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Annotated Bibliography Research on the convergence of Communication and Educational Technology Daniel Kilback Boise State University

Communication and the field of Educational Technology are in the midst of a great convergence. In my current position as a High School administrator I am consistently challenged to provide more information to teachers, student, parents, and other stakeholders while doing so in a clear and concise manner. The push is for effective and efficient communication and this experience is serving as the jumping off point for my research into the Communication Theory. This annotated bibliography contains articles that explore the concept of communication as it relates to its impact on society, individuals, culture, and education. I have searched for articles that explore the concept of communication from a variety of perspectives and how it applies to our daily lives in personal, work, and educational settings. Consequently, these reviews do not encompass and thorough examination of the Communication Theory but work together to provide a lens through which I hope to examine the theory as I reflect upon my own beliefs and attitudes about communication as it relates to an educational setting.

1. Beatty, I. D. (2005). Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems. arXiv:physics/0508129. Retrieved from

This article explores Classroom Communication Systems (CCS) from a historical perspective

Annotated Bibliography and highlights the numerous uses CCS have in the classroom setting. In this examination Ian Beatty defines CCS as combinations of hardware and software designed to support communication and interactivity in classes (Beatty, 2005, pg. 2) and posits that effective CCS can take large and traditional lecture-based classes and shrink them into smaller classrooms where active participation and effective discussion is cultivated and nurtured. This notion fits the fundamental tenets of Communication Theory as the CCS are seen to "foster active and interactive classroom environments" that "keep students interested and attentive". (Beatty, 2005, pg. 6 ) Beatty's thoughts on CCS ranged from the technical to pedagogical all the while emphasizing the importance of gathering data about students interacted with on a daily basis and investing in the infrastructure that will allow teachers to do so.

2. Eisenberg, M. (2010). Educational technology, reimagined. New Directions for Youth Development, 2010(128), 2533.

While tangentially connected to the convergence of communication and educational technology, this article proved valuable in its broad presentation of the lives of the students that teachers are trying to communicate and connect with. The article explored communication by considering the typical life of teenagers and examining the many pieces that comprise their general activity. The focus at the Craft Technology Lab at the University of Colorado was to blend computerized imaged with hand-made crafts as well as blending technology with playgrounds, childrens paper crafts, science projects, programmable clothing, and games (pg. 28). There was also a major focus on exploring how young people connect not only in terms of the technology tools that they use but also in terms of physical locations and activity patterns brought about a more

Annotated Bibliography thorough understanding of the ways that people need to communicate. Considering where people gather, the economies they trade in (toy cards, marbles, trading cards), their bedrooms, the rituals they are involved in (holidays and special events), and their friends (Eisenberg, 2010) caused me to think beyond the actual technology to consider communicating and connecting outside of the classroom.

3. Heinze, A., & Procter, C. (2006). Online communication and information technology education. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 235249.

The crux of this article was its explanation and exploration of blended learning which was defined as a learning facilitation that incorporates different modes of delivery, models of teaching, and learning styles, introduces multiple media to the dialog between the learner and the facilitator (Heinze & Proctor, 2006, pg. 235). In the article, Heinze and Proctor explore the concept of online communication and the impact it has on the blended learning model. They consider the effects of collaborating solely for academic purposes versus an alternate model, which infuses an element of social interaction with academics. The communication model presented was a blend of online delivery and face-to-face instruction. Research was conducted to determine the experience of students and teachers when engaged in this model of information and content delivery. The results of this research proved to Heinze and Proctor that increased online communication can have both negative and positive effects while noting the critical importance of including a social component in order to provide an opportunity for students to engage on a social level and thereby feel like they are part of a group.

Annotated Bibliography 4. Issroff, K. & Scanlon, E. (2002) Educational technology: The influence of theory. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 6.

This article was an insightful exploration of the role that educational technology can play in developing sound instructional practices and communicating ideas to students. The examination of the history of educational technology, which was identified it as a multidisciplinary activity developed in the 1960s (Issroff & Scanlon, 2002), provided sound ground from which to explore the burgeoning field of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED). AIED is essentially an engineering discipline, which involves theoretical and practical attempts to use computer systems to mimic human teachers and/or support learners (Issroff & Scanlon, 2002, pg. 4). The article explored how communication would be key in this development as there is continuing pressure on educators to provide high quality solutions for effective teaching and learning (Issroff & Scanlon, 2002, pg. 4). These explorations of new concepts of communicating in an educational setting helped me to develop a further understanding of the possible impact AI may have on instruction and education in the future and the impacts on communication that, consequently, will result.

5. Karadag, E., & Caliskan, N. (2009). Interaction and communication in the process of education and shared common area in the classroom. College Student Journal, 43(1), 123128.

This article focuses on the need for effective and positive communication to exist between teachers and students in order for meaningful teaching and learning to take place. There is an

Annotated Bibliography emphasis on the need for teachers to embody all that can be attributed to good communication and to be sensitive to the diverse backgrounds of their students. What I found interesting was the claim made by Karadab and Caliskan that teachers who want to communicate effectively should predict the behaviors of children (Karadag & Caliskan, 2009, pg. 124). Further, the authors notions that having knowledge of their students values and maintaining good voice and body language in order to effectively communicate seemed rooted in the theoretical (Karadag & Caliskan, 2009) and placed a high degree of responsibility for communication in the hands of the teacher. The article itself offered little in the way of tangible examples of establishing effective modes of communication but it did open my eyes to thought processes and background understanding that should exist in the teacher-student dynamic if quality communication is to occur.

6. Lammers, J. C. (2011). How institutions communicate: Institutional messages, institutional logics, and organizational communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 25(1), 154182. doi:10.1177/0893318910389280

This article explores how institutions communicate about themselves to the members of their organization. The focus here is on how institutionalism is established within an organization on a micro and macro level. The authors posit that institutionalism, and messages about institutionalism, emerge over time and that, often, these messages result from the institutional knowledge of individuals. This institutional knowledge results in communication of ideas within an organization both formally and informally and intentional and unintentional. The concept of communication in the workplace being formal, informal, intentional, and unintentional is what

Annotated Bibliography was gleaned from this article.

7. Metzger, M., Flanagin, A., & Medders, R. (2010). Social and heuristic approaches to credibility evaluation online. Journal of Communication, 60(3), 413-439. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01488.x This article focuses on the reliance people place on social media and a variety of ratings systems when determining the source credibility. The concept of credibility is explored through the notion of communicating and ranking through social computing technologies and applications including blogs, wikis, social bookmarking, social networking sites, and ratings, recommendation, reputation, and credentialing systems (Metzger & Medders, 2010, pg. 414). Methods of communication and the sharing of information are at the heart of the communications models and were explored by Metzger and Medders through focus group research. Further, leveraging social communication to build group consensus and establish competency and credibility is a concept that relates closely to the communications theory and provides a good lens to consider the convergence of communication and educational technology.