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MIS 601 : Management Information Systems

Topic VII : Developing Business/IT Solutions

IS Development Systems Approach Systems Development Lifecycle
Systems Investigation Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Implementation Systems Maintenance

Information Systems Development

When the systems approach to problem solving is applied to the development of IS solutions to Business problems it is called Information Systems Development. The key to successful Systems Development is through Systems Analysis & Design (SSAD)

Information Systems Development

Systems Analysis
The process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should do?

Systems Design
The process of specifying in detail how many component parts of the information system should be physically implemented.

Systems Analyst
The person who uses Analysis and Design techniques to solve business problems using IT.

Systems Approach to Problem Solving

Understand Understand The The Problem Problem

Monitor and Evaluate Results

Develop Develop Alternative Alternative Solutions Solutions Select Select the the Solution Solution Design Design the the Solution Solution Implement Implement the the Solution Solution

Systems Analyst
Using Systems Engineering to understand a problem or opportunity is one of the most important task of a Systems Analyst:What should it do? What are the component parts? How should they be configured? What technology should be used to build the different components? Who should build them?

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Using the systems approach to develop Information System Solutions can be viewed as a multi step process called as a Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Depending upon the products that result from each step in the cycle, you can recycle back to any previous step if more work is needed.

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

There are 5 stages in this cycle :Investigation Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance

Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Systems Investigation Investigation Understand the Business Problem or Opportunity
Product: Product: Feasibility Feasibility Study Study

Systems Systems Analysis Analysis

Product: Product: Functional Functional Requirements Requirements

Develop an Information System Solution

Systems Systems Design Design

Product: Product: System System Specifications Specifications

Systems Systems Implementation Implementation Implement the Information System Solution

Product: Product: Operational Operational System System

Systems Systems Maintenance Maintenance

Product: Product: Improved Improved System System

Phase 1 : Systems Investigation

What are the Business Priorities? How can Information Technologies provide Information systems Solutions that address the Business Proprieties? The above questions like above, have to be answered in the Systems Investigation Stage.

Phase 1 : Systems Investigation

Feasibility Study:
A feasibility study is a preliminary study where the information needs of prospective users and the resource requirements, costs, benefits & feasibility of a proposed project are determined.
The goal of feasibility study is to evaluate alternative system solution and to propose the most feasible and desirable business application for development.

Systems Investigation
Economic Feasibility Can we afford it? Organizational Feasibility Is it a good fit?

Technical Feasibility Does the capability exist?

Operational Feasibility Will it be accepted?

Feasibility Study
Organizational Feasibility:Q) How well a proposed Information
system fits the companys Sales, Marketing and Financial Plans?

Technical Feasibility:to build the new system? Q) Whether we have to purchase new technology?

Q) Whether we have technical resources

Feasibility Study
Economic Feasibility:Savings in Labour Costs? Increased Sales Revenue? Decreased Investment in Inventory? Increased Profits?

Operational Feasibility:Acceptance by employees? Management Support? Customer and supplier acceptance?

Cost/ Benefit Analysis

Feasibility Studies typically involve Cost/ Benefit Analysis. If costs and benefits can be quantified, they are called tangible, if not they are called as intangible.

Cost/ Benefit Analysis

Cost/ Benefit Analysis



Cost/Benefit Analysis

Tangible Costs

Intangible Costs

Fixed Costs

Recurring Costs

Cost/ Benefit Analysis


Tangible Benefits

Intangible Benefits

Tangible Benefits
Increase in Sales/Profits Decrease in Information Processing costs Decrease in Operating Costs Decrease in Required Investments Increased Operational Efficiency

Intangible Benefits
Improved Decision Making Improved abilities in analysis Improved Customer service Improved Employee Morale Improved Competitive Position Improved Business Image

Phase 2 : Systems Analysis

Systems Analysis is an in depth study of end user information needs, that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new Information system.
Functional Requirements Technical Requirements Systems Requirements

Systems Requirements


User Stakeholders

Client Stakeholders

Technical Stakeholders

User Stakeholders
User Stakeholders

Business Operation Users

Management Users

Fact Finding
The objective of the analysis phase of systems development is to understand the business functions & develop the system requirements.
Q. What are the Business Processes and operations?

Q. How should the Business Processes be performed? Q. What are the information requirements?

Fact Finding Techniques

Fact Finding Techniques


Review Documents


Observe Business Processes

Large number of audience. Discretion Very good for Preliminary investigation Types of Questions:Closed Ended Questions Objective Type Questions

Review Documents
Good way to get a preliminary understanding. These documents serve as Visual aids during the interview itself. It is better to have filled forms rather than blank forms.

Before Objective Correct Users Project Team members List of questions During Inform exact objectives Probe for details Look for exceptions After
Review Notes for accuracy Transfer information into proper documents Identify areas for further clarifications

Observe Business Processes

There is no better way to learn how users actually use a system and what information they need than to observe first hand work being done. A Quick Walkthrough Users nervous

Systems Design
Systems Design consists of design activities that produce systems specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the systems analysis process

User Interface Design Screen, Form, Report and Dialog Design

Data Design Data Element Structure Design

Process Design

Program and Procedure Design

User Interface Design

Key Guidelines: Aesthetics Easy to Navigate Searchibility End User development

Data Design
Key Guidelines: Entities Attributes Relationships Keys Referential Integrity

Process Design
Key Guidelines:
Decision Structures Choice of Loops Subroutines Call By Reference Call By Value Use of Global Variables

Phase IV : Implementing Business Systems

Systems Implementation stage involves hardware and software acquisition, software development, testing of programs and procedures, development of documentation and variety of conversion alternatives. Implementation activities are required to transform a newly developed Information system into an operational system for end users.

The Implementation Process

Implementation Activities


Development Development and and Modification Modification

System Testing

End User Training

Documentation Documentation


Evaluating Hardware, software & services Suppliers place Bids and proposals Minimum acceptable physical & performance characteristics are established Requirements are finalised by following documents:RFP RFQ

Scoring System for evaluating proposals.

System Testing may involve : Testing website performance Testing & Debugging software
Testing should not only occur only during the systems implementation stage, but throughout systems development process.


Internal Documentation

External Documentation

Its a vital implementation activity Training must involve activities such as Data Entry. Training must also involve all aspects of proper use of a new system.
IS personnel such as USER CONSULTANT must be sure that end users are trained to operate the new e business system, else the implementation will fail.

Conversion methods
The initial operation of a new business system can be a difficult task. It typically involves conversion process from the use of a present system to the operation of a new or improved application. Conversion methods can soften the impact of introducing new Information Technologies into an organisation.

Installation Conversion Methods

Old System Parallel New System

Old System

New System


Old System

New System


Old System

New System


Conversion methods
Conversions can be done on a parallel, whereby both old and new systems are operating until the project development team & endusers agree for a complete switchover

Installation is accomplished by a direct cutover or plunge into the newly developed system.

Conversion methods
Phased Basis
Conversions can be done in a phased basis, where only parts of a new application (few departments, branch offices) at a time are converted.

Pilot Conversion
Here one department serves as a Test Site. A new system can be tried out at this site until developers feel it can be implemented throughout the organization.

PHASE V : IS Maintenance
Systems Maintenance is the monitoring,
evaluating and modifying of operational business systems to make desirable or necessary improvements. Maintenance is also necessary for other failures & problems that arise during the operation of a systems. End users and IS personnel then perform a Trouble shooting function to determine the causes of and solutions to such problems.

IS Maintenance
Maintenance also includes making modifications to an established system due to changes in Business Organizations or Business Environment. Eg : New Tax Legislation New e business initiatives