehabilitation. 3rd

Ed. 1999. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Baltimore, NY, London, BA, HK, Sydney, Tokyo

www.rehab.dote.hu