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Tourism as Business

- , (230000) (351300)

UN1TY

2004

[338.48:811.111](075.8) 81.2-923 3-38 : - . , . .. (. ); - . , . ..

H.. , . 38 Tourism as Business: . / .. . - .: -, 2004. - 207 . ( Special English for universities, colleges). ISBN 5-238-00667-5 CIP - , . - , , , , . , - . . 81.2-923 ISBN 5-238-00667-5 .. , 2004 -, 2004

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................5 Unit 1..............................................................................................................................................................................9 The Tourist Industry.......................................................................................................................................................9 ( 1. )................................................................................................................................9 Section 1......................................................................................................................................................................9 Tourism as Business Activity.....................................................................................................................................9 Vocabulary notes........................................................................................................................................................9 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................10 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................11 Reading check...........................................................................................................................................................12 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................13 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................14 Section 2....................................................................................................................................................................19 Careers in Tourism....................................................................................................................................................19 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................19 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................19 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................21 Reading check...........................................................................................................................................................22 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................23 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................23 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................24 Unit 2............................................................................................................................................................................29 Tour Operator................................................................................................................................................................29 ( 2. )......................................................................................................29 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................29 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................29 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................29 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................31 Reading check...........................................................................................................................................................32 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................34 Reading and discussion.............................................................................................................................................35 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................36 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................37 Unit 3............................................................................................................................................................................41 The Retail Travel Agent................................................................................................................................................41 ( 3. )............................................................................................................41 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................41 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................42 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................42 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................44 Reading check (I)......................................................................................................................................................46 Reading check (II).....................................................................................................................................................48 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................49 Reading and discussion.............................................................................................................................................51 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................53 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................54 Unit 4............................................................................................................................................................................57 Dealing with Customers................................................................................................................................................57 ( 4. )..............................................................................................................................57 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................57 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................58 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................58 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................60 Reading check (I)......................................................................................................................................................61 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................64 Reading check (II).....................................................................................................................................................65 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................65 Reading and discussion.............................................................................................................................................67 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................75 Unit 5............................................................................................................................................................................77 Business Travel.............................................................................................................................................................77 3

( 5. )............................................................................................................77 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................77 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................78 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................78 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................79 Reading check...........................................................................................................................................................80 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................81 Reading and discussion.............................................................................................................................................83 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................85 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................86 Unit 6............................................................................................................................................................................88 Regulation, Research and Development in Tourism....................................................................................................88 ( 6. ).........................................................................................88 Vocabulary notes......................................................................................................................................................88 Warming up..............................................................................................................................................................89 Vocabulary focus......................................................................................................................................................89 Reading.....................................................................................................................................................................90 Reading check...........................................................................................................................................................92 Comprehension.........................................................................................................................................................93 Speaking....................................................................................................................................................................95 Additional reading....................................................................................................................................................95 Unit 7..........................................................................................................................................................................101 Tourist Promotion.......................................................................................................................................................101 ( 7. )..................................................................................................101 Vocabulary notes....................................................................................................................................................101 Warming up............................................................................................................................................................101 Vocabulary focus....................................................................................................................................................102 Reading...................................................................................................................................................................103 Reading check.........................................................................................................................................................105 Comprehension.......................................................................................................................................................106 Speaking..................................................................................................................................................................108 Additional reading..................................................................................................................................................109 English-English vocabulary .......................................................................................................................................116 of tourist terms............................................................................................................................................................116 (- )....................................................................................116


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Unit 1 The Tourist Industry


( 1. )
Objectives: To give a definition of the tourist industry. To learn about various kinds of jobs in tourism. To talk about special skills desirable in tourism. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being involved in tourist business.

Section 1 Tourism as Business Activity Vocabulary notes


enterprise common purpose to provide service transportation company camping ground marina catering services variety entertainment to contribute (to) travel agent tour operator regardless (of) resentment (with) resort area to be tolerant (of) failings irritation (with) qualities travel agency skills desirable ticket agent reservation agent front-desk employee to speak fluently tour guide to vary destination , , , () ( -, -) (-), , , () (-, -) a , . , , ; , ( ) , , ,
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semi-skilled successful

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. In what way is tourism similar to most other service indus tries? 2. Do all the jobs in tourism require skills? 3. What should be the final result of efforts made by the people who work in tourism? Task 2 Read and translate the following international words: tourism company restaurant contribute operator contact ordinary career reservation barman location service hotel bar tourist majority positive human tolerant personnel special market public motel club position industry negative express especially tour term national transportation camping variety agent denominator aspect business agency conductor according generate

Task 3 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. Resort 2. Accommodations 3. Excursion 4. Disposable income 5. Catering services 6. Migrant 7. Tourist destination a) a place or area to which tourists travel b) people who travel from one place to another to work or to take up residence c) services where the public can obtain food and drink d) a place where people gather for recreational purposes e) places at which travellers can obtain a bed while on a trip f) income that can be spent for purposes other than such necessities as food, shelter, and taxes g) a trip away from a person's usual place of residence for less than twenty-four hours

Task 4 Ell in the blanks with suitable words: definition mobility residence recreation travel necessarily reasons distinguished accurate

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1. It is not easy to define tourism, and_____statistics are not easy to obtain. 2. Tourism_____involves travel. 3. A tourist is usually defined as a person who is visiting some place other than his usual_____for more than 24 hours. 4. A tourist is______by the length of his trip from an excursionist, who is away from his residence for less than 24 hours, or at most a weekend. 5. The question of purpose also must enter into the _____of tourism. 6. Many people travel entirely for the purpose of_____or pleasure; they are people on holiday. 7. Other people travel for_____of health. 8. Other people_____to visit friends or relatives, a reason that has become more important because of increased ______throughout the world.

Reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Tourism is not a single industry, but rather a group of related enterprises that are joined together in the common purpose of providing services for the travelling public. Among them are transportation companies - air, ship, rail and bus; the accommodation companies - hotels, motels, camping grounds and marinas; catering services - restaurants, bars, night clubs and food stores; and the wide variety of stores and entertainment that contributes to the amusement of the tourist. The entire field of tourism pulls a lot of positions together into a single entity - travel agents, tour operators, guides and so on. A majority of the jobs in tourism, regardless of which part of the industry they concern, have one common denominator: contact with the public, including both the positive and negative aspects of dealing with ordinary human beings. Openly expressed resentment of tourists can cause a decline in business in any resort areas. Anyone who has chosen a career in tourism should enjoy working with people and be tolerant of their tailings, especially since the irritations with travel can bring out Ihe worst qualities in some people. In many of the jobs in which it is necessary to deal with the ublic, language skill is necessary or desirable. People who hold bs of this kind include travel agency employees, ticket and reser-tions agents, airline flight personnel, front-desk employees in otels, tour conductors or guides, waiters, barmen, and so forth. The degree of language skill may vary, from using special terms in catering service to speaking fluently among travel agents and tour guides. The degree of language skill may also vary according to the location of the job. Greater skill is required in tourist destination areas than in market areas. In the latter, travel personnel usually work with their own nationals. However, there is not always a clear distinction between a destination and a market area. Paris is an excellent case in point, since it both receives and generates large number of tourists. The tourist industry differs from many others in that it employs more women than many other kinds of business. Indeed, women are found at all levels - from the semi-skilled to management positions - in the transportation companies, Many successful travel agents are women who have established independent enterprises after gaining experience elsewhere in the industry. Vocabulary notes on the text single industry to join together common purpose
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. ,

wide variety amusement entire field (of) single entity regardless (of) denominator irritation (with) to bring out smth. in smb. to deal with people language skill to hold a job (of) own nationals to own tourist destination area to be an excellent case in point to enjoy working (with)

. . . () ; (-) - - . . . , . , . ()

Task 2 Read the text once again and entitle it.

Reading check
Task 1 Look through the text and find the English equivalents for: , - - -

Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for
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the following phrases: semi-skilled position to find at all levels to establish an independent enterprise to be a good case in point with one's own nationals a clear distinction between tourist destination area to acquire great experience particular jobs to speak fluently catering services front-desk employee in addition to it is desirable it is necessary one's failings to deal with people openly expressed resentment ordinary human beings to have one common denominator the entire field of to own a small business to cause a sharp decline in a single entity the amusement of the tourist ordinary practice retail travel agency the accommodations companies to pack tours the common purpose of as a whole a single industry

Task 3 Match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) own 2) language 3) destination 4) clear 5) common 6) excellent 7) semi-skilled 8) useful 9) necessary 10) different 11) successful 12) independent a) area b) national c) skill d) denominator e) case f) distinction g) experience h) ways i) position j) knowledge k) enterprise I) travel agent

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the following questions. 1. 2. 3. industry? 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. In what way is tourism similar to most other service industries? Do all the jobs in tourism require skills? What are some of the businesses that work together to make up the entire tourist What is one common denominator of majority of the jobs in tourism? What are some of the jobs in which language skill is desirable or necessary? What degree of language skill do all these jobs require? What kind of positions do women frequently hold in the tourist industry? What is the purpose of tourism industry? What companies provide services for the travelling public?

Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false.
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Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. The proportion of people employed in tourism is low compared to the number of people served. 2. All the jobs in tourism require either no skill or just a very low degree of skill. 3. Very few people employed in the tourist industry have any direct contact with members of the public. 4. Travel is so smooth and easy nowadays that it never causes anyone any annoyance. 5. Language skills are usually more important for tourism employees in market areas than in destination areas. 6. The tourist industry is made up of several different kinds of businesses that are connected with travel. 7. Women are employed in a wide variety of positions in the tourist industry. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. Tourism is not ( ), but rather a group of related enterprises that are joined together in the ( ) of providing services for the travelling public. 2. Openly ( ) of tourists can cause a decline in business in any ( ). 3. In many of the jobs in which it is necessary to ( ), language skill is ( ). 4. The degree of ( ) may vary from using special terms in ( ) to speaking fluently among travel agents and tour guides. 5. In ( ) travel personnel usually work ( ). 6. There is not always ( ) between ( ). 7. The degree of language skill ( ) according to the location of the job. 8. Paris is an ( ), since it both receives and ( ) of tourists. 9. Many ( ) travel agents are women who have established independent enterprises after ( ) elsewhere in the industry.

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. A tourist is usually defined as a person who is visiting some place other than his usual residence for more than 24 hours. A tourist is distinguished by the length of his trip from an excursionist, who is away from his usual residence for less than 24 hours, or at most a weekend. Many people travel entirely for the purpose of recreation or pleasure; they are people on holiday. Other people travel for reason of health. Some people travel to visit friends or relatives, a reason that has become more important because of increased mobility throughout the world. Others travel in order to educate themselves in accordance with the old precept that travel is broadening the mind. All of these people are generally considered tourists since the primary reason for their trips is recreation. Most tourist statistics also include people who are travelling on business. Among them are businessmen and government officials on specific mission, as well as people attending
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meetings or conventions. It is difficult to separate pure recreation travel from business travel. The recreational travellers respond to a greater degree to lower fares and other inducements in pricing and selecting the destination for their trips. In a technical phase, they make up a price elastic market. The business groups, on the other hand, make up a price inelastic market. Their trips are not scheduled according to lower fares, the destination is determined in advance, and their employers usually pay for the expense. They are looking for dependable rather than inexpensive service. Business travellers also make more trips to large cities or industrial centers than to resort areas, although many conventions are now held at resort hotels. Vocabulary notes on the text to define residence to be distinguished with excursionist mobility precept broadening to include mission convention to respond fares inducement in advance dependable resort hotels inexpensive service . . . ; , , . , ,

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 3 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Part I The people who write about travel also receive lavish treatment from the tourist industry. There are relatively few travel writers, but they fill an important place in publicizing the industry. Some of them work full-time for magazines or newspapers. Others are free-lancers; that is, they work for themselves and sell their articles to any publication that is interested in them. There is also a small industry involved in writing and publishing travel guidebooks. Some of these, like the Baedeker guides that were very popular in the 19th Century and the Michelin guides that have wide circulation today, are sold all over the world. The Michelin series, incidentally, is essentially a public relation effort on the part of the French automobile tire manufacturer. Travel writing appeals to people who have a talent with words and who like both travel and independence. Vocabulary notes on the text lavish treatment free-lancer
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to have wide circulation public relation effort effort on the part of automobile tire manufacturer to appeal to to have a talent with words

. , . , . .

Task 4 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 5 Read the second part of the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text Part II Official and semi-official tourist bureaus employ many people who perform different kinds t)f work. Some of the jobs - including both advertising and publicity - are related to promotion, which is extremely important to the whole industry. Others are involved with research, such as gathering travel statistics and trying to work out systems that increase their accuracy. Still others are concerned with planning and development of new tourist facilities, or with the maintenance and improvement of existing facilities. The heads of the government bureaus may control official policy concerning tourism within an entire country or region. This may be important enough to the government so that the top official holds the rank of cabinet minister. A great deal of the work in government tourist bureaus involves contact primarily with people in other aspects of the industry, but some may have direct contact with the public in giving information or in solving complaints or problems for tourists. Consulting firms also play a part in the tourist industry. A consultant offers the expertise he has acquired through study and experience to individual clients on a fee basis. In tourism, consultants are called in to give advice to government tourist bureaus or private developers. Some of them may perform market research; some may analyze statistics that have been collected; and some may help in the planning of new resorts. Vocabulary notes on the text gathering travel statistics to work out systems to be concerned with new tourist facilities maintenance great deal of primarily to solve complaints on a fee basis private developers to perform market research . . . . . . ( )

Task 6 Read the previous text once again and entitle it

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Task 7 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text Tourism is a relatively new phenomenon in the world. Tourism has been one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. The growth rate of tourism has generally exceeded the growth rate for the worldwide economy. Sometimes it seems as though a new resort area springs up every day wherever there is sun and sea. Since being away from home is a necessary component of tourism, its development as a mass industry depended on modern means of rapid and inexpensive transportation. Tourism as we know it today began with the building of the railroads in the 19th Century. Steamships also increased tourism, especially across the North Atlantic. The automobile and airplane in still more recent times have also become major modes of transportation for recreative purposes. The greatest growth in international tourism has taken place only since the end of World War II in 1945, and it has paralleled the growth of air transportation. Industrialization has produced the other conditions that are necessary for tourism. Among them is the creation of a large number of people with an amount of disposable income - income above and beyond what is needed for basic expenses such as food, shelter, clothing and taxes. Another important condition is urbanization, the growth of large cities. Residents of big population centers take more holiday trips than residents of rural areas. Anyone who has been to Rome in July can not help but observe that a great many of the inhabitants are away on vacation. Before industrialization, there was a sharp distinction between the leisure class and the working class. Nowadays the concept of leisure in the form of long weekends and paid vacations has spread to the working class. This may be the most important factor in modern tourism. Millions of factory workers in northern European countries take their paid vacations in sunny southern European countries. In many cases government, unions, or employers subsidize the cost of the holiday partly or wholly. This subsidized recreational travel is called social tourism. The importance of the industrialization can be seen from the fact that approximately 75% of international tourists come from industrialized countries. The United States of America and Federal Republic of Germany account for about half of this tourist ti Sun-and-sea areas that are near the major markets for tourists derive a large part of their income from tourism. It should be noted that tourism benefits not only airlines, hotels, restaurants, and taxi drivers, but also many commercial establishments and even the manufacturers of such varied items as sunglasses, video cameras, and swimming clothing. One of the principal reasons for encouraging a tourist industry in many developing countries is the so-called multiplier effect of the tourist dollar. Money paid for wages or in other ways is spent not once but sometimes several times for other items in the economy - the food that hotel employees eat at home or the houses in which they live, or the durable goods that they buy. In some countries the multiplier can be a factor as high as 3, but it is often a lower number because of leakage. Leakage comes from the money that goes out of the economy either in the form of imports that are necessary to sustain the tourist industry or in profits that are drained off by investors. Another attraction of the tourist industry for the developing countries is that it is laborintensive; that is, it requires a large number of workers in proportion to the people who are served. Vocabulary notes on the text growth rate to exceed to spring up rapid modern means steamships
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to parallel amount of disposable income expenses taxes urbanization rural areas inhabitants sharp distinction leisure class to be subsidized approximately tourist traffic to derive commercial establishments items to encourage durable goods leakage to sustain to drain off attraction to require

. , . ; , , . . , . , . , . . , . , .

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Section 2 Careers in Tourism Vocabulary notes


to establish to gain (acquire) experience prerequisite to set up (a travel agency) expectation (of) clerical worker to keep smth informed (of) pricing policy scheduled airline nonscheduled airli to be available to have advantage (over) to keep up with resort travel regulation to own sharp decline (in) luxury treatment familiarization tour lavish hierarchy retail travel agency large staff advertising publicity to move on to to complete a curriculum to fill a position (with) an overview (of) rapidly occupation ( ) (-) , - , , ( ) -; , , - , () , , ( ) ,

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. Tour guide a)
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the person in charge of making reservations,

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Front desk employee Ticket agent Reservation agent Marina Casino Motel Room service Camping

answering inquiries and selling tickets b) the person in charge of tour c) the person in charge of making reservation and giving information via telephone d) hotel personnel who work at the registration and information e) a place for gambling f) a place at which boats can dock g) travelling with one's own facilities for shelter and often for eating h) a hotel with special facilities for motor vehicles i) a catering service in which food and drinks are brought to a guest's room in a hotel

Task 2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words or word-combinations: courses in comparison with unskilled within service skills successful variety destination experience generates skilled

1. Like most_____ industries, tourism is labor-intensive. 2. Tourism employs a high proportion of people_______ the number that it serves. 3. The range of jobs is also very wide, from_____, like a dishwasher in a restaurant, to______, like a travel agent. 4. In addition, tourism______ many jobs that are not usually considered to be_____the industry itself. 5. Women are employed in a wide_____of positions in the tourist industry. 6. Prior______in tourism is necessary before setting up a travel agency that has a chance to be______. 7. Language _______ are usually more important for tourism employees in______areas than in market areas. 8. There are some______ at the university level that are concerned with tourism. Task 3 Match the words and word-combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) an independent enterprise tourist destination area dealing with ordinary human beings resentment to cause a decline in business to enjoy working with people a) , , b) c) d) e) f) , g) h) i) j) k) 1)
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7) foreign language skill 8) to speak fluently 9) to provide with the choice of variety of occupations 10) semi-skilled position 11) to gain experience 12) successful operation

13) prerequisite 14) nonscheduled airline 15) familiarization tour 16) clerical worker 17) to complete a curriculum 18) to impress favorably 19) to compute fares 20) to keep up with 21) to set up a firm

m) , n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u)

Reading
Task I Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Experience is necessary for the successful operation of a travel agency. It has been estimated that a minimum of ten years' work in the industry is a prerequisite for a setting up an agency with the expectation of making it a success. There are many different ways to acquire the necessary experience. Some agents begin as clerical workers or secretaries in travel agencies or in the transportation companies. Particular jobs that provide useful knowledge include those of ticket agent and reservations agent for the airlines. In addition to dealing with the public, the travel stgent must deal with people who work for the other components in the industry. One of the most important aspects of the job is keeping informed of the highly complex pricing policies of both scheduled and nonscheduled airlines and the resort hotels as well. Even when help is available, the agent who can compute fares accurately has an advantage over one who cannot. The agent must also keep up with other developments in the industry - new resorts, changing travel regulation, new services, and so on. The travel agent has some advantages. One of the most important is the economic independence that comes from owning and operating a small business. There is of course an element of risk. A change in the business cycle as a whole may cause a sharp decline in tourism, which is after all a luxury for most people. Another advantage is the opportunity to travel. The treatment that is given to travel agents on familiarization tours is often lavish so as to impress them favorably with the services that are being offered. The tour operators work much more within the framework of ordinary corporate practice than the small retail agencies do. That is, they have the usual hierarchy of clerical workers and manage-ment personnel. Companies like Carlson Travel Network and American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. employ people in nearly all phases of tourism, ranging from the jobs that would be found in retail travel agencies to those that deal with packaging tours or establishing overall policy for the companies. They also employ a large staff to work on advertising and publicity. The large companies are an excellent place to gain experience. People often start with clerical work and later move on to more travel-oriented jobs. The Institute of Commerce in Nizhny Novgorod offers courses in tourism as a whole. People who get a higher school degree after completing such a program can be considered professionals in the field. They are particularly highly-qualified to fill positions with government tourist bureaus or with consulting firms. Their education is designed to give an overview of all aspects of the industry. It is particularly useful in research, planning and development. Tourism is an industry that is still growing rapidly. It continues to provide people with the choice of a variety of occupations that require many different kinds of skills. No matter what aspect of the industry one may work in, the final result of the effort should be a satisfied customer who remembers his trip or his vacation with pleasure. Vocabulary notes on the text
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estimate luxury the choice of

. , . .

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it.

Reading check
Task 1 Look through the text and find the English equivalents for: -

Task 2 Look through the whole text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: unscheduled airlines to compute fares to have one common denominator the entire field of to keep up with developments in to own a small business to cause a sharp decline in a single entity a familiarization tour to impress favorably the amusement of the tourist ordinary practice retail travel agency the accommodations companies to pack tours to work on advertising and publicity the common purpose of as a whole to complete a curriculum to give an overview of a single industry

Task 3 Match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) clerical 2) ordinary 3) highly-qualified 4) consulting 5) common 6) catering 7) overall 8) large 9) satisfied 10) final a) practice b) worker c) firm d) professional e) service f) purpose g) staff h) policy i) result j) customer

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Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the following questions. 1. 2. 3. industry? 4. 5. 6. Why is experience a prerequisite for starting a travel agency? What are some of the jobs in which the necessary experience can be acquired? What kind of contact do travel agents have with people in other components of the What is one of most important advantages of becoming a travel agent? Within what kind of framework do tour operators work? What should be the final result of the effort made by the people who work in tourism?

Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. Prior experience in tourism is unnecessary before setting up a travel agency. 2. Tour operators run their business in the same manner as retail travel agents. 3. There are no courses at the university level that are concerned with tourism. 4. Travel agents can always get help with problems such as pricing fares or government regulations, so there is no need for them to keep up with such matters. 5. Official and semi-official tourist bureaus employ very few people. 6. Most of the people they do employ handle complaints from the public. 7. A sightseeing guide never have any difficult or unexpected problems to deal with. 8. There is no advantage for a government in operation training schools for people to fill tourist-related jobs. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. Experience is ( ) of travel agency. In addition to dealing with the public, the travel agent must ( ) who work for the other components in the industry. 3. One of the most important advantages is the ( ) that comes from owning and operating a small business. 4. The treatment that is given to travel agents on ( ) is often lavish so as to impress them favourably with the services ( ). 5. The tour operators work much more within the framework of ordinary corporate practice than the ( ) do. 6. Tourism is an industry that is still ( ).

Speaking
Task 1 Define what tourist industry is. Use the following words and word-combinations: a group of related enterprises common purpose providing services transportation companies accommodation companies catering services the wide variety of stores and
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entertainment the amusement of tourists the entire field of tourism a single entity dealing with ordinary human beings contact with public

enjoy working with people Task 2 Divide the previous text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Summarize the logical parts of the divided text. Task 4 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them alL You may reorder them in any way you want using the adequate form of the verb. it is necessary to deal with openly expressed resentment be tolerant of one's failings language skill to speak fluently a successful travel agent to grow rapidly to establish independent enterprise the expectation of making it a success in tourist destination areas after gaining experience a satisfied customer to remember one's trip with pleasure

B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. Explain why you are going to choose a career in tourism. What do you consider to be the special aptitudes that qualify you for this career?

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Perhaps the most distinctive and difficult job in the entire industry belongs to the tour guide or conductor. There are in fact two types of tour guides, one in charge of local sightseeing, and the other accompanying a group throughout its travels and making all the arrangements for the group. The term guide is often used for the first of these jobs and conductor for the second. The sightseeing guide must of course be familiar with the points of interest that he is showing to the visitors. He usually gives a prepared talk that describes the points of interest, but he must also be prepared to answer a lot of questions. And of course he deals with any problem that occurs during the tour excursion. These may include bad weather, sudden illness, an accident - it would be impossible to name everything that might happen. A sightseeing guide needs two qualities above all - an outgoing personality and language skills. The guide or conductor who stays with a group throughout its trip needs these same two qualities. He also needs to have a thorough knowledge of the workings of all kinds of transportation systems and of the regulations and red tape that the tourists will meet when going from one country to another. One of these jobs involves handling the baggage for his group; another concerns easing them through government formalities; and yet another involves making sure they get the kind of accommodation, food, and entertainment they have paid for. These are the aspects of travel that are likely to cause the most problems and create the most irritation when they go wrong. The guide often has to display the qualities of a diplomat, not only in dealing with the tourists themselves, but also with all the officials, baggage handlers, hotel
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clerks, and the many other people who are constant figures on the travel scene. Vocabulary notes on the text distinctive to belong to local sightseeing familiar with prepared talk to occur outgoing personality conductor red tape to ease smb. through government formalities to cause problems to create irritation to display the qualities of a diplomat baggage handler Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 3 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Another distinctive job in tourism is that of social director. Many resort hotels and nearly all cruise ships employ a person who is in charge of the activities that are supposed to entertain and amuse the customers. The social director not only has to organize these activities, he must also involve the willing and the reluctant guests in the fun and games. An extroverted person is essential to a job of this kind; a good social director should really enjoy the games and parties that are planned for the guests. In addition to social directors, resorts employ people to supervise activities in which the resorts specialize - golf and tennis pros, or swimming, skiing, and scuba diving instructors. These people, like entertainers, have talents acquired outside the field of tourism, yet their employment in resort indicates the wide range of occupations that tourism draw on for economic support. Vocabulary notes on the text social director cruise ships reluctant guests golf and tennis pros scuba diving instructor extroverted person . . ,
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. , . . . . -

to have talents acquired outside the field of tourism to draw on

. ,

Task 4 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 5 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. The global boom in tourism is already having a positive impact on the local economy and the outlook for the future is even better, with Russia expected to be the world's fastestgrowing tourism market within two decades. While internationally the number of tourists increased 3.2% to 657 million last year according to the World Tourism Organization, Russia last year experienced a 3.4% growth in arrivals, with the number of tourists reaching 3 million, according to statistics from the Physical Culture, Tourism and Sport Ministry. This could be just the beginning of global tourism explosion in which local companies could benefit like none of their peers abroad. The WTO forecasts that European tourism business will double in a span of 20 years, with Russia outstripping the rest with a projected average annual rate of 8.5%. By 2020, nearly one of three visitors to Europe will choose a Central or Eastern European destination, according to a press release circulated by the WTO in the middle of March 2000. Strong growth in tourism to the Russian Federation, the Czech Republic and other countries of Central/Eastern Europe will make it the top tourism region of the continent, according to the press release. The main reason for the tourism explosion in Central and Eastern Europe is its perfect geographic location right in between two major source markets - Western Europe on one side and the Russian Federation on the other. The favourable pricing of tourism products in that region will continue to be a major factor contributing to growth. The Moscow Times, July 12, 2001 Vocabulary notes on the text outlook for the future positive impact on global tourism explosion local companies like none of their peers abroad span of to outstrip a projected average annual rate of the top tourism region favourable pricing . , , . () ... , , . .

Task 6 Read the previous text once again and entitle it.

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Task 7 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. The growing number of tourists coming to Russia so far has not been large enough to counterbalance the number of locals travelling abroad. The number of Russian citizens with tourist visas last year (1999) declined 16% to 2.8 million and was about 50% lower than the peak of 4.16 million in 1997, but this does not take into account the large number of tourists travelling to countries that did not require entry visas. At present, Russia is a net importer of tourism and other services. Imports of services exceeded exports of services by 1.7 billion dollars between January and September of last year. The share of services in gross domestic product here is only a margin over 50%, while in the developed world it often stands over 70%. Russia is by no means a tourist Mecca - its ongoing problems relating to security, corruption and .lack of customer service are well known - so most people who can afford credit cards and luxury cars flee the country to enjoy the better service standards offered by foreign hotels, be it-in neighboring Finland or the distant Caribbean. As a result there are eight local citizens travelling abroad for each foreign tourist coming in and one local going to Sochi or some other domestic destination. So tourism in Russia became a gateway for capital flight. International experience shows that tourism remains a hostage to general economic trends and does not depend on the generosity of government bodies. Asia's economic recovery last year paved the way for growth in the global tourist industry. China enjoyed a rise of 7.9% in the number of incoming tourists last year, overtaking the United Kingdom, which fell from fifth to sixth place in WTO's growth statistics. Domestic travelling in China alone brought in taxes worth 28 billion dollars, which is more than the total size of Russia's federal budget, according to Tourinfo magazine. The top spot last year (2000) in terms of tourist numbers was taken by France with 71.4 million arrivals, while the United States topped the annual tourism earnings rankings, with some 70 billion dollars in revenues. Statistics from the Physical Culture, Tourism and Sport Ministry show that Russia had revenues of 2 billion dollars from tourism last year, an eighth of the 16 billion dollars that Soviet Union earned from tourism when 50 million travellers came every year, according to the Academy of Tourism in Moscow.
The Moscow Times, February 20, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text so far large enough to counterbalance locals to decline to to require entry visas to exceed share of gross domestic product to be only a margin over...% by no means ongoing problems lack of
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. , . ... . , . ...% ,

to afford credit card and luxury car to flee the country distant Caribbean neighbouring Finland domestic destination capital flight hostage to generosity of government bodies to pave the way to overtake domestic travelling to top annual tourism earnings rankings revenues

. . . , , . , , ,

Task 8 Read the text once again and entitle it.

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Unit 2 Tour Operator


( 2. )
Objectives: To give a definition of the tour operator. To learn about various kinds of travel packages. To talk about general types of tour. To discuss the advantages of packaged tours to the public.

Vocabulary notes
wholesaler packaged tour inclusive tour (IT) charter inclusive tour (CIT) hotel accommodation transfer to and from the airport to bring prices down trip abroad to expand resort development direct competitors motorcoach itinerary transfer to put together to engage in , , ,

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. What do tour operators do? 2. In what way do tour operators differ from retail travel agents? 3. What is chartering? 4. What is a guided tour? 5. What is an independent traveller?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: tour transportation basic primarily result operator accommodation rental competition method package transfer extra general absorb
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principal airport European expand conglomerate

particular course attract region

cultural incentive local bag&age

typically public major reserve

superior establish activity reflect

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. Inclusive tour 2. Charter inclusive tour 3. Scheduled airline 4. Nonscheduled airline 5. Cruise 6. Charter plane 7. Independent traveller 8. Occupancy rate a) an airline that operates according to a timetable b) an airline that operates its planes on routes and at times when there is a demand for service c) a packaged tour that uses chartered aircraft for transportation d) a packaged tour that uses scheduled airlines e) an aircraft that has been trended to fly when and where the service is desired f) a pleasure voyage by ship g) the percentage of rooms or beds in a hotel that are occupied in a particular period of time h) one who doesn't travel as a member of a group

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words; forward refund faithfully purchase reduction booking Mountain cancel issue holiday change contact

Dear Sir, 1. I am writing to inform you of a______in our tour to Kintown, ref. NHL/65JF. 2. The hotel will be the______Jnn, not the Silver Hill Hotel. 3. We received a ______from you on behalf of Mr. Tom Roft for a twoweek_____from Monday, 3rd July to Sunday, 17th July. 4. Your client may______a different holiday from us and we will give a_____of $50. 5. Alternatively, if he would like to_____ the holiday, we will______the money that he has paid. 6. We will also_____accredit note for $50. 7. Please_____Mr Tom Roft and let us know what he would like to do. 8. I look_____ to hearing from you. 9. Yours_____, K. Strogh, Manager. Task 4 Match the words on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right 1) inclusive tour a) 2) transfer to the airport b) 3) to offer entertainment c)
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4) to provide a rental car 5) to be encouraged 6) to have sufficient cash 7) to have close ties with 8) as a reward for superior sales effort 9) an incentive to improve performance 10) local sightseeing 11) travel arrangements 12) an established resort 13) to derive many advantages from 14) to secure the hotel accommodation 15) remote area 16) to get considerable savings 17) to require careful arrangement

d) e) f) g) h) i) j) , k) 1) m) n) o) p) q)

Reading
Task I Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Tour operators can be considered the wholesalers of the tourist industry. Their product is the packaged tour. There are two principal kinds of packaged tours, the inclusive tour (IT), usually on the scheduled airlines, and the charter inclusive tour (CIT), usually on chartered, nonscheduled airlines. Packaged tours offer transportation, hotel accommodations, and transfer to and from the airport. The tourist pays a lower price for this package than if he were trying to make all the arrangements on his own. In addition to the basic features, the tour package may also offer meals, entertainment, sightseeing, a rental car, and many other extras. The tour operator organizes packaged or individual tours by providing rail, plane, car rental, motor coach, ship, hotel accommodation, holiday apartments, itineraries, transfers and brochures. The typical package that the European tour operators put together consists of the least expensive two-week holiday tour. It was primarily intended for Northern Europeans who wanted a Mediterranean vacation. As the competition among the operators brought prices down, many people who had never traveled before were encouraged to try a trip abroad. Both tourism in general and the tour operating companies themselves expanded very rapidly. The rapid expansion has resulted in many changes in management and methods of operation for the firms in the business. A sounder financial base became necessary, since tour groups were sometimes left stranded because tour operators did not have sufficient cash to pay the price of the aircraft charter. Some of the tour operators have now been absorbed by conglomerates, the huge modern corporations that engage in many different kinds of business. Others have close ties with particular charter airlines or hotel chains. A few have become involved in resort development. Other tours are put together by all sorts of clubs and organizations whose main purpose is not travel. They may be as diverse as cultural groups or labor unions. They are the basis for many of the affinity group charters - tours for people with similar interests and tastes. The tours that are arranged by these organizations include the normal components of the travel package. They are, in fact, direct competitors of tours put together by the companies in the travel industry. Tours are also arranged for employees and their spouses by corporations. The corporations typically offer these vacation trips as a reward for superior sales efforts or as an
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incentive to improve performance. This type of tour is of course not open to the general public, but it is welcomed by the airlines and by hotel operators in the established resorts that frequently attract business of this kind. It is possible to distinguish between two general types of tours. One is the holiday package that has a resort hotel as its destination. While local sightseeing or entertainment may be included in the package, the tours are generally without expensive extras. The major attractions usually include the sun, the sea, and activities such as golf or tennis that are offered by the resort itself. The second type of tour is the guided tour that features sightseeing or some other special attraction. These tours are accompanied by a guide who is in charge of travel arrangements and activities. The activity offered by the tour is its principal attraction. The tour may combine travel with education. Most of these tours include several different destinations and a good deal of local travel within one region. Thus, they require careful arrangement and coordination of accommodations, local transportation, baggage handling, and all the other details that accompany any kind of travel. The public derives many advantages from packaged tours, the most obvious being the price. When airplane seats and hotel rooms are reserved in blocks by the tour operators, considerable savings are passed on to the customers. These savings have been reflected in the last few years by the great increase in tourism. Many people would never travel at all without the price inducements offered by packaged tours. The second advantage is the opportunity for the tourist to make all his travel arrangements in one place at one time. The independent traveller - one who does not travel as a member of a group - often has to go to considerable trouble to put the different pieces of his trip together. Airline seats may not be available when he wants them, or he may not be able to secure the hotel accommodations that he wants. Even when a travel agent makes the arrangements, these difficulties still exist, but with the packaged tour they are eliminated for the consumer. The third advantage is accessibility. It means that tours make it possible for people to visit many remote areas that would otherwise be too difficult for them to see on their own. Vocabulary notes on the text all the arrangements basic features other extras Mediterranean vacation sounder financial base leave somebody stranded be absorbed by price inducements sufficient cash . . . . . . . . , . ,

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it.

Reading check
Task 1 Look through the text and find the English equivalents for:
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Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: remote areas to eliminate to secure the hotel accommodation to go to considerable trouble opportunity price inducements savings to derive some advantages from to handle baggage to require careful arrangements principal attraction to feature sightseeing resort hotel to distinguish between holiday package to improve to arrange purpose close ties to leave stranded to expand rapidly to encourage to bring prices down aircraft charter methods of operation entertainment nonscheduled airlines wholesaler packaged tour

Task 3 Look through the text and match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) remote 2) considerable 3) price 4) independent 5) travel 6) local 7) baggage 8) superior 9) nonscheduled 10) lower 11) basic 12) expensive 13)rapid 14) sufficient 15) huge 16) close 17)resort 18) main a) trouble b) traveller c) area d) inducement e) sales f) handling g) arrangements h) sightseeing i) cash j) ties k) purpose 1) competitors m) development n) corporation o) expansion p) holiday tour q) car r) features
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19) direct 20)rental

s) price t) airlines

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the following questions on the text. 1. What kinds of travel packages do tour operators put together? 2. What does the typical package that the European tour operators put together consist of? 3. What has the rapid expansion of tourism resulted in? 4. Why is it necessary for the tour operators to find a sounder financial base? 5. Who puts together tour packages that are the basis for many affinity group charters? 6. What kinds of tours do corporations often arrange? 7. What is one general type of tour? 8. What are usually the major attractions of such a tour? 9. What is the second general type of tour? 10. Who accompanies such a tour? 11. What is one of the advantages to the public in packaged tours? 12. What problems may an independent traveller encounter in trying to make the arrangements for his own trip? 13. How do packaged tours overcome the problems that may face the independent traveller? 14. What is the third advantage that the general public can derive from packaged tours? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. All packaged tours are put together and also sold to the public by retail travel agents. 2. Tours on chartered aircraft can usually be offered at lower prices then those on the scheduled airlines. 3. Chartering has been discouraged by all governments throughout the world. 4. The typical tour offered by European tour operators is a two-week holiday at the Mediterranean resort. 5. Tourists have never been left stranded as a result of financial problems encountered by tour operators. 6. Clubs or other organizations whose principal business is not travel frequently organize affinity group tours by charted aircraft. 7. Corporations sometimes reward their employees with holiday tours. 8. The holiday tour with a resort hotel as its destination usually doesn't offer a lot of expensive extras. 9. A tour guide is only responsible for sightseeing, never for travel arrangements such as local transportation, hotel accommodation, or baggage handling. 10. A tour guide does not have any special skills. 11. One big advantage to the general public of packaged tours is the lower price for travel. 12. A person who buys a packaged tour must make all necessary arrangements himself, just like an independent traveller. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. Tour operators' product is ( ).
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2. Chartering is ( ), usually from a nonscheduled airlines. 3. Guided tour is a tour that is ( ). 4. Tour operators are the people who ( ). 5. Conglomerate is a corporation that ( ). 6. A few tour operators have become involved in ( ). 7. Other tours are put together by all sorts of clubs and organizations whose ( ) is not travel. 8. Tours are also arranged ( ) by corporations. 9. It is possible to ( ) two general types of tours. 10. The public derives ( ) from packaged tours. 11. When airplane seats and hotel rooms ( ) by the tour operators, ( ) are passed on to the customers. 12. Many people would never travel at all without ( ) offered by packaged tours. 13. ( ) that tours make it possible for people to visit many ( ).

Reading and discussion


Task 1 Read and translate the dialogue between a tour operator and the General Manager of the Sheraton Hotel. Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Have you enjoyed your look over the hotel? Just fine. Now let us talk a little more in detail about possible arrangements? By all means. First, what about a drink of some sort? Gin, whisky, Martini? I'll take a gin and tonic, please. Certainly. Right. Here you are. Thank you. Cheers. Let me see. Here's our normal tariff. Take a look. OK. These are all rack rates. Right? That's right. And I guess you're interested in American Plan or modified American Plan? Of course. If you only want Continental Plan then the hotel gets used less, and there's less in it for us. Well, there are different ways we could approach this. We could look at the total demand for accommodation over the year and fix a price, or maybe negotiate a number of different prices according to the time of the year. Of course, but let's take one step at a time. What kind of numbers are we talking about? Well. We're going to sell the tour April through October. We would hope for forty-five people weekly in the earlier part of the season, doubling that figure during the high season, then falling back to forty-five again. And for how many nights? That's four nights. Is that mid-week? Weekends? To take advantage of our flight arrangements, it would be Friday through Tuesday. I see. Tell me what kind of guarantees you are offering on the arrangement. We're not prepared to make any guarantees at all. None at all? No deposits?
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Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator: Manager: Operator:

No. No money up front at all. That's rather a lot to ask of any hotelier. Come on, Mr. Brown. This is not unusual. And you are dealing with a company with a good name that usually sells what it targets. I accept that. But don't you see the risks involved? We are in business. Besides, there would be a three-month release-back clause in the contract. I don't know. I mean 90 beds during all the high season weekends. That's a lot. Yes. And so is forty-five in May and September. Certainly. But I have to think of my regular trade. It's beginning to look as if you are not too interested in doing business. No, no. I didn't say that. It's just that not long after the hotel had opened we had a rather bad experience with this kind of block booking. It depends who you are dealing with, Mr. Brown. Let me put it this way. For the kind of business we have in mind I think average discount in the region of 15 to 20% is.

Vocabulary notes on the text deposit up front rack rates American Plan Continental Plan ( )

Task 2 Read the previous dialogue once again and try to find out the main points in the tour operator's inquiry. Task 3 Reproduce the previous dialogue. Task 4 Make up your own dialogue on the basis of the above one. Task 5 Look through the previous dialogue and find in it the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases: - - 3

Speaking
Task I Define what the work of a tour operator is. Use the following words and word-combinations:
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wholesaler of the tourist industry to put together packaged tour (tour package) to have close ties with charter airlines and hotel chains to arrange tours for (employees and their spouses) to be welcomed by two general types of tours (holiday package, guided tour) the major attractions include to be in charge of travel arrangements and activities to get considerable savings to offer the price inducements an opportunity to make all travel arrangements in one place at one time a possibility to visit many remote areas to see on one's own Task 2 Divide the previous text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You y reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb. a resort hotel to reserve airplane seats and hotel rooms to make all the arrangements of one's own to put the different pieces of one's trip together B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask ewh other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points. Task 4 Give summaries of the logical parts you have divided the text into. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. The role of tour operators in the development of the tourist industry. Advantages* offered by packaged fours. an independent traveller to go to considerable trouble to secure the hotel accommodations to save money and time local transportation and sightseeing

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. These days the motto among the hundreds of travel agencies that have sprouted throughout Russia over the past decade is 'travellers' freedom of choice'. But this is a relatively new phenomenon, and a radical change from what the tourism industry looked like in Soviet times, when there were only three tour operators in the country, each targeting its own group of customers.
37

Intourist, the oldest and the biggest among them, had a monopoly on bringing foreign tourists to Russia. Sputnik, a youth tourism bureau, established by the Komsomol, worked for the most part with young travellers. The Central Council on Tourism and Excursions arranged trips for members of trade unions. Last year Intourist celebrated its 70th anniversary. This tour operator was the first thin chink in the 'iron curtain' that made it possible for foreign visitors to see what was happening in the USSR, even if they were allowed to see only what authorities wanted to show them. Foreign tourists, businessmen, politicians or correspondents had no chance but to arrange their trips to the Soviet Union through Intourist, and had to accept the company's rules. A lack of competitors turned Intourist into a powerful organization that employed thousands of people and owned a chain of the best hotels throughout the country. In some years, up to 6 million travellers came to Russia through Intourist. The Central Council on Tourism and Excursions and Sputnik could compete with Intourist in terms of the number of trips abroad or inside the country, but in term of hosting foreign travellers Intourist was in a league of its own. With the creation of market economy in Russia, the state's monopoly on tourism was destroyed, and Intourist was forced to change its commercial policy. In 1992, Intourist, which had previously been a state joint stock company, was withdrawn from the state structure and became a private firm. Now among its leading shareholders are Sistema, GAO Moskva, a city agency that monitors foreign tourism in Moscow, the ROSNO insurance company and Glav UpDK, or the Main Administration for the diplomatic Corps under the Foreign Ministry. The disintegration of the USSR, and the subsequent political instability and general impoverishment of the countries population, narrowed the number of services Intourist could offer, and made it necessary for the firm to cut its staff. By 1999, the bureau's entire staff totaled only 500 employees. The number of foreign tourists who choose Intourist to arrange their trips has dropped to a tenth of what it was. Now the company handles an average of 200,000 foreign guests to Russia per year. Sputnik, the second-oldest Russian tour operator, was founded over 40 years ago by the Sixth World Festival of Youth and Students, which was held in Moscow in 1957. During Soviet times, Sputnik's main activity was arranging youth festivals, scientific seminars and student and cultural exchanges in Russia and abroad. About 80% of its clients received discounted or free tours, and only the remaining 20% were commercial contracts. In the early 1990s, Sputnik tx a private joint stock company. Now it has over 350 shareholders, including Vneshintorg, a foreign trade firm, the Komsomolskaya Pravda and Yug, a firm working in the agricultural industry. Sputnik now has 65 branches in Russia and owns 10 hotels and tourist centers in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Azerbaijan. The company's central office in Moscow, which once numbered 350 employees, currently has 45 employees. Now Sputnik handles from 25,000 to 30,000 foreign travellers per year. Before 1990, this tour operator worked with around 270,000 foreign tourists. However, as far as sending Russian tourists abroad, by 1998 Sputnik had managed to regain its pre-1990 level of about 200,000 people.
The Moscow Times, March 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text motto to sprout throughout Russia first thin chink in the 'iron curtain' to have no chance but
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to accept the company's rules lack of competitors to own a chain of hotels in a league of its own previously state (private) joint stock company to withdraw from the state struc ture subsequent to narrow the number of to cut one's staff entire staff to drop to a tenth of general impoverishment to handle to receive discounted or free tours to regain

, , () . , . , ... .

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 3 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. One of Sputnik's latest and most promising projects is its coopi ration with the International Student Travel Confederation, whicl promotes international student identity cards throughout the world. The card allows travelling students to enjoy various discounts on tourist services - from transport to insurance to fast food restaurants. Any Russian student, regardless of his or her age, can get the card, which costs about 200 rubles and is valid for 16 months - from Sept.l to Dec.31 of the following year. In 1997, Sputnik began distributing the cards to high-school students and teachers. 100,000 Russian students became owners of the cards in 2000. Sputnik's president A. Khokhlov thinks, that it's important not only to make travelling abroad cheaper for Russian students, but also to make their lives easier here in Russia. In order to revive foreign youth travel to Russia it's necessary to provide young foreign travellers with a number of affordable, but quality services. Besides, Moscow remains very expensive for a tourist, including a foreign one. About 30 dollars is the minimum that he has to spend here per day. To help solve this problem, five years ago Sputnik proposed to the Moscow government that it would build a chain of youth hostels in the capital. The program has been developed and, although Sputnik continues to work on it, another travel agency, Intervisa, has been heading it in recent years. According to a Moscow city government resolution, a total of 18 to 20 youth hostels are to be built in the next few years, and Intervisa plans to open youth hostels in St. Petersburg, Kiev and Kaliningrad. The hostels will be a part of the International Youth Hostels Federation and will be built to satisfy the international standards accepted by this organization. A contract for the construction of the first hostel has been signed with the German firm INPRO. According to the contract, INPRO will provide Intervisa, which in the end will own the hostel, with a sevenyear credit in the amount of $3.1 million from a German bank. The construction was planned to
39

start in summer of 2000 and be finished next year. The hostel will be able to accommodate up to 200 tourists, with one-day stay costing an average of $10 per person.
The Moscow Times, March 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text most promising projects international student identity card to enjoy various discounts affordable a chain of youth hostels be able to accommodate standards accepted by Task 4 Read the text once again and entitle it , - -

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Unit 3 The Retail Travel Agent


( 3. )
Objectives: To give a definition of the retail travel agency. To learn about some of the factors necessary for the success of a travel agency. To talk about special skills desirable for travel agents. To discuss the advantages of being a travel agent.

Vocabulary notes
intangible retail travel agent to distinguish retail outlets tourist products to handle to set up to elaborate network to be an intermediary between rental car to give special care and attention to set aside seats to attend the vocational school airline fares high season low season customary hotel chain computerized reservation system rack of colourful brochures tour packager merchandise initial cost to set up an agency continuing overheads steady clientele outlet
41

, , , -, () , , ,

suburb to operate retail outlets commission approximate figures the off-season great deal of return to spend one's vacations to keep up with the best bargain to get reliable information to vary opportunities for independent operation

, , , , , , ,

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. What do the terms: high season and low season refer to? 2. What kind of product is sold by retail travel agents? 3. What is a commission? 4. How does a commission relate to travel agents?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: department tourism separate assistance category total general absorb establishment manufacturer agent airplane typical excursion computerization public local clientele industry reservation special agency different fundamental brochure display executive modern service rental complex segment channel illustrate initial satisfy

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Accommodation Tour operator Destination Health resort Trip Independent traveller Transfer a) things for sales; goods for trade b) a town catering for those who wants to cure an illness c) a tour on which you become acquainted with another country d) hotels, guest houses, holiday apartments etc. e) one who assembles various services into one package f) transportation to and from the airport g) a tourist who is travelling on his own rather than a
42

8.

Merchandise

member of a group h) the place where the journey ends

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words or word-combinationi from the box below. include handled language skills a great deal of remains the entire range of deal with independent department stores destinations emphasis

1. There is some difference in emphasis in the kind of businesi ______by travel agents offered in the major tourist marketi and those in the major tourist_____. 2. In the market areas, the_____is on selling travel services tours to people who are going to some other place. 3. The agencies in the tourist destinations often put_____emphasis on services the traveller will need while he_____ in the area. 4. These services______local sightseeing tours, arrrangement for_____travellers and so on. 5. Since the agencies in some tourist areas_____many foreigners,_____are often more important than in the market areas. 6. It should be noted that many places are both tourist and market areas that offer_____ travel services. 7. Amern Express offices in such places as Paris and Rome may well be described as travel______. Task 4 Match the words and word-combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) tangible goods 2) retail outlet 3) to be an intermediary be tween 4) to be compulsory 5) successful conclusion of one's training 6) corresponding growth 7) to offer inducement to smb. 8) to set up an elaborate network of 9) to use the services of smb. 10) one-stop convenience 11) low season fares 12) to absorb advertising cost 13) to be shared with smb. 14) large quantities of merchandise 15) initial cost of setting up an agency 16) to establish a steady clientele 17) to assure repeated business 18) to branch out 19) to be paid by means of commissions 20) to bring in higher returns a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 1) m) - n) o) p) q) r) s) t)
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21) to offer the best bargain 22) to keep up with changing fares 23) to be on alert for

u) v) w)

Reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Part I Retail travel services are similar to department stores, except that they sell intangible services rather than tangible goods. The retail travel agent sells all kinds of tourist products transportation, accommodations, sightseeing, and so on - to the general public. The term 'retail' distinguishes him from the tour operator or packager, who can be considered the manufacturer or wholesaler of the tourist industry. However some of the tour operators also operate retail outlets. The travel agent is an intermediary between clients and principals (tour operators). He works in travel agencies, with tour operators, in the tourist offices of spars and health resorts, in communal tourist offices as well as in tourist information bureaus. If you want to become a travel agent in one of the EU countries no special school qualifications are compulsory. The training depends on your educational level, therefore your contract of apprenticeship may be for two, two and a half or three years. During your training you will attend the vocational school in special classes for travel agents. Lessons may be given as day release or block release. The final examination of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce certifies the successful conclusion of your training. As with many other aspects of modern tourism, the growth of the airlines led to a corresponding growth in the number of retail travel agents. The airlines offer inducements to travel agents to handle reservation for them so that the airlines do not have to set up an elaborate network of ticket offices in all the areas from which they draw passengers. Even where the airlines do have ticket offices, many travellers still prefer to use the services of an agent. The agent of course offers the customer one-stop convenience. The traveller can make all the arrangements for his trip without having to go to separate places for his airplane seat, his hotel reservation, his rental car, and whatever else he may want for his trip. In return for the customers who -are brought by the agencies, the airlines give special care and attention to the agents. The typical airline reservations office has one or more agents who handle nothing but travel agency business. They may set aside seats on some popular flights just for the agencies. They also give assistance to the travel agents in working out fares. Airline fares have become very complex in recent years, with a great variety of special categories - high season and low season fares, or 21-day excursions and 45-day excursions, family plans, and many others besides the customary price difference between first-class and economy. The problem becomes even more complicated when the trip has several legs - different segments of the trip on different flights, often on different airlines. The routing of particular trip also frequently makes a difference in the total fare. Computerization caused fundamental changes in the travel agency business. The airlines and the hotel chains all over the world and all resort areas now have computerized reservation systems. As packaged tours have assumed importance in the tourist industry, retail travel agents have become the principal channel for selling tours to the general public. A typical travel agency has a rack of colourful brochures that illustrate the delights offered by a wide variety of tours. The cost of this kind of promotion is paid for almost entirely by the tour packagers. They prepare, print, and distribute the brochures, and they also absorb the national, or even sometimes international, advertising cost. The retail agencies may do some
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local advertising, although even in this case costs may be shared with tour packagers or transportation companies. The agencies also make direct mailings to lists of customers who might be interested in particular travel offerings. The travel agency business offers many attractions to people with experience in the tourist industry. Unlike most other retail businesses, there is no need for the storage and display of large quantities of merchandise. This means that the initial cost of setting up an agency and the continuing overheads are low in comparison with other retail establishments. A good location, however, is an important factor in the success of an agency, and so office space may be expensive. Another factor in success involves establishing a steady clientele. The best customer for a travel agent may be a corporation whose executives make a large number of business trips every year. For customers who come in off the streets, satisfying their travel needs is the best way to assure repeated business. Some of the large travel companies have already operated on a chain basis, that is, with several outlets for many years. Now the smaller agencies are also branching out. Some of them have opened offices in different parts of the same city or its suburbs, while others have opened offices throughout an entire region. Vocabulary notes on the text

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to offer nducements to apprenticeship one-stop convenience to work out fares several legs principal channel general public delights offered by wide variety travel offerings to absorb advertising cost to share costs with retail establishment customers off the street to satisfy one's travel needs in the best way to assure repeated business to branch out to handle reservation to give special care and attention to (the agents) growth in the number of

. . . . () . . . . . . . , . , . , . ()

Reading check (I)


Task 1 Look through the text and find the English equivalents for: - - -

Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: intangible services to operate retail outlets spars and health resorts
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successful conclusion to offer inducements to to handle reservation

to set up a network of one-stop convenience separate places to set aside to work out fares in recent years high season fares hotel chain the principal channel for tourist product to illustrate the delights offered

to absorb the national advertising cost to share costs with particular travel offerings large quantities of merchandise the continuing overheads office space to establish a steady clientele to come in off the street to assure repeated business

Task 3 Read the second part of the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Part II The retail travel agent is paid by means of commission - percentages of sales made through the agency. The commission varies from country to country and from time to time. However, some approximate figures would be about 7.5% for sales of tickets on the scheduled airlines, from 5 to 15% from hotels (although some resort hotels may pay even higher commission, especially in the offseason), about 10% for tours on the scheduled airlines, and about 5% for charter tours. These figures indicate a rather small margin, since they constitute the bulk of the business for a great many agents. Some kinds of activity provide a higher rate of return, however. Travel insurance, which many agents handle, may bring in commission of 25% or more. Tour arrangements for independent travellers also bring in higher returns. The transportation and accommodation companies pay these costs directly to the agents. The retail travel business involves a great deal of contact with the public, since travel agents are selling services and not goods. Many of their customers expect them to either advise them on where they should spend their vacations, or to advise them on hotels, restaurants, health problems, and so forth in all parts of the world. Among the ways in which the agent Can serve the customer is by keeping up with changing fares so that he can offer his customers the best bargain. He can also serve them by knowing where he can get reliable information and by helping them to work out complicated fares. The agent must keep up with changing government regulations for international travel via health regulations, customs information, airport taxes - so that he can give the traveller accurate information. The agent must even be alert for possible political problems in the tourist destination countries. One of the primary necessities for recreational travellers is personal safety. There are of course many rewards other than the financial ones for the travel agent. They involve, for instance: an opportunity to do a great deal of travelling themselves, a possibility to deal with the public and to serve their needs and opportunities for independent operation that would not be found in a large corporation. Vocabulary notes on the text to constitute the bulk of the busi ness complicated fares and so forth accurate information
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to bring in higher returns rather small margin .

. , to be alert for possible political problems reward

, . .

Task 4 Read both parts of the text once again and entitle each of them.

Reading check (II)


Task 1 Look through the text and find the English equivalents for the following phrases: - -

Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: to be paid by means of commission to give accurate information to handle travel insurance tour to be alert for arrangements recreational traveller high returns primary necessities a great deal of to deal with to offer the best bargain to serve one's needs to get reliable information Task 3 Look through the whole text and match the words on the right with the attributes on the left

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1) retail Z) department 3) tangible 4) tour 5) tourist 6) information 7) travel 8) level 9) vocational 10) final 11) successful 12) modern 13) elaborate 14) one-stop 15)rental 16) special 17) airline 18) popular 19) high 20) customary 21) hotel 22) packaged 23) particular 24) initial 25) entire

a) operator b) outlet c)services d) store e) educational f) agent g) office h) bureau i) convenience j) car k) care 1) school m) examination n) conclusion o) tourism p) network q) price difference r) chain s) tour t) offerings u) cost v) region w) season x) flights y) fares

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the following questions. 1. In what way are travel agencies similar to other retail estab lishments? 2. In what way do retail travel agents differ from tour operators or packagers? 3. Why did the travel agency business grow at the same time the airlines business did? 4. What kind of special care and attention do the airlines give to travel agents? 5. What are many travel agencies now equipped with? 6. What is the relationship between travel agencies and packaged tours? 7. Why have working out airlines fares become such a complicated problem? 8. Who pays for most travel industry advertising? 9. What share may local travel agencies have in this cost? 10. What are some of the attractions in setting up a travel agency? 11. What are some of the factors for the success of an agency? 12. What recent trend has developed among travel agents? 13. How are travel agents paid? 14. What are some of the possible rates of return that different kinds of business sold by a travel agency provide? 15. Who pays for the commission to travel agents? 16. What kinds of contact with the public will a travel agent have? 17. What are some of the ways in which an agent can serve the public more effectively? 18. What are some of the rewards of being a travel agent? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones.

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1. All retail travel agents also operate as tour packagers or operators. 2. Many travellers prefer to go to travel agents to conveniently make all their arrangements at the same place. 3. The airlines treat travel agents just like any other customers. 4. Airline fares are so easy to figure out that there is never any need for a travel agent to get expert help. 5. All transportation and accommodation companies now use computers to keep track of their reservations. 6. Even with a computer terminal in the office, it takes several days for a travel agent to confirm reservations. 7. Packaged tours are sold only through large travel companies like American Express. 8. Advertising costs in the tourist industry are paid for entirely by local travel agents. 9. All travel agencies in all locations throughout the world emphasize the same kinds of services. 10. The initial cost of setting up a travel agency is very high. 11. The location of a travel agency is an important factor in its success. 12. Many travel agencies have begun to open branches within the same city or region. 13. The customer pays the travel agent directly for all the services that are purchased through the agency. 14. A travel agent does not have any direct contact with the public. 15. One of the rewards of being a travel agent is the opportunity to do a great deal of travelling. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. The term retail distinguishes ( ) from the tour operator or packager, who can be considered the manufacturer or ( ) of the tourist industry. 2. The travel agent is ( ) and tour operator. 3. Some of the tour operators also ( , ). 4. If you want to become a travel agent in ( ) no special school qualifications are (). 5. The airlines offer inducements to travel agents to ( ) for them. 6. Airlines do not have ( ) in all the areas from which they draw passengers. 7. The agent of course offers the customer ( ). 8. The traveller can make all the arrangements for his trip without having to ( ) for his airplane seat, his hotel reservation and his rental car. 9. ( ) the customers who are brought by the agencies, the airlines ( ) to the agents. 10. The airlines also give assistance to the travel agents in ( ). 11. A typical travel agency has a rack of colourful brochures that ( ) offered by a wide variety of tours. 12. ( ) of setting up an agency and the ( ) are low in comparison with other retail establishments. 13. Another factor in () involves establishing ( ). 14. The retail travel agent is paid ( ) - percentages of sales made through the agency.
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15. Some kinds of activity ( ), however. 16. ( ), which many agents handle, may () commission of 25% or more. 17. Among the ways in which the agent can serve the customer is by ( ) changing fares so that he can offer his customers the best (). 18. One of the primary necessities for recreational travellers is ( ).

Reading and discussion


Task 1 Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Make sure your customer has the best possible insurance every time he goes away. Particularly in the case of trip abroad, the situation can arise which hardly anyone would have thought possible before they went. But if you have advised your customer to take out travel insurance before going, then you benefit, too. There is nothing worse than being held responsible for situations outside your control. A suitcase may go missing, a holiday may have to be cancelled but still paid for, someone may have an accident far away from home - all situations designed to make life difficult; unless, that is, you have sold your customer a travel insurance package to cover every eventuality. The travel insurance packages valid for Europe or worldwide comprise the following benefits: 1. Health insurance 2. Personal accident Financial compensation for medical care abroad in the case of sudden illness or accident. In case of death, disability (loss of one or more limbs and/or sight of one or both eyes), permanent total disablement, transport to hospital or back home (air rescue service). Indemnity against legal liability for accidental injury to third parties or for damage to their property. Loss of or damage of personal belongings during the journey.

3. Personal liability

4. Luggage insurance 5. Assistance service

Payment of the following expenses: in case of illness/accident cost for the arrangement and transport back home for the ill or dead insured, the cost of burial in the country abroad where death occured, the cost advance and settlement for hospital

expenses, the cost for arranging for relatives to visit the hospital, curtailment and delayed return travel in case of illness/accident, assistance and advance if cash, travel tickets, passports are lost, legal advice in case of arrest or problems with the police.

In order to complete the insurance protection the travel agent should recommend a cancellation insurance. This relieves the client of the responsibility for the payment of
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cancellation cost, and covers all additional expenses, should the client be forced to depart earlier or later than planned. Moreover, it entitles the client to a refund of unused or partly used services. This applies in case of illness, death, injury, or maternity, or illness of any member of your close family at home or of the party travelling with you, or in case of fire, storm, floods or malicious damage rendering the client's home uninhabitable. Vocabulary notes on the text to make sure to be held responsible for to be valid for medical care disability permanent total disablement air rescue service loss of sight indemnity against legal liability liability for accidental injury to third parties liability for damage to one's property loss of or damage of personal belongings in case of illness/accident insured cost of burial arranging for relatives to visit the hospital curtailment and delayed return travel advance insurance protection (cover) to depart earlier or later cancellation insurance to entitle the client to refund of unused or partly used services in case of death, injury, or maternity close family to render one's home uninhabitable Task 2 Work in pairs. Read the text once again and entitle it.
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, . , () , -

Discuss the titles, choose the best one. Task 3 Discuss the following points. 1. Why is it advisable to get insurance in case of a trip abroad? 2. What do you sell your client a travel insurance package for? 3. What benefits do the travel unsurance packages valid for Europe comprise? 4. What is cancellation insurance? Task 4 Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner the following points. What will the client lose if he doesn't have insurance protection? What does benefits insurance protection give to Russian travellers abroad?

Speaking
Task 1 Define what the work of a travel agent is. Use the following words and word-combinations: retail travel services intangible services to sell all kinds of tourist products transportation, accommodations, catering, sightseeing, etc. to be an intermediary between clients and tour operators to be the principal channel for selling tours to the general public to be paid by means of commission to handle travel insurance Task 2 Read the text once again and entitle it. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You may reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb. to maintain contact with the public to advise a client where he should spend his vacation to advise clients on hotels, restaurants and health problems to keep up with changing fares, visa and health regulations, customs information to offer customers the best bargain to give reliable and accurate information to be alert for possible political problems in the tourist destination countries B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points. Task 4 Give summary of the text. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. The roles of travel agencies in the development of the tourist industry. The activities and methods of the operation of a travel agency

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Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the According to data issued by the Finance Ministry, there are around 1,300 insurance companies currently operating on the Russian market. The total volume of money paid for insurance in 1999 was 2.3 times greater than in 1998. A very important contribution to the insurance industry was the decree President Yeltsin signed in 1997. The decree made it mandatory for all people travelling abroad to have insurance in case they had health problems or encountered various other incidents while on their trip. Also, many countries in Europe, as well as the US and Japan, require! Russian tourists to have an insurance policy. Though these regulations have been in place since 1997, everyone knows that all domestic transport providers from long-distance buses to airplanes - are obliged to purchase insurance to protect their passengers on routes that take the travellers more than 50 kilometers from the city of departure. In case of an accident, the insurance company has to pay compensation to the passengers who have suffered. However, this mandatory insurance doesn't involve huge compensation packages - no matter what happens, the amount of the insurance company is required to pay out to each passenger cannot exceed 120 minimum wages. Compared to travel-insurance policies in the West, which cover anything from suitcase damage to medical evacuation by airlift, Russian travel insurance firms offer only a narrow set of services to clients going abroad. The problem is the local mentality. Russians don't like to think about what may happen in the future, and many people buy insurance just because it's required by law. The insurance culture in Russia in still quite underdeveloped. In comparison to many other insurance firms, East European Insurance Co. has a relatively ample array of policies - at least for a Russian insured. Besides standard medical insurance, EEIC sells a policy that will cover the costs of bringing children back to Russia if something happens to the parents while they are travelling together. If the tourist intends to travel by car, EEIC offers car-repair insurance, and the policy covers the passengers' return to Russia if the car breaks down for good. Also, the car policy covers legal fees up to 5,000 dollars if there's a car accident and the person has to go to court. American insurer AIG (American Insurance Group), which has been operating on the Russian market since 1995, besides medical insurance for tourists, also offers life insurance, personal and third-party liability insurance and luggage insurance - a package akin to those commonly offered in the West. One of the largest Russian insurance companies, Pro-myshlenno-Strakhovaya Kompaniya, caps compensation for lost or stolen luggage at $500, though it offers to help find documents - such as passports - in case of their loss while travelling. These services are included in the main insurance package, which costs $1.50 per day. PSK also sells policies to cover situations when a tourist cannot go on his planned journey because of unexpected and serious circumstances. The types of cases insurers have encountered with their clients vary radically - from a routine trip to the dentist to heart surgeries in remote destinations.
The Moscow Times, November 10, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text currently to make mandatory domestic transport providers long-distance buses
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to suffer to purchase insurance to be obliged mandatory insurance

to exceed suitcase damage to pay out to each passenger medical evacuation by airlift narrow set of services to be underdeveloped ample array of policies car-repair insurance , , . to break down for good legal fees third-party (liability) insurance for lost or stolen luggage in case of their loss while travel ing policy to cover situation when of unexpected and serious circumstances a routine trip to the dentist in remote destinations

. . . . , , - .

Task 2 Read the text once again and provide the title for it. Task 3 Read the following text and translate it American Insurance Group 16/2 Tverskaya Ul. 935-3950 Comprehensive Insurance: Rates vary depending on destination. Packages cost from 80 cents to $6.65 a day for maximum coverage of a $150,000 policy. Avicos 20 Sadovaya-Triumfalnaya Ul. 207-5291 Medical Coverage: Rates vary depending on destination and length of stay from 28 cents to $1.20 a day for a $10,000 policy; from 48 cents to $1.42 a day for a $25,000 policy; and from 58 cents to $1.70 a day for a $30,000 policy. East European Insurance Co. 21/5 Kuznetsky Most Ul. 926-0371 Medical Coverage: Rates vary depending on destination and length of stay from 29 cents to $2.22 a day for policies of $15,000 up to $100,000. Car insurance for travel in Europe with the European Green Card system of mandatory
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insurance 41 dollars a month. INGOSSTRAKH 12 Pyatnitskaya Ul. 232-3211 Medical Coverage: 50 cents per day for a $15,000 policy, 80 cents per day for a $30,000 policy or $1.10 per day for a $50,000 policy. Luggage insurance: 40 cents per day for $500 worth of coverage or $2.00 per day for $2,000 worth of coverage. Promyshlenno-Strakhovaya Kompaniya 69 Prospekt Mira. 281-2841 Comprehensive Insurance: Rates vary. $1.50 per day for the basic package.
The Moscow Times, July 23,2001

Vocabulary notes on the text insurance travel coverage comprehensive insurance rates vary medical coverage policy car insurance mandatory insurance luggage insurance Task 4 Read the text once again and entitle it. .

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Unit 4 Dealing with Customers


( 4. )
Objectives: To give a definition of sales conversation. To learn about four elements of set pattern of sales conversation. To talk about special skills desirable in dealing with clients. To learn about various kinds of complaints. To learn how to deal with complaints.

Vocabulary notes
sales conversation set pattern to maintain rapport sales environment enquiry to deal with properly and in an appropriate manner to volunteer to purchase subsequent dealings to find out exactly response to elicit to investigate to complain complaint otherwise to make a sensible suggestion to establish (discover) the client's priorities (needs) to get value for money to guess smth. from smth. unless you feel that price range the holiday to have the whole picture to have smth in mind to summarise the facts to draw one's attention to to appeal to the client
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, , , - , , , , , , , , , , , () , - - , -

to create a desire in the client the price chart rapport franchise

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. What is a sales conversation? 2. Why should we try to look at the person who is talking to us? 3. What person will the customer remember? 4. Do most managers of tourist agencies take complaint seriously? 5. Is the customer always right? 6. When does it pay for a customer to complain?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: Task 3 Ell in the blanks with suitable words: ordinary manner information type real sensible budget relax selective personalising element established especially check contain suggest financial concentrate brochure product presentation volunteer effectively respondent material important client appeal benefit refer

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definition. 1) rapport 2) an open question 3) client 4) a respondent 5) a closed ques tion 6) price chart 7) to deal with 8) customer a) customer
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b) the person who answer questions c)the relationship with the customers d) the question that can not be answered with 'yes' or 'no' e) price list f) the question that can be answered with 'yes' or 'no' g) reservations made by guests before they arrive h) to agree to a booking, offering 9) available

10) members of staff 11) to confirm 12) advance reservations

i) company j) k) agency I)

people who work in a firm, ready for use person using services of a travel to work with, to handle

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: recreational parent withdrawn contain auditoriums maintain social designed facilities primarily franchise to run health

1. Some of the hotel corporations operate on a_____basis. 2. That means the hotel and its operation are_____by the corporation, but the right_____it is sold or leased. 3. The operator then pays a percentage to the_____ corporation. 4. His franchise can be_____, however, if he does not_____ the standards that have been established. 5. Other hotel companies serve______as managers. 6. Large, modern hotels_____ not only guest rooms, but many other_____as well. 7. They usually contain restaurants and cocktail lounge, shops, and_____facilities such as swimming pools or______clubs. 8. Many hotels also have facilities for_____functions, conventions, and conferences ballrooms,_____ meeting rooms, exhibit areas, and so forth. Task 4 Match the words on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) sales conversations a) 2) set pattern b) 3) to build up the relationship with a customer c) 4) to feel at ease d) 5) to establish the client's needs e) 6) to volunteer information f) 7) a closed question g) 8) to force the respondent to do smth. h) 9) an open question i) 10) to suggest a holiday j) 11) to establish the client's priorities k) 12) to fall into four parts 1) 13) to keep within a budget m) 14) to get value for money n) 15) to persuade the client to o) 16) suitability of a resort p) 17) to summarise the facts q) 18) a whole host of facilities r) 19) to match the client's needs s) ,

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20) to draw one's attention 21) to create a desire in the client to buy

t) u)

Reading
Task I Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text Part I All sales are made through the sales conversations. A sales conversation is different from an ordinary conversation because it has an objective, an aim, which is to sell the product, and so must follow a set pattern which always includes the same four elements in this order. These are rapport, questioning, presentation and commitment. Rapport is the relationship which is built up with the customers. They must feel at ease in the sales environment and confident that the enquiry will be dealt with properly and in an appropriate manner. Of course, rapport must be maintained throughout your dealing with the customers, right through the sale and into any subsequent dealings. However it must be established before questioning can take place. Why do we need to question the client? We need to establish the client's needs. We can not sell a holiday if we do not know what type of holiday he wants. Sometimes clients will volunteer this information themselves, especially when they have already made their choice, have chosen the product they wish to purchase. But in a real sale your first task is to find out exactly what they are looking for and the best way to do this is to question effectively. There are two types of questions: open and closed questions. The closed question is the one that invites a 'no1 or 'yes' response. An open question is one that can not be answered with 'no' or 'yes'. For instance: 'Do you prefer to travel first class?' is a closed question, whereas 'What kind of travel do you prefer?' is an open question. There are times when you will need to use closed questions, especially when you are checking information, but in the beginning you will find open questions much more effective. It forces respondents to give more information, to explain more fully what they require. In this way you are able to elicit what they really want to buy. An open question always begins with one of the seven W-words - so-called because they all contain the letter W: when, where, who, how, which, what and why. To be able to sell your product you need to be able to establish what their material and human needs are. You'll discover the material needs by asking such questions as 'Who will be travelling?', 'How long for?', 'When do you want to go?' Human needs are catered for with 'what' questions: 'What sort of holiday do you want?', 'What are your hobbies?1 Human needs as well as material needs must be part of your investigation before you suggest a holiday. Otherwise you will not have the whole picture and will not be able to make a sensible suggestion. You must also establish the client's priorities. Everyone considers one part of their travel requirement to be the most important. These fall into four main types: people and their requirements, the place, the price and the period. Concerning price: of course it is often difficult to talk about money. But everyone tries to keep within a budget and wants to feel that they are getting good value for their money. It's unwise to guess from a person's appearance his financial standing. That's why it is advisable to use questions such as 'What type of accommodation are you looking for?1 and 'What price range do you have in mind?' You will not need to ask the question 'why' unless you feel that it is necessary to persuade the clients to change their views as to the suitability of a resort or holiday. Before beginning the presentation stage you should always check the information and summarize the facts, then present the holiday you wish to sell. Remember that when presenting the product, the particular holiday that the client is not buying the hotel bedroom but what it can do for him. For instance, the client who buys a two-week holiday in a hotel in Sochi is not buying the hotel bedroom so he
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can admire the wallpaper but because it is near the beach, it has the facilities he needs to help him relax for two weeks. So match the client's needs with the holiday on offer, and concentrate on the features of the facilities which the client requires. You may choose to show the client a hotel which has a whole host of facilities but do not draw his attention to all of them. It will only confuse. Instead, concentrate on those that will appeal to the client, those that you know he wants or would like. In order to make product sound attractive and appealing, ideally suited to his needs, be selective. If you include unnecessary information he may feel that this holiday is not suitable for him after all. So present the features in the brochure as benefits. A feature of a hotel is that it is only 200 meters from the beach, while a benefit to the client is the fact that he can get to the beach easily as it is only 200 meters away. By personalizing the product in this way you create a desire in the client to buy the product. It is not sufficient just to read out the facilities that the client requires out of the brochure. However it should be referred to. But do not read it out to the client; rather talk about the benefits to them as you point to photos of the hotel, the price chart, the temperature grids. Use it as an aid. Then once the client shows signs of commitment, or desiring to buy, you should stop selling and close the sale. Remember that once the client agrees to the sale he is showing commitment. Vocabulary notes on the text to change one's view temperature grid to cater for whole host of facilities ideally suited to their needs to get to smth. easily to refer to smth. to show signs of commitment features of the facilities to keep within a budget to confuse suitability of a resort . ... . . - . . .

Task 2 Read the text once again and entitle it Task 3 Read the first part of the text once again and find answers the following questions. 1. How can a travel agent determine the client's needs? 2. How can a travel agent collect all pieces of information necessary to recommend a suitable destination?

Reading check (I)


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Task 1 Look through the first part of the text and find English equivalents for: - - - - - W - , Task 2 Look through the first part of the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: to show signs of commitment a temperature grid sale conversation a set pattern to persuade the client to be unwise to guess from a price chart unnecessary information to summarize the facts to have the whole picture to feel at ease to deal with properly and in an appropriate manner to build up rapport with to discover one's needs to suit to one's needs to relax for two weeks to concentrate on the features of the facilities to create a desire in the client to make product attractive and appealing a whole host of facilities to draw one's attention to the suitability of a resort a price range to keep within a budget to maintain rapport with to cater for

Task 3 Match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) sales appropriate subsequent closed first material human sensible a) class b) needs c) suggestion d) conversation e) standing f) stage g) dealings h) manner
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9) client's 10) travel 11) financial 12) presentation 13) particular 14) unnecessary 15) price 16) temperature

i) question j) need k) priorities 1) requirement m) grids n) chart o) information p) holidays

Task 4 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Part II There are some of the ways that travel agency can persuade the general public to have confidence in it and to use its services. Let's look first at staff appearance. It is important that all staff j are well groomed; that their hair is neat and tidy, shoes cleaned and well polished, their uniform pressed. If a travel agent looks pleasant and professional, people will be more willing to approach him and ask for help. Many customers decide to come in on the off-chance because they have looked in the window and are impressed by what they have seen inside the shop. Once they do approach the travel agent the way he reacts is also very important. It is not necessary what he says but how he looks, it's what is called body language. Our facial expression, the way we use our hands, our body to convey what we really feel. So a travel agent has to try to maintain good eye contact with his client. This shows that he is listening. If he looks away clients will think the travel agent is no longer paying attention to them. So he needs to lean forward a little as this also shows he is concentrating on what is being said. He doesn't have to lean back as this shows he is uninterested. And he has to try not to fidget, as it can be very irritating. However, when a customer first walks into the agency he has to be given some personal space. If you include unnecessary information they may feel that this holiday is not suitable for them after all. Then the travel agent has to give the client his full attention. Imagine you are a travel agent. Then you should remember the following. In order for the customer to feel that you and the firm are efficient and reliable, listen carefully, and if possible take notes so you can refer back to them later. Maintain a professional manner throughout: that is, remember that everything that client tells you is in confidence. Never talk about one client in front of others. He also expects ypu to be loyal to your company. So never blame anyone else for an error, always give accurate information. If you are not sure of any of your facts, check them! Don't be afraid to admit if you don't know something but show that you are able to find out what is required. If you promise to find information, give it to the client at a later date, having told him when you intend to do so. And above all, remember that a client will remember the person, or the company, that not only does a good job, but who does something more than expected. Vocabulary notes on the text to have confidence in to be well-groomed to look pleasant and professional to approach smb. facial expression to maintain good eye contact with to look away
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- ()

to rush up to to give the customer time to browse to give the client his rail attention to be reliable to take notes to be in confidence to maintain a professional manner to be loyal to one's company to fidget to come in on the off-chance to talk about one client in front of others to blame smb. for smth. at a later date to convey

, - - - . ()

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Ell in the blanks with suitable words: aggressive chair frequently gestures lean impression throat defensive in disbelief facial cross

1. People gain a general_____of you from a combination of your_____expression and head movements, your_____with your hands and arms, and the rest of your body including your legs. 2. Your clients will tend to see you as_____if you avoid looking at them, clench your hands or____your arms. 3. They will tend to see you as anxious if you blink______, lick your lips, keep clearing your______, put your hands over your mouth while you are speaking. 4. People will tend to see you as_____ and overbearing if you stare at them, raise your eyebrows_____, look at them over the top of your spectacles. 5. They also will tend to see you aggressive if you are seated, ____right back in your_____with your hands behind your head and your legs splayed. Task 2 Match the words and word-combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) staff appearance 2) facial expression 3) persuade clients 4) to have confidence in 5) body language 6) to convey one's feelings 7) to maintain eye contact 8) to rush up to smb. 9) to be reliable 10) to be loyal to one's company 11) to blame smb. for an error a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

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Task 3 Read the text once again and entitle it.

Reading check (II)


Task 1 Look through the second part of the text and find the English equivalents for: - , - () -

Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: persuade clients the general public to have confidence in staff appearance to be neat and tidy to be well-groomed to approach a travel agent to come in on the off-chance to be impressed by body language facial expression to convey one's feelings to maintain eye contact with personal space to rush up to smb. time to browse to give smb. one's full attention to be reliable to be loyal to one's company to blame smb. for an error to give accurate information to check facts to find out what is required at a later date

Task 3 Look through the text and match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) general 2) staff 3) body 4) facial 5) eye 6) personal 7) professional 8) accurate a) contact b) information c) space d) manner e) public f) appearance g) language h) expression

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the questions. 1. In what way are all sales "made through? 2. What must a sales conversation follow?
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3. What elements does a set pattern include? 4. What is rapport? 5. Why must rapport be maintained throughout travel agent's dealing with the customer? 6. Why does the agent need to question his clients? 7. How many types of questions are usually used by travel agents to find out exactly what their clients are looking for? 8. What does an open question always begin with? 9. What kind of question is much more effective? 10. Why must the travel agent establish the client's priorities? 11. Is it wise to guess from a person's appearance their financial standing? 12. Why should we always check the information and summarize the facts before beginning the presentation stage? 13. In what case may the client be confused? 14. In what way can the travel agent create a desire in the customer to buy the product? 15. How can a travel agency persuade the general public to have confidence in it? 16. Why is it important that all staff are well-groomed? 17. What role does the body language play in dealing with the clients? 18. What do we call 'body language'? 19. When does the travel agent have to give the client his full attention? 20. What does the customer expect the agent to be to his company? 21. What kind of the travel agent will a client remember? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. A sales conversation is different from an ordinary conversation. 2. The aim of a sales conversation is to sell the product. 3. Rapport is the relationship, which exists between a boss and his subordinates. 4. Rapport must be established immediately at the very beginning of sales conversation. 5. The travel agent needs to find ouit the client's needs. 6. An open question is the one that invites a 'no' or 'yes' response. 7. The close question is the one ttfiat can not be answered with 'no' or 'yes'. 8. To be able to sell his tourist prcPduct the travel agent needn't to establish what client's material and human needs are. 9. The travel agent must also establish the client's priorities. 10. There are three parts of customer's travel requirement. 11. It is always very easy to talk with clients about money. 12. The travel agent should match tbe client's needs with the holiday on offer, and concentrate on the features of the facilities, which the client requires. 13. In order to make product sound attractive and appealing a travel agent has to be selective. 14. What aid should the agent use to create a desire in the client to buy the travel tour? 15. Once the client agrees to the saJe they are showing commitment. 16. It is very important what the travel agent says dealing with his client. 17. Our facial expressions, the way we use our hands don't convey what we really feel. 18. The travel agent has to rush up to a customer the moment he walks in. 19. A client expects a travel agent to be loyal to his company. 20. A client won't remember the person who does something more than expected. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. All sales are made through the ( ).
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2. In a real sale the first task of a seller is to ( ) what customers are looking for and the best way to do this is to question effectively. 3. There are two types of questions: ( ). 4. (, ) all staff ( ). 5. Many customers decide to come in ( ) because they have looked in the window and ( ) what they have seen inside the shop. 6. A travel agent has to ( ) with his client. 7. Open question ( ) to give more information ( ) what they require. 8. With open questions you ( ) what your customers really ( ). 9. An open question always begins with one of the seven W-words - so-called because they ( ) W. 10. To be able to ( ) you need to be able to () what their material and human needs are. 11. Human needs as well as ( ) must be ( ) before you suggest a holiday. 12. ( ) the presentation stage you should always ( ). 13. A travel agent has to ( ) with the holiday on offer, and concentrate on the ( ) which the client requires. 14. If the agent includes ( ) his clients may feel that this holiday is ( ) after all. 15. If the agent ( ) clients will think the travel agent is ( ). 16. So ( ) anyone else ( ), always give accurate information. 17. A client will ( ), or the company, that not only does a good job, but who does ( , ). 18. The travel agent has to ( ).

Reading and discussion


Task 1 Read the following text and discuss in pairs. The functions of different travel staff. The rights of a client in case of defects, not proper service, etc, Legal Conditions Travel agent Contract Client makes a booking for flight and accommodation The retail agent is only liable for wrong information or advice, i.e. for his own activities. He is, however, not liable for defects which are the responsibility of the tour operator (e. g. journey, board and accommodation). If the service, e. g. the holiday apartment does not correspond to the condition offered by the tour operator the tourist can claim remedy. He has,
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Tour operator

however, to allow for an adequate period to cure the defect, e. g. in case the apartment has not been properly cleaned, or there are fewer beds than expected, etc. Sometimes the tour operator has to offer another hotel or apartment, and the tourist cannot reject a reasonable offer even if it differs slightly from the original one. If the tour operator does not deal with the situation satisfactorily the tourist can take action or cancel the journey and return home, and in each case the tourist is entitled to claim damages. If minor defects occur, e. g. insufficient kitchen facilities or a polluted beach the tourist can claim a reduction in the price. Vocabulary notes on the text to claim remedy to cure the defect to reject a reasonable offer to be entitled to claim damages polluted beach , .

Task 2 Read the following dialogue and translate it. Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Good morning, Madam, can I help you? Good morning, Sir. I'm thinking about a destination for our summer holiday in the South, I'm dreaming about sun and of warm sea. Have you already been to any southern destination? Yes, once we went to Spain, to Benidorm, for a weekend break by coach. But that wasn't the right place for us, and the long trip by coach was very tiring. Are you thinking about flying this time? Yes! And how long do you want to stay? For a fortnight, at the beginning of July. Are you travelling with others? Yes, with my husband. What kind of accommodation would you prefer, a hotel or a holiday apartment? We thought about a medium-priced hotel. O.K. Would you prefer half-board or only breakfast? Half-board. You told me that you disliked Benidorm, am I right in supposing that you're now looking for quieter destination where you can relax. Yes, a nice beach and maybe the possibility of making a few sightseeing tours. What about a quiet beach hotel on Majorca? Have a look at this brochure, please. Here you can see a newly refurbished hotel. It's a medium-priced and provides restaurant, a bar, spacious lounges, a swimming-pool, and a fitnessroom with sauna. In front of the hotel you can see a small beach, next one is 500 m away. The next town can be reached by bus or taxi in a few minutes. That sound great. Can you give me the brochure, so that I can discuss your offer with my husband? Yes, certainly. You should, however, remember that you want to travel in
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Client: Travel agent:

Client: Travel agent: Client:

July, you know, that's peak season and package tours to Majorca are heavily booked. I would recommend taking an option for 5 days. That doesn't commit you in any way, it secures your booking and you have time to discuss it with your husband. If you decide that this is the right holiday for you, you only have to confirm the reservation and pay the deposit. Shall I find out whether this arrangement is still available? Yes, please, for the beginning of July. You're lucky, you can get an outbound flight on the 2nd of July and an inbound flight on the 16th of July. Shall I book this option for you now? Yes that's fine.

Task 3 Discuss with your partner: how the sales conversation has been made; the professional skills of a travel agent; how the travel agents fulfils the requirements mentioned in the text about sale conversation, etc. Task 4 Read the following dialogue and translate it Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Good morning. I'm interested in the 16-night Classical tour of Nepal. How much does it cost? When would you like to go? March. March. Let me see - the price is $2250 for 16 nights. Are internal flights included? Yes. The price includes the return flight, internal flights in. Nepal, all airport taxes, transfers to and from the hotel, and the hotel accommodation itself. Do I have to pay extra for a single-room? Yes, sir. There is a single-room supplement of $30 a night. What about visas? You have to have a visa for Nepal and India. I suggest you apply as soon as you book the holiday. When do I have to confirm? Can I do a provisional booking? You needn't confirm straight away. I can keep an option open on the holiday for seven days. But after that you must confirm and pay a deposit. The balance is due eight weeks before the departure.

Task 5 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. Is the customer sure of his wishes? Has the client determined his needs before coming to the agency or not? Have any of his desires been changed after the conversation with the agent?

Task 6 Read the previous dialogue once again and entitle it. Task 7 Read the following dialogue and translate it Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Right. Your booking is confirmed. Two adults and one child of 20 months to India for two weeks. Thank you. Could you tell me what I need to do now? Is there a deposit? Yes. You have to pay of $180 per person now. Do I have to pay a deposit for the child, too? No. You don't have to pay a deposit if the child is under 2.
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Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel Agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Agent: Travel agents:

What do I have to do about balance? You have to pay the balance seven weeks before the departure. I'd like to hire a car. What documents do I have for that? You must have a full, valid British driver's license. Will my wife be permitted to drive, too? She's 23. No, drivers have to be 25 years old or over. Now, what about a passport? I have a British passport, valid for the next five months. Is that O.K.? No, it has to be valid for at least six months (for travel to India). Can my wife use her British Visitor's Passport? No, she must have a full passport. Do we have to have any other documents? You must have visas. We can organize them for you. Thank you. Just one other thing. Could you tell me about vaccination? Your doctor can give you advice on vaccinations. Thank you very much. I'll try much to arrange all that. Good bye.

Task 8 Read the previous dialogue once again and entitle it. Task 9 Discuss the following points. The profile of the client. The problems that the agent has to overcome in his talk with the client. Say what this client will tell his relatives at home about his visit to the agency. Compare your story with that of your partner. See the differences and similarities.

Vocabulary notes on the text by coach for a fortnight half-board to refurbish medium-priced to provide sightseeing tour spacious lounge fitness-room to reach smth. by bus or taxi peak season to take an option for.... days to commit to secure one's booking to confirm the reservation outbound flight inbound flight deposit balance
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, , - .... ()

Task 10 Reproduce the dialogues. Use the following phrases. to pay a deposit to pay the balance valid British driver's license to organize visas for to have a full passport

Task 11 Make up your own dialogues on the basis of the above ones. Task 12 Work in pairs. A travel agent is giving a customer some information about car hire in Italy. Put the sentences of the dialogue in proper order. The first one has been done for you. Client: Agent: Agent: Client: Client: Agent: Agent: Client: Agent: Client: Client: Client: Agent: Something small, like a mini. Yes, Visa and Amex. If you pay now I'll give you a voucher and you can pick the car up from Rome Airport. We haven't got any Minis, but we do have Fiat Pandas. How much do they cost for a week? Can you give me some information about car hire? Yes, we can. If you could wait a moment, I'll go and get a form and arrange everything. Yes, of course. What kind of car would you like? I see, and does that include insurance and so on? They're $240 for seven days. Oh good! I don't like paying extra for mileage. I'll book it now if that's O.K. Do you take credit cards? Can I leave it there when I come back? Thank you. I'll wait over here. Yes. For $240 you get Personal Accident Insurance and CDW, tax, and unlimited mileage.

Task 13 Work with your partner. Read the dialogue once again and try to guess the agent's occupation. Task 14 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. If your client is going to spend his vacation in Germany and to hire a car you have to inform him about the following: Germany has a huge network of highly efficient, toll-free motorways (Autobahnen) with 24th-facilities. Tourist information is available at every lay-by. Speed limits for cars without a trailer are 50 km/h in built-up area and 100 km/h elsewhere except on motorways where 130 km/h is the recommended maximum. Front and rear seat belts must be worn by law. Children under 12 must sit in the rear. The maximum permitted blood/alcohol level is 80mg/100ml. Dipped headlights are obligatory in poor weather. Driving on parking lights is prohibited. Thirdparty insurance is compulsory. If you do not have an International Motor Certificate (Green Card) you must obtain a temporary insurance certificate at the border. Emergency patrols cover all motorways and major roads. Assistance in the event of breakdown is rendered free of charge. Call from an emergency telephone and ask for Strassen-wachthilfe.

Vocabulary notes on the text


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toll-free motorways speed limits in built-up areas front and rear seat-belts dipped headlights third-party insurance to be compulsory temporary insurance certificate emergency patrols in the event of breakdown an emergency telephone lay-by mileage Collision Damage Waiver (CDW) breakdown local added tax with 24th-facilities

Task 15 Read the previous text once again and entitle it Task 16 Read the following dialogue and translate it. Client: Agent: Client: Agent: Client: Agent: I'd like to hire a car for 10 days. Oh, fine, which car make do you have in mind? I'm looking for a reliable medium-sized car, the make isn't so important. May I see your driver's license, please? But what for? I'm afraid I'll have to check if you fulfil the conditions of the car rental. The minimum age for a small or medium-sized car is 21 and for a bigger one is 25. For you, that's no problem you've just turned 21. The next thing I'll have to check is whether you've held the license for at least 12 month. That's O.K. too. Are there any other special conditions for younger people? Yes, for drivers under 23 years of age a CDW is mandatory. What's that, a CDW? That's a Collision Damage Waiver. In the event of collision damage to the rented car it should relieve your liability. But that's pretty expensive, isn't it? You're right. But I can offer you a CDW with DM 600 deductible. That makes the insurance cheaper. Do I have to take out any other insurance? The third-party liability insurance with unlimited cover in property damage and personal damage is already included in the rental charges. A Personal Accident Insurance is optional; it covers accidental death and medical expenses for the renter and all passengers in the vehicle. No, that's not necessary for me. I've already got comprehensive travel insurance. Is
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Client: Agent Client: Agent: Client: Agent: Client: Agent:

Client:

Agent: Client:

there anything else I have to pay for? The rental charge includes unlimited kilometers, the Local Added Tax, servicing, oil consumption and wear-and-tear repairs. An extra cost is fuel. Our cars are fuelled and they have to be returned with a full tank. And how much are the rental charges? Task 17 Read the dialogue once again and try to answer questions. 1. What is the agent's occupation? 2. Is it easy to hire a car in Germany? 3. What minimum age is necessary for hiring a medium-sized car? 4. What does a Personal Accident Insurance cover? Task 18 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text.

When you are dealing with complaints, you should listen carefully; be polite; and, except when it is absolutely necessary, don't comment untill the customer has finished. Then, make a short, clear apology. After that you should repeat the complaint. This is to make sure that you have fully understood the problem and that there are no misunderstandings. When possible, you should also note down what the customer has said. Next, you should decide who will deal with the complaint. If it is not a serious one, you can deal with it yourself. You should explain to the customer the action you plan to take and tell him when it will be done. If you decide that a manager should handle the complaint, you should first inform him and then arrange a meeting between him and the customer. Most businesses take complaints very seriously; but some complaints are more serious than others and some customers complain more than others. It is often the responsibility of an individual member of staff to deal with the problem. Sometimes, of course, it is necessary for the staff member to refer an unhappy customer to someone else, such as a manager. Task 19 Work with your partner. Look through the text once again and provide the title for it. Discuss the titles. Choose the best one. Give your arguments for and against it.

Task 20 Read the dialogue and translate it. Travel agent: Client: Good morning, Sir, what can I do for you? Listen, I'm really angry. I arrived at the meeting point for the coach to Prague, and what I saw signposted: departure 8.25 h. And what does it say here in the travel documents? Departure 9.25 h. If that isn't reason enough to fly off the handle... You are right. I'm terribly sorry, that was my fault. I've inserted the wrong departure time. And what are you going to do about it now? I've been looking forward to this weekend trip and now it's all been spoilt. I do apologize. I can understand very well that you are so angry. The only thing I can do now is to return your money. The next tour to Prague will be in 2 weeks, perhaps you can travel then? The weather might be warmer. I've got to think about that first. Can I phone you in a few days to secure the booking in case you are interested? Yes, you can. My office number is 432 567.
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Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client: Travel agent: Client:

Task 21 Discuss with your partner: what has happened to the client; the way the agent has behaved; the actions the client will do after the talk.

Task 22 Read the following text and translate it. Dear Sirs! I am writing to complain about the terrible service I received from your travel agency. In April I called to ask about a holiday in Italy and spoke to your clerk, Mr. Quinzo. I told him that my wife and I were both 70, and that we wanted a suitable holiday. He suggested a hotel in Palermo, and I paid by credit card. When we arrived at the airport, it was clear that something was wrong. We were on an 18-25 Fun Club' tour, and all the other people on the tour were teenagers or in their twenties. They were loud and aggressive, and at the hotel in Italy they got drunk and had fights. Most of them were also rude to us, and even the waiters at the hotel called my wife and me 'the dinosaurs'. I would be grateful if you could explain why Mr. Quinzo suggested this tour, and look forward to hearing what you will do about it. Yours faithfully, Mr. P. Father Task 23 Work with your partner. Read the text once again and provide the title for it; Discuss the titles with your partner. Choose the best one.

Task 24 Work in pairs. Read the following sentences from the letter of apology and put them in proper order. Compare your variant and that of your partner.

Dear Mr. Pather, 1. Once again I would like to offer my sincere apologies, and I hope that you will travel with us again in the future. 2. Mr. Quinzo, who deals with your holiday, is not a native speaker of English, and thought that you said you were 17 rather than 70. 3. We would like to apologize for suggesting this particular holiday to you and your wife. 4. Thank you for your letter of 25 July, concerning holiday to Italy. 5. As a gesture of goodwill, we would like to offer you a complimentary holiday with us, and I am enclosing the 'Gentle Mountains' brochure, which has details of holidays for people over 60. Yours sincerely Mr. J. Stone Task 25 Read the following text. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: with at of able beyond chose on lower am sorry for

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April 29, 2003 Dear Mr. Brown, 1. Thank you____your letter_____25 April concerning the weather_____your skiing holiday to Switzerland. 2. I am_____that the snow conditions were not satisfactory, and that you were not____to ski. 3. However, I am sure you realize that this problem was_____our control. 4. We do not guarantee snow in April at the resort that you_____and this is reflected in the____price. 5. As a gesture of goodwill, I____enclosing next year's brochure and a voucher for $40 which can be used in part-payment of a holiday_____any of our resorts. 6. I hope that you will travel_____us again. Yours sincerely, Bill White. Task 26 Read the text once again and entitle it.

Speaking
Task 1 Define what dealing with customers is. Use the following words and word-combinations: to follow a set pattern to establish rapport with the customers to make one's choice open and closed questions to force the respondent to find out the client's priorities to be able to elicit what material and human needs are to get value for money to guess from a person's appearance to deal with complaints to make sure that to take complaints seriously to refer a client to someone else

Task 2 Divide the main text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You may reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb: to be well-groomed to look pleasant and professional one's facial expression to look away a client to give the client one's full attention to try to give the customer one's full attention to be not sufficient no longer pay attention to to agree to the sale

B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points.
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Task 4 Give summaries of the logical parts you have divided the main text into. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. The benefits of handling customers well. Agent's behaviour and client's impression.

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Unit 5 Business Travel


( 5. )
Objectives: To give a definition of business travel. To learn about certain key points in organizing a conference or a training session.

Vocabulary notes
venue board meeting training session sales lunch sales people to anticipate to hold a conference to attend car parking facilities peripherals lecture theatre syndicate room overhead projector ballroom slide projector refreshments dining requirements gala dinner to make it more of an occasion to get down to buffet service finger buffet to break in the middle to put smb. into better rooms to work out a rooming list residential conference board meeting convent principality , , . - - , , , , ,

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Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. What do you need to know before you can actually make the booking? 2. Why is the choice of year's time so important? 3. What things will you have to think about, once you've found your venue?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: casino number function adequate syndicate coffee determine organise delegate reasonably course presentation privately buffet conference meeting central company projector lecture ordinary actually training session airport informal slide occasion finally

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. Venue 2. Delegates 3. Syndicate room 4. Hospitality room 5. Capacity 6. Sponsors a) room used for meetings, lectures b) number that can be accommodated c) a meeting place arranged for some purpose or activity d) organization or company which pays for an event e) room used for the reception and entertainment of guests f) people attending a conference

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: need deal success purpose-built facilities secretarial centre responsible guests auditorium professionals able

1. Monte Carlo has a long history as a tourist and business ______, and its beauty and elegance will guarantee the_____and of any conference or convention. 2. It has magnificent hotels and restaurants, as well as a modern _____Convention Centre. 3. In Monaco, real_____will help you with the organization of your conference. 4. When you decide to come to the Principality, one person will be_____for helping you. 5. He will ask about your plans and will be____to give you any advice you need. 6. When your conference is taking place, he will____with any problems, and will leave you free to be with your____. 7. The Convention Centre offers a large_____, several halls and theatres for exhibitions, and meeting rooms. 8. There are translation_____, telephones and FAX machines, _____offices, a range of restaurants and bars, and many other services. In short, the Monte Carlo Convention Centre has everything you____to make your conference a success.
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Task 4 Match the words on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) to find a venue the size of all the arrangements training session to last to hold an evening garden party adequate car parking facilities menu arrangements a) b) c) d) e) f) g) ()

Reading
Task I Read the text and translate it For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Once you have been asked to find a venue and organize a conference, there are certain key points you will need to know and decisions that will have to be taken before you can actually make the booking. The first, most important point, is the number of delegates attending. Is it a big conference - say for fifty or 100 people - or a small board meeting for just six, because it makes a big difference to the size of room and all the arrangements. So number one is the number of delegates. The next thing to decide is what you actually want to achieve with your conference: either it is a training session or a sales lunch. You may get all your sales people together and you show them a new product. That is very different from a training session. So you obviously want to know what you want to achieve at the end of the day. Then you have to decide how long your conference is to last, how many days you anticipate you're going to need and what time of the year you want to hold in. The type of activities and functions can be dependent on the weather, for instance if you intend to hold an evening garden party. Another point is where the conference is going to take place. Before you can decide on this, you must know where the people that you are expecting to attend will be coming from. Will it need to be reasonably central - near to an airport, near to good railway connections, or easy to get to by road? Are there adequate car parking facilities? And of course you need to know who is actually paying for the conference. Are the delegates paying for themselves or is the company paying? Usually the company pays for the main part of the conference and the delegates pay for their drinks and telephone calls and peripherals. Once you've decided on all that and you've found your venue, you'll have to think about the things that you'll require while you're there: things like conference room size, how you're going to want the room laid out. If it's very informal you won't need a very big room, but if you need everybody with desks you'll need a larger room. If you have a very large meeting in the ballroom you may need people sitting in rows like in a lecture theatre. You'll also have to decide whether you need syndicate rooms - that's small rooms for fifteen to twenty people, and if you're going to use syndicate rooms, how many rooms you'll need. You then come onto your conference equipment. If someone is giving a presentation, will they need overhead projectors, flip charts, slide projectors? You also need to know what refreshments your delegates will require. If you've got your delegates sitting in a conference all imorning, by the time they get to lunch time they're going to be very thirsty, so you need a break in the middle for a cup of coffee (and a chance for the delegates to stretch their legs. You need to find out the dining requirements - will they be privately dined or is it okay for them to sit at small tables in the main dining room? Perhaps you want a gala dinner on the
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last evening to make it more of an occasion. Then you can get down to the menu arrangements - what are you actually going to eat? This is very much determined by how much time you've got for lunch. At lunch time delegates often have only forty-five minutes to an hour, and so they'll want a fast buffet service where they can have as much or as little as they want. In the evening you are more relaxed, so you can spend a couple of hours over the meal and have a formal one. Another thing you can do is, if the delegates need to work through lunch, you can have a finger buffet brought in. Another thing to consider is accommodation and how many of the delegates will be staying. If you've got a conference of twenty, perhaps only ten require accommodation. Perhaps, some of these guests are very important people, so you'll want to put them into better rooms than the ordinary delegates. So you must work out a rooming list. And finally, if this is a residential conference, are the delegates going to have any leisure time? For instance, they're here for two days. On the first afternoon there's a free period - they haven't got any work to do in the conference. The delegates might want some activities organized. Perhaps they want to go out and see the local sights, perhaps they want an organized sporting activity. If the delegates are here for a long time they might want to go to a local pub. Will they want a disco or a casino set up, or will they want a party? So when you have all this information you can go about booking. Vocabulary notes on the text the dining requirements to find one's venue informal meeting to sit in rows to stretch one's legs rooming list sales people sales lunch . op

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it.

Reading check
Task 1 Look through the previous text and find the English equivalents for:
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Task 2 Look through the text and give the Russian equivalents for the following word-combinations: to find a venue key points to make the booking to be dependent on to hold an evening garden party to be reasonably central to be near to good railway connections adequate car parking facilities to pay for peripherals syndicate room board meeting a training session get all sales people together conference equipment overhead projector flip charts to break in the middle for to stretch one's legs to make smth. more of an occa sion to go about booking a rooming list

Task 3 Look through the text and match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left: 1) local 2) rooming 3) ordinary 4) leisure 5) organised sporting 6) fast buffet 7) menu 8) gala 9) dining 10) next 11) adequate 12) training 13) sales 14)large 15) room 16) main 17) syndicate 18) overhead 19) conference 20) key a) equipment b) projector c) rooms d) size e) meeting f) people g) sights h) delegates i) list j) time k) activity 1) service m) arrangements n) dinner o) requirements p) thing q) car parking facilities r) points s) part t) session

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the questions. 1. What will you need to know in case you have been asked to organize a conference? 2. What is the most important point in organizing a conference? 3. Why must a travel agent know what his client actually wants to achieve? 4. What is the difference between training session and sales lunch? 5. Why can the type of activities and functions be dependent on the weather? 6. What must an agent know before he can decide on a venue where the conference is going to take place? 7. Who pays usually for the main part of the conference? 8. What do the delegates pay for? 9. What determines agent's choice of room's size?
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10. What information does a travel agent need concerning refreshments? 11. What are dining requirements? 12. How much time do delegates usually have at lunchtime? 13. What is a fast buffet service? 14. Why must an agent work out a rooming list? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. Travel agents must find out venues in advance. 2. There are certain key points a travel agent will need to know before he actually can make the booking. 3. The most important point for an agent is the number of relatives accompanying delegates. 4. A small board meeting usually is held for twenty people. 5. At a sales lunch an agent may get all sales people together and show them a new product. 6. A travel agent doesn't have to decide how long a particular conference is to last. 7. The type of activities and functions can be dependent on the weather. 8. A travel agent must decide himself where the conference is going to take place. 9. The delegates usually pay for themselves and the company pays only for their drinks and telephone calls. 10. By the time the participants of the conference get to lunch time they are going to be very hungry, so there is no need to make a break in the middle of the sitting for a cup of coffee. 11. All delegates usually want to be served in the conference room. 12. Not all participants want a gala dinner on the last evening of the conference. 13. The menu arrangements aren't very much determined by the time delegates have got for lunch. 14. At lunch time delegates often have only forty-five minutes to an hour, and so they'll want a fast buffet service where they can have as much or as little as they want. 15. If some of participants are very important people they need to be placed into suites. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. Once you have been asked to ( ) a conference, there are certain key points you will need to know before you can actually ( ). 2. The first, ( ), is the number of delegates attending conference. 3. The next thing to decide is what you actually ( ) with your conference; is it ( ) or are you having a sales lunch? 4. You may ( ) and you show them a new product. 5. Then you have to decide how long ( ), how many days ( ) you're going to need and what time of the year you want to hold in. 6. The type of activities and functions ( ), for instance, if you ( ) an evening garden party. 7. And of course you need to know ( ). 8. Usually the company pays for ( ) and the delegates pay for their drinks and ( ). 9. If you have a very large meeting in the ballroom you may need people sitting ( ). 10. You also need to know ( ) your delegates will require.
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11. If you've got a conference of twenty delegates, perhaps only ( ). 12. And finally, if this is a residential conference, are the delegates going to ( )?

Reading and discussion


Task 1 Read the text and translate it. Once the decision to meet in Rangue has been made, the Tai Tourist Association is happy to advise on all the details connected with organizing and promoting your meeting. Services include the following. Introductions to professional meeting organizers and display companies. Information about, and liaison with, Hong Kong public figures to provide welcome addresses at opening ceremonies and dinner functions. Public relations contacts with local TV, press, and trade media. Advice on Customs and Immigration procedures to facilitate entry for delegates and speedy clearance for literature and display material. Special arrangements for an TTA representative to attend preceding events in order to assist in promoting Rangue as the next destination with supplies of appropriate literature and display materials, film, and audio visual presentation. Providing supplies of promotional literature for your mailing to potential delegates. This will assist in generating maximum interest and attendance. Material can be overprinted with the organizer's own text. Listing of the event in the Association's calendar, 'Coming Meetings, Conferences and Exhibitions', widely distributed throughout the world and updated biannually. Ideas on 'Theme' evenings for gala functions with the names of suppliers and cost. A comprehensive list of local entertainment groups and arts and crafts specialists that can be hired for social programs. Details of exciting and educational tours for accompanying persons who are not attending the meeting sessions. Arranging for a 'Welcome' banner to be displayed at the airport. Vocabulary notes on the text liaison with opening ceremony speedy clearance for to precede appropriate literature generating mayimiim interest display material to update biannually 'welcome' banner Task 2 Work in pairs. Read the text once again and provide the title for it. Compare your title with that of your partner. Find arguments 'for' and 'against' it. - . ( )

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Task 3 Discuss the following points. Where can Welcome' facilities be arranged? How can the TTA make it easier for delegates to enter the country? How does the TTA assist in encouraging maximum attendance at a conference? In which calendar are all the events listed? Who are educational tours arranged for?

Task 4 Read the text and translate it. For help see ike vocabulary notes that follow the text. The Radisson Slavjanskaya Hotel is the perfect venue for your next conference. We are centrally located on the banks of the Moscow River, some minutes from the Kremlin, Red Square and Arbat Street. In addition to being the capital and major commercial center of Russia, Moscow is renowned for its theaters, museums, architecture, cultural events and elegant shopping. Sheremetievo International Airport serves airlines from Europe, North America and Asia with convenient connections from any destination in the world. The Radisson Slavjanskaya Hotel and Business Center, Moscow's premiere business property, offers the large and most functional conference and meeting facilities in the city with up to date equipment and modern technology. Your meetings will be handled in style with all the comforts and services you expect from an international hotel. Our Conference Hall provides an impressive setting for meetings and events - arge theatre-style sitting for 550 people and equipped for simultaneous translations for up to five different languages. Our twelve flexible banquet rooms can accommodate up to 1000 banquet style or 1500 for a reception. Whether your group is large or small, our versatile chefs and catering staff will gladly design menus to suit your special needs. We will dedicate ourselves to ensuring that you and your group enjoy a unique and satisfying experience. Competition among the world's leading hotel groups for corporate and business travellers has never been more intense and the methods used to attract them are becoming more diverse. Executive floors boasting bigger and better-equipped rooms, functional business centers, sophisticated health clubs and limousine transfers are now practically standard in good five-star hotels. But now, to gain the edge over their rivals, many of the top hotel groups are increasing their range of extras for business guests. Service includes complimentary drinks, gifts and even guarantee schemes, financial information centers and personal butlers.
The Moscow Times, September 21, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text business property to handle in style with to provide an impressive setting for to be equipped for simultaneous translations into foreign languages flexible banquet rooms versatile chef catering staff to enjoy a unique experience diverse
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- -

executive floors sophisticated health clubs limousine transfer to gain the edge over range of extras butler rivals Task 5 Work in pairs.

. , - ,

Read the text once again and entitle it. Discuss the titles. Choose the best one.

Task 6 Work with your partner. Discuss the following points. 1. What is the distinction between corporate and business travellers? 2. Why do hotel chains cater for this special market? 3. What is the advantage for a business traveller to be accommodated on executive floors? 4. Give examples of the facilities of functional business centers. 5. Whv are health clubs necessary? 6. Why is it more convenient to be transferred to the airport by limousine than by other means of transportation? 7. What services do many hotel chains offer as extras? Do explain the terms.

Speaking
Task 1 Define what Business Travel is. Use the following words and word-combinations: to find a venue to hold (attend) a conference a training session function (syndicate) rooms conference equipment dining requirements

Task 2 Divide the previous text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You may reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb. resort area to hold a training session to find a suitable venue sales people perfect accommodation a sales lunch to work out a rooming list to make a break in the middle full board to spend leisure time adequate car parking facilities B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points.
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Task 4 Give summaries of the logical parts you have divided the text into. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the subject: The planning stages for a conference

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the following text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Russia, with its vast and varied landscape, has lots to offer to the thrill-seeking tourist. A country as expansive and as culturally and environmentally diverse as Russia provides almost unlimited opportunities for the adventure tourist - that is, for traveller wfoo prefers the exotic and the active. Russia is ripe for those who are interested in hunting and fishing trips, horseback expeditions, Whitewater rafting, skiing and kayaking. Since it is a relatively new market particularly with regard to foreign tourists - the resources and possibilities of adventure travel are just now being tapped. But for those who are interested, and are willing to take a few risks, the possibilities are rich. Many of the more daring foreign tourists are now making their way well beyond Moscow and St. Petersburg, to such locales as the Caucasus, Altai, Karelia and Tien Shan, to name just a few spots. Though perhaps the most popular destination for adventure travellers is Kamchatka, where volcanoes, the Valley of the Geysers and brown bears await. The isolation and high crime rates of many of the more distant regions can make adventure travel as dangerous as it is thrilling. But such incidents usually happen when someone is travelling alone. In well-organized groups, problems seldom occur because the trained guide knows where to go and where not to go. Worthwhile insurance package includes such things. Those who are longing to experience the thrills and chills of adventure tourism, can simply call some local travel agents, who can usually provide a list of adventure travel agencies or log on to the Internet, which has also become a valuable tool for discovering tours and expeditions in Russia. And with extreme sports and adventure vacations growing in popularity around the world, it's difficult to imagine that the allure of Russia's beauty and open spaces will be by-passed.
The Moscow Times, May 5,2001

Vocabulary notes on the text vast and varied landscape the thrill-seeking tourist unlimited opportunities the adventure tourist to log on to the Internet distant regions horseback expedition to be ripe for worthwhile to long to do smth. to experience the thrills and chills of smth. to be a valuable tool whitewater rafting
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. , , . , . - . - . , -

allure kayaking

Task 2 Read the text once again and entitle it.

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Unit 6 Regulation, Research and Development in Tourism


( 6. )
Objectives: To give a definition of regulation in tourism. To learn about various kinds of research in tourism. To talk about perspectives of development in tourism. To discuss the roles of government in tourism.

Vocabulary notes
vital locality to perform research to occur to be involved to be engaged licensing requirement to advertise at the ministerial level semi-official status to promote tourism to relax visa requirement entry formalities travelling outward accommodation catering services entrance requirements to restrict entry ay-to-day regulation tourist facilities jurisdiction to extend to to maintain standards cleanliness financial arrangements embarkation and disembarkation cards to act out of generosity revenue the market potential to fill jobs to generate jobs in the long run
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, , , , , , , ; , , , ,

to postpone to institute a training program to relax regulations catering establishments improvement of the infrastructure

, ,

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. Why does government usually pay lots of attention to devel opment of tourism? 2. In what way can development of tourist industry help to de crease the unemployment rate? 3. What do research and analysis in tourism usually consist of? 4. What is a visa? 5. What are duty-free goods?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: component result actively importance regulation construction basis especially technique bureau prevent licensing second industrialized ministerial status generally periodically

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definition: 1. Day-to-day basis 2. To occur 3. Infrastructure 4. Disembarkation cards 5. Entry visa 6. Catering services 7. Embarkation cards a) arrival cards b) a cards filled out by international passengers when leaving a foreign country c) a travel document that gives permission for a foreigner to enter another country d) services where the public can obtain food and drink e) to happen; to take place f) events taking place during several days coming one after the other g) the facilities that are necessary before development of an area can take place

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: recorded accurate spends estimates
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nose-counting stay

disregards deceiving borders

occupancy coordinate

in terms of twice

1. Travel statistics should be considered as ____ rather than accurate figures. 2. Many tourist countries give their statistics____ arrivals. 3. In Europe, where there are many international_____at short distances from each other, these figures can be_____. 4. A traveller going from the United Kingdom to Spain or Italy by car would probably pass through France_____, once on his way to his destination and again on his return trip. 5. His travel would therefore be_____as two arrivals in French tourist statistics. 6. This system of______has tended to reflect more tourist traffic in the European countries than in fact there really is. 7. A more accurate system is the tourist-day-a-count of the number of days the tourist_____in an area. One method of research in this case is by checking hotel______. 8. But this method______ the many travellers who ____with friends or relatives. 9. More______is a combined arrivel-departure card system, but this requires a large enough clerical staff to check all the cards and_____the information on them. Task 4 Match the words and word-combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) to be vital to tourism 2) to the day-to-day basis 3) to discourage tourism 4) catering services 5) to meet the provisions of 6) to be within one's jurisdiction 7) licensing requirements 8) to maintain standards of cleanliness 9) disembarkation cards 10) social impact a) b) - c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Reading
Task I Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Regulation, Research, and Development in Tourism The roles of government are vital to tourism. First, governments generally set the policy of their country, state, or locality toward tourism. They also regulate the different components of the industry on the day-to-day basis. Second, they perform research and analysis that result in statistics on the tourist industry. Third, they are often involved in the development of tourism in their areas. This is especially true in the developing countries, but it occurs in industrialized areas as well. Fourth, governments are actively engaged in promoting a flow of tourists to their regions with advertising or public relations techniques. In many countries, tourism is so important that its interests are represented at the ministerial level of government. Even in countries where the tourist industry has less economic importance, there is usually a tourist bureau with official or semi-official status. In the United States there is a Travel Bureau in the Department of Commerce. One of the ways in which countries or regions can promote tourism is by relaxing the kind of regulation that usually comes under the heading of 'red tape'. Travel is made easier when
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there are no visa requirements and when the entry formalities are simple. National policy can also discourage tourism. In some cases, this may work to prevent the country's nationals from travelling outward. Any country can discourage incoming tourism simply by not providing accommodation and catering services, setting visa and entrance requirements that severely restrict entry, or by restricting the length of time a traveller can stay in that country. Governments at all levels are also involved in day-to-day regulation of the tourist facilities within their jurisdictions. The regulation generally begins with the construction of facilities when the builders have met the provisions of the local building code. It extends to various kinds of licensing requirements once the business is in operation. Catering establishments must be inspected periodically in most localities to ensure that they maintain standards of cleanliness. One of the principal purposes for the existence of either official or semi-official tourist bureaus is to gather travel statistics. The arrival cards that are a customary feature of international travel are the basis for many of the statistics. Departure cards are also required in several countries in order to get more accurate figures on the length of the tourist's stay. These forms are also known as embarkation and disembarkation cards. Research in tourism involves: checking on tourist expenditures, finding out the purpose of the trip or the tourist's reaction to his vacation, determination of the social impact of tourism on the area. Many countries have become involved in the development of tourism through direct financial investment. In some cases, builders and operators are allowed to run their facilities for as long as ten years without paying taxes. In other cases, taxes can be reduced or payment can be postponed until the operation is returning a profit. Of course, governments are not acting merely out of generosity in giving out such benefits, since their own revenues increase in the long run as a result of the money brought in by tourism. Even where government investment is not direct, there must be an indirect investment in the form of building or improving the infrastructure. The infrastructure consists of those things that are necessary before development can take place roads, sewers, electricity, telephone service, airports, and water supply. Another way in which government encourages tourism is through training programs for service personnel. Many governments institute such programs in order to have people available to fill the jobs generated by tourism. Before a government undertakes tourist development, it usually attempts to determine the market potential - the number or percentage of travellers it can hope to attract. This is followed by studies of the social impact and very often of the environmental impact - what tourism will do to the natural surroundings. The research is followed by the actual planning and development that include improvement of the infrastructure, financial arrangements, and construction of the superstructure. Vocabulary notes on the text flow of tourists to undertake tourism development social impact to relax the kind of regulation discourage tourism on the day-to-day basis sewer red tape environmental impact to act out of generosity local building code . . . . , . . , . . .
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Reading check
Task I Look through the text once again and find the English equivalents for: - -

Task 2 Look through the text once again and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases: to restrict in the long run to undertake tourist development sewer social impact on to encourage tourism to be postponed to institute a program to increase revenues to run one's facilities disembarkation card to get accurate figures to maintain standards licensing requirements to act out of generosity to fill a job water supply standards of cleanliness semi-official tourist bureau catering services entry formalities to be engaged in promotion public relation techniques to relax regulations to be involved in locality at the ministerial level

Task 3 Look the text once again and match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) different day-to-day industrialized public relations ministerial economic tourist semi-official visa a) level b) importance c) tourists d) purpose e) areas f) status g) techniques h) basis i) components

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10)entry 11) incoming 12) catering 13) local building 14) principal 15) market 16) international 17) customary 18) disembarkation 19) tourist 20) environmental 21) natural 22) actual

j) bureau k) requirements 1) formalities m) services n)code o) planning p) surroundings q) impact r) travel s) potential t) feature u) card v) expenditures

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the questions. 1. What are some of the different roles performed by government in tourism? 2. By what kind of offices is government represented? 3. What kind of official and semi-official tourist bureaus are there in Russia? 4. What is one way in which government can adjust regulations to increase tourism? 5. What are the visa and entry regulations in Russia? 6. How can governments discourage incoming tourism? 7. What are some of the day-to-day kinds of regulation of tourist facilities in which governments are involved? 8. What is one of the principal means for gathering travel statistics in international tourism? 9. Are tourist statistics always accurate? 10. What is involved in other kinds of tourist research? 11. What does research about the social impact of tourism try to determine? 12. What do most governments now try to do when developing new resort facilities? 13. What are some of the direct ways in which governments can become involved in developing a tourist industry? 14. What kind of indirect investment is usually necessary before a tourist industry can be developed? 15. What kind of encouragement can a government give to tourism by way of providing personnel? 16. What are the usual steps that are taken by a government interested in the developing of tourism? 17. What is the present tendency in tourism development? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what once are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. Government plays only a minor role in tourism. 2. All tourist statistics are completely reliable. 3. Red tape such as visas and complicated entry formalities make it easy to travel from one country to another. 4. All countries make more money from incoming tourists than their own citizens spend in other countries. 5. Governments never attempt any kind of day-to-day regulation to any part of the tourist industry.
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6. Arrival and departure cards serve as a primary source of tourist statistics. 7. A system of cross-checking arrival and departure cards gives a more accurate count of tourist-days spent in a country. 8. It is very easy to check on a tourist's purchases, but very difficult to find out how much he spends on travel and accommodations. 9. No research is ever done concerning the reasons why people travel or their reactions to their vacations. 10. Recreational travellers consider personal safety a matter of primary importance. 11. The tendency today is against careful planning of resort areas. 12. Many governments have made direct financial investments in the development of tourist facilities. 13. The infrastructure can be quickly developed without any planning or assistance from government. 14. Hotels, golf courses, swimming pools, restaurants, and parking lots are all part of the infrastructure. 15. Governments never participate in programs to train personnel for tourist-connected jobs. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. Governments are actively () in promoting a flow of tourists to their regions with () or public relations techniques. 2. Even in countries where the tourist industry has less ( ), there is usually a tourist bureau with official or ( ). 3. Travel is made easier when there are no ( ) and when the entry formalities are (). 4. Any country can () incoming tourists simply by not providing accommodation and (, ), setting visa and entrance requirement. 5. Governments ( ) are also involved in day-to-day regulation of the tourist facilities within their (). 6. ( ) must be inspected periodically in most localities ( ) that they maintain standards of cleanliness. 7. One of the ( ) for the existence of either official or semi-official tourist bureaus is to gather travel statistics. 8. Research in tourism involves: checking on ( ), finding out the purpose of the trip or the tourist's reaction to his vacation. 9. Many countries have become () in the development of tourism through direct financial investment. 10. In some cases, builders and operators () to run their facilities for as long as ten years ( ). 11. Governments are not acting merely out of () in giving out such benefits, since their own ( ) in the long run as a result of the money brought in tourism. 12. The infrastructure consists of those things that are () before development can take place - roads, ( ), electricity, telephone service, airports, and ( ). 13. Many governments institute such programs in order to ( ) to fill the jobs generated by tourism. 14. The research is followed by the actual planning and development that include ( ), financial arrangements, and () of the superstructure.

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Speaking
Task 1 Define what research in tourism is. Use the following words and wordcombinations: different methods of research to collect data and to gather travel statistics arrival and departure cards, a questionnaire to determine the social impact of tourism on an area to find out the purpose of the trip or the tourist's reactions on his vacation Task 2 Divide the text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You may reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb. to determine the social impact of tourism on an area to become almost a prerequisite to undertake tourist development to have the negative effect on some places the tourist industry in. .. .resorts was unplanned rapid expansion to cause antagonism between tourists and local citizens the gap between the income of the local people and tourists to reinforce this strain by racial and political tensions rudeness to guests and violence against tourist and hotels

B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points. Task 4 Give summaries of the logical parts you have divided the text into. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. Does the Russian government encourage tourism? How is tourism regulated in Russia? Who carries on statistical research on tourism in Russia? Is the participation of the Russian government in tourism adequate?

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. The number of Russians travelling abroad grew 64% last year (2000) to 4.2 million 167,000 more than pre-crisis 1997, government figures show. Coming the other way, the number of people visiting Russia last year grew 15% to 2.2 million, just a few thousand short of the record 1997 total. Including citizens from the Commonwealth of Independent States, as many as 21 million people visited Russia last year, according to recent report by the department of strategic tourism development of the Economic Development and Trade Ministry. However, the figures are not exact because the statistics were compiled from border
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control records, unlike in other countries where a full range of indicators exists. Nevertheless, tourism on both sides is en the rise, according to tourist agencies. Including trips to CIS countries, the ministry said that as many as 18 million Russians traveled abroad last year (2000). Excluding the CIS, the top destination was Poland, where nearly 1 million Russians traveled, followed by China and Turkey. In Western Europe, the most popular destinations were Spain with 111,000 and Italy with 106,000. France hosted 61,000 Russian tourists, while only 25,000 visited Britain. Other popular destinations include Egypt with 114,000, Cyprus with 109,000 and the United Arab Emirates with 89,000. Spain, Turkey and Cyprus are most popular in the summer, while Egypt and the United Arab Emirates are usually visited in the winter. Vacations abroad and at home cost roughly the same and Russian people are choosing the former. The number of incoming tourists rose last year (2000). The largest number of visitors, or 741,000, came from Poland, followed by Finland, with roughly half of that. Rounding out the top 10, in order, were Germany, China, the United States, Italy, Latvia, Britain, Lithuania and France. Business travel to Russia rose by 9% to almost 2 million people.
The Moscow Times, April 20, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text travelling abroad government figures the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) the department of strategic tourism development The Economic Development and Trade Ministry to compile border control records the top destination the former , . () ( )

Task 2 Read the text once again and entitle it. Task 3 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. The summer travel season is fast approaching and the government is tryiag to tighten its grip on travel industry companies, while foreign partners are doing their best to collect on old debts. The Physical Culture, Tourism and Sport Ministry is preparing to create an intergovernmental oversight commission for enforcing tourism legislation. Some of the first companies likely to be affected are travel agencies in debt to Transaero airline: Moscow Tour, more than 900,000 rubles; Eksotour, more than 2 million rubles; and Prestige International Travel Center, 68,500 rubles. The commission may also take up the case of the Zeus Travel, one of the country's leading providers of travel services to Cyprus. The Physical Culture, Tourism and Sport Ministry has refused to renew Zeus' international travel and tourism license. Zeus had continued its operations after expiration of its first license, during the review period for a second license; and the company provided travel
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services outside the parameters of its license. As a result of government's firm decision not to renew Zeus' license, the company may be forced to change its well-known name. Tour agents from Great Britain, Spain and Tunisia have already started to get tough with Russia. The national representatives from Spain and Tunisia have filed official complaints with the Russia government about the country's travel agencies. Tunisia has lodged a complaint against Apeks Travel for not fulfilling its obligations to its partners. A travel agency in Spain's Catalonia has been contemplating an offer to sell off a debt of about 100,000 dollars owed it by a Russian partner. From England, there are threats to compile an international blacklist of companies that have failed to pay for English companies' services. This could cause a number of scandals on the travel market. The names of debtor-companies have been kept confidential until now because their problems had been considered only temporary.
The Moscow Times, February 14, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text to approach to tighten one's grip oversight commission to enforce tourism legislation to be affected to take up a matter to refuse to do smth. expiration of a license to start to get tough with to file (to lodge) official complaint with... against.... to fulfill obligations to to contemplate an offer to do smth. to fail to do smth. to keep smth. confidential to consider problems temporary , , - - - - - - - . - - , ()

Task 4 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. Task 5 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. These aren't easy times for promoting travel to Russia. For a few years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country's increased openness sparked vast interest in tourism around the world. But these days, interest is on the wane, especially as Russia is often portrayed by media abroad as a bandit-ridden Babylon, where no one can ensure the safety and comfort of foreign visitors.
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'We tend to think of CNN as one of our biggest enemies', - said Robert Overend, area director of sales and marketing for Marriott Hotels in Moscow, adding that he would like to see the many positive aspects of Russia mentioned in media reports. Many of the problems of travelling to Russia are well known. Russian travel visas are expensive, and the requirements for obtaining them are cumbersome. And the trouble only begins there. In fact, some travel problems are so acute, many have begun to wonder if foreign travel is even welcomed by the Russian government. According to experts, the situation at a number of airports is getting critical and is putting off many travellers. In March a Belgian family was stopped and searched for no apparent reason at Sheremetyevo Airport's terminal 2. As they were leaving Moscow, the group was separated and some of its members subjected to vaginal and anal cavity searches. Marcus Tabbutt-Ford, project manager for DRUM Resources Ltd. Risk-management company says the number of incidents being reported at Sheremetyevo 2 has increased since 1999. He is aware of several recent occurrences in which a gun was drawn on a passenger in and around the airport. As a result there has been an increase in demand for companies like his to provide security for incoming travellers at the airport and even to deal with the aggressive taxi drivers. Customs officials can be as unwelcoming. For example, though currency restrictions are supposedly being eased, visitors can still be grilled on how much money they enter Russia with, and then how much they are exiting with - as if there was not a single automatic teller machine (ATM) in the country from which you could have acquired extra cash. For many travellers, the fact that these archaic regulations continue to exist is mystifying. Russian visa requirements are stringent for tourists. Some travel agents that arrange visas limit the tourist visa to 14 days, though the Foreign Ministry, which dictates commercial-andtourist-visa policy, puts the limit at one month. Current visa regulations also stipulate that in order to receive a tourist visa, the tourist must have a booked accommodation in a hotel - a serious obstacle for the more casual and spontaneous traveller or backpacker. Foreign tourists who follow the visa regulations don't usually experience any problems, while those who try to buck the system can run into trouble. Often, tourists book reservations in a hotel to get a tourist visa, but then never actually check into the hotel once they arrive. Problems later develop when officials discover the visa was never registered properly.
The Moscow Times, August 8, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text these aren't easy times to spark vast interest to be on the wane to be cumbersome to acquire extra cash to grill on automatic teller machine (ATM) to buck the system . , , . -

, Task 6 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. text.

Task 7 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the In December of the year 2000 almost all European Union countries agreed to grant Bulgarians the right to travel visa-free for tourism and business, setting aside fears that they
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might overstay to work illegally or seek social benefits. The new rules are expected to take effect this spring. The West won the Cold War in part with a slogan of 'freedom of movement', but then imposed 'another curtain - on the other side', by requiring visas and, in many cases, not easily granting them. The travel issue was particularly galling for Bulgarians because the visa requirement was seen both as an insult and a barrier to the growth of private business, blocking entrepreneurs from making timely visits to customers and partners in EU countries. The new privilege applies to travel from Bulgaria to the 13 of the 15 EU member states all but Britain and Ireland - that have joined the Schengen accord, which ended passport checks on common borders. The recent action by a council of EU interior ministers was seen as a reward to Bulgaria's nearly 4-year-old center-right government for its willingness to meet specific requirements such as the introduction of hard-to-forge passports and tighter border controls. Some people also saw it as recognition of the country's painful efforts to push forward market-oriented economic reforms, its success in building a solidly democratic political system and its support for NATO's air campaign last year against Yugoslavia.
The Moscow Times, January 20, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text willingness to travel vise-free to set aside fears to overstay to be galling for an insult the Schengen accord . , ,

Task 8 Read the text once again and entitle it. Task 9 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. The Kommersant and Izvestia dailies reported on the 12th of April that the German consulate had tightened its tourist visa policy and had rejected 90% of tourist visa applications that day. Germany is one of the most popular travel destinations for Russians in Western Europe. Tobias Bergner, spokesman of the Germany Embassy, said that he was unaware of any change in the consulate's policy. He said that the consulate had been perhaps easier on some 'privileged' agencies, and now the rules were just being enforced. Privileged agencies were entitled to obtain tourist visas without the clients having to appear at the consulate. About 60 firms, including Altus and Chaika Tur, are among the firms with 'privileged' status. Bergner said Russians wanting visas for purposes other than tourism are required to appear at the consulate in person. General director of the Chaika Tur, an agency that specializes in German tourism, says that 75% of his clients are individual travellers, while the consulate is accepting tourist visa applications only for people on group tours.
The Moscow Times, April 15, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text

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to tighten tourist visa policy visa application to reject German Embassy to be unaware of to enforce rules Task 10 Read the text once again and entitle it.

. . , .

Task 11 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Russians who obtain visas to Scandinavian countries and Finland are now able to use the permits to travel throughout the rest of the European Union. Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Finland on April 14 2001 joined the Schengen 1985 accord, which gives travellers from non-EU nations the right to move freely between most European countries. The move simplified travel for Russians by allowing them to visit all EU countries except Britain and Ireland with a single visa. For the law-abiding citizens it is a clear benefit. Travellers should apply for a visa to the consulate of the country that they really plan to visit instead of option for a country with less complicated visa requirements. It is recommended not to conceal the real country of destination. To get a finish visa an applicant still needs to submit a foreign passport, an invitation and medical insurance. The Danish Embassy, in contrast, does not require the insurance. The prices remained about the same - between $20 to $30, depending on the country. But some Russians are unconvinced that the northern nations' inclusion in the Schengen accord will do anything more than make the process of obtaining visas more complicated. Travellers who already have visas to these countries are still able to travel with them, but only to the country that issued the visa. Finland was the most popular destinatio'n among the northern nations, with 316,000 visas being issued to Russians last year, according to the Finnish Embassy. Sweden and Norway processed about 50,000 visas each, while Denmark handed out 15,000 and Iceland 1,200.
The Moscow Times, April 16, 2001

Vocabulary notes on the text to obtain a visa to Norway the rest of the European union to simplify travel law-abiding to apply for a visa to the consulate instead of option for complicated visa requirements to conceal to remain about the same . Task 12 Read the text once again and entitle it. . , , to be unconvinced to issue (to process) the visa

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Unit 7 Tourist Promotion


( 7. )
Objectives: To give a definition of tourist promotion. To learn about various kinds of promotion. To talk about special skills desirable to carry out promotion.

Vocabulary notes
tourist promotion residents of urban centers to be prosperous income of disposable income fringe benefits paid vacations seasonal bias vacation season to go off to a resort resort in the mountains or at the seashore to promote heavily to leave Paris in august for the south of France to endure a cold ski facilities amenities familiarization tour to purchase throwaways disgruntled tourists to spread around winter sports enthusiasts publicity , , , , , () , , , , , ,

Warming up
Task 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following points. 1. What does promotion include?
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2. What is the purpose of tourist promotion? 3. What are the media? 4. What is the difference between print media and broadcast media?

Vocabulary focus
Task 1 Read and translate the following international words: established industrialized enthusiasts conglomerations manipulate resident to attract media special-interest concentrate urban centers seasonal term differentiate stewardess

Task 2 Match the words or word-combinations with their definitions. 1. Promotion 2. Destination advertising 3. Fringe benefits 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Throwaway Media Brochure Credit card Familiarization a) a one-page advertising that can be widely distributed by mail or by hand b) a pamphlet usually put out for promotional purposes ) a form of promotion that involves mailing brochures or throwaways to a selected list of people d) making something familiar or known e) the paid vacation f) advertising that stresses a resort area or some other tourist destination g) the means of spreading information h) paid advertising and public relations efforts that in case of tourism encourage recreational travel i) a card issued by a bank to a person with a good credit rating

9. Direct mailing

Task 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: plenty transfer return cruise gold gentle opportunity hunt breathtaking famous temples chance magnificent stay pool

1. The 'Egyptian Adventure' offers you the chance to see the most_______treasures of ancient Egypt and include a luxurious four-day_____on the world's most romantic river. 2. You fly to Cairo on an Egypt Air Airbus 300, and____in the magnificent Cairo Sheraton Hotel. 3. You will have the_____to visit the Egyptian Museum and see the____from Tutankhamun's Tomb. 4. There will also be an _____ to visit the pyramids and the Sphinx. 5. Shoppers can____for souvenirs in the bazaar. 6. Then you fly to Aswan, where you begin the______four-day cruise down the Nile to Luxor. 7. On the way you will visit the_____at Kom Ombo, Edfu, and Esna. 8. When you arrive at Luxor, you____to the Luxor Sheraton Hotel. Visit the_____ Valley of the Kings and the_____Tempie of Karnak. 9. There will be_____of free time to relax by the_____ or go shopping in the city.
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10. After two days, you_____ to London via Cairo. Task 4 Match the words and word-combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1) to retain 2) for tourism to grow 3) disposable incomes 4) fringe benefits 5) a resort in the mountains 6) a resort at the seashore 7) an attractive resort 8) hotel chain 9) publicity 10)facilities and amenities 11) means of spreading information 12) to reach the largest market 13) to differentiate between 14) a major topic of conversation 15) to be a powerful force 16) to keep smb. honest a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) , - 1) m) n) o) p)

Reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Parti I There are three aims of most tourist promotion. The first is to retain the established market of people for whom travel is a normal form of recreation. Generally they are likely to be between thirty and fifty years of age, well educated, residents of urban centers, and prosperous, with income of $25,000 a year or more. The second purpose of tourist promotion is to increase the size of the market. In order for tourism to grow, it is necessary to attract people who would not have traveled much until the last few years. These include not only office workers, but also industrial workers with much larger disposable incomes than ever before. It is significant for tourism that labor unions, having achieved high wage levels for workers in the industrialized countries, now fight for fringe benefits such as longer paid vacations and shorter workweeks. The third goal of tourist promotion has been to overcome what might best be called its seasonal bias. In many countries, summer was the traditional vacation season. In the United States, for example, people went off to a resort in the mountains or at the seashore during the hot months. In France, the summer vacation has extended even to the shutting down of many stores and small businesses. Hundreds of thousands of Frenchmen leave Paris in August for the south of France or for destinations outside the country. Winter vacations have been heavily promoted to spread tourism more evenly throughout the year. There has been a big increase in facilities for winter sports. The biggest attraction of all, especially to people who must endure a cold and gloomy northern winter, is a vacation in sun. Some areas have been able to combine both attractions. The winter sunshine of Marrakech in Morocco, for example, has long made it an attractive resort, and now ski facilities have been developed in the nearby Atlas Mountains for winter sports enthusiasts. Many different organizations are involved in tourist promotion. They include official and semi-official tourist bureaus, the transportation companies, tour operators, retail travel agents, and individual hotels or hotel chains. Through their tourist offices, governments do a great deal
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of travel promotion, both in the form of advertising and publicity. There are two major kinds of promotion - publicity and advertising. Publicity might well be termed free advertising. It consists of stories placed in newspapers and magazines about travel, accommodation, restaurants, and other parts of the whole tourist industry. Many newspapers and magazines carry such stories regularly as features. Indeed, professional travel writers journey from resort area to resort area to report on the facilities and amenities that are available. Another kind of tourist-connected public relations comes under the heading of familiarization. People in the industry, especially those involved in sales - notably travel agents are frequently provided with free trips to tourist destinations. At best, they may be so impressed by what they see that they will push that area or resort. And at least, they will be able to answer questions from their own experience. Familiarization trips are often extended to other people in the tourist industry, especially tour operators and employees of the transportation companies and government bureaus. Tourist advertising is a large business in itself. Most of the advertising is directed toward the large tourist-generating regions - the United States and Canada, Western Europe and Japan. Within those regions, advertising is concentrated in particular areas. In Canada and the United States, the cities of the northeast and of the Pacific coast produce more travellers than other areas, so they receive a great deal more advertising. In Japan and Europe travel and tour advertising is concentrated in urban conglomerations like Tokyo, Osaka, London and Paris. Part II Media is a term that is used for the different means of spreading information in the form of news and advertising. Newspapers and magazines - the print media - and radio and television the broadcast media - are usually included in the term. Once the market area has been pinpointed, the advertiser tries to select the particular medium that will reach those people who are likely to purchase the services that he is promoting. Television reaches the largest market, one that generally cuts across different social and income groups. TV time is also very expensive, so it is used principally by transportation companies and government tourist agencies for institutional advertising, keeping the name of the company or the region in the public view without giving many specific details about services. Radio serves a more limited audience. Radio, however, is unique in that it can reach people driving their automobiles. Of the print media newspapers reach the broadest group of people. Many papers in big tourist markets - the Moscow Times, for instance - have a weekly travel section. In addition to feature stories, the travel section carries many ads for particular tours and particular resorts. A person who has been intrigued by a general destination because of the colorful pictures on TV or travel posters could then find in the newspaper specific details about accommodation, tours, and prices. Most magazines nowadays are direpted to special interest groups. Some institutional advertising appears in magazines, but for the most part they carry advertising directed to the groups who read the magazines. Another form of advertising is the brochure. It can be an elaborate pamphlet on glossy paper with beautiful color photographs, or a simple throwaway with a page of details for a tour. Tour operators distribute brochures and throwaways in large numbers to travel agents in the market area they are trying to reach. A great deal of tourist advertising, especially of the institutional variety, stresses the destination, and in fact this is known as destination advertising. It is now generally accepted that the public does not really differentiate between one airline and another, no matter how pretty the stewardesses, how elaborate the meal service, or how brightly painted the aircraft. What the public is buying is essentially a destination, and that is what most of the airlines are emphasizing in their current campaigns. Perhaps the most effective kind of tourist promotion is the one that cannot be
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manipulated by the industry. This is word of mouth, what one person says to another about his vacation. And this is indeed a major topic of conversation among people who travel. Like news stories, the results of word of mouth can be good or bad. A recommendation of a resort or hotel by one family to another can significantly influence the choice people are likely to make. On the other hand, a bad report spread around by disgruntled tourists may sharply cut tourism. Word of mouth guarantees that the tourist industry will provide more or less what it promises. One might say that it is a powerful force in keeping the industry honest. Vocabulary notes on the text destinations outside the country to spread tourism to carry ads bad report vacation in sun to answer questions from one's own experience elaborate pamphlet word of mouth to be a powerful force to keep smb. honest . . . . . . . -

Task 2 Read the both parts of the text once again and entitle them.

Reading check
Task 1 Look through the text once again and find the English equivalents for: ()

Task 2 Look through the text once again and give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
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a normal form of recreation disposable incomes fringe benefits to spread tourism publicity and advertising facilities and amenities to push an area or a resort familiarization trip tourist-generating region

to purchase services to reach people an elaborate pamphlet a simple throwaway significantly influence disgruntled tourists a powerful force to keep the industry honest

Task 3 Look through the text and match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left. 1) powerful 2) disgruntled 3) destination 4) travel 5) feature 6) particular 7) simple 8) tourist-connected 9) seasonal 10) familiarization 11) tourist-generating 12) government tourist 13) the broadcast 14) different income 15) specific 16) limited a) advertising b) posters c) story d) resort e) throwaways f) tourist g) force h) details i) audience j) media k) groups 1) public relations m) regions n) bias o) trip p) agencies

Comprehension
Task 1 Answer the questions. 1. What has the first aim of most tourist promotion been in the last few years? 2. What is the second purpose of tourist promotion? 3. In what way is the effort by unions to obtain more fringe benefits for workers significant to the tourist industry? 4. What is the third aim of recent tourist promotion? 5. What has been done to spread tourism more evenly during the year? 6. What kinds of organizations are involved in tourist promotion? 7. What is publicity considered to be? 8. What are some types of publicity in tourist promotion? 9. How do professional travel writers provide publicity for tourism? 10. What are another kinds of tourist-connected public relations? 11. Where is most tourist advertising directed to? 12. What kind of market does television reach? 13. What kind of advertising is television used for? 14. Why does radio serve a more limited audience? 15. What kind of promotion and advertising are carried by the newspapers? 16. To what kind of market is most magazine advertising for tourism directed? 17. What kinds of brochures are used in travel advertising?
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18. How are brochures and throwaways distributed? 19. Why does much of the advertising of transportation companies f stress destination now? 20. What effective form of tourist promotion cannot be controlled by the industry? 21. What does word of mouth guarantee concerning the tourist industry? Task 2 Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones. 1. Very little advertising is carried on by the tourist industry. 2. The only group within the tourist industry that carried on promotion is made up of the transportation companies. 3. Fringe benefits such as paid vacations and longer weekends are an important factor in the growth of tourism. 4. Tourist promotion has only tried to retain the existing market of well-to-do, middleaged people who travel anyway. 5. There has been a great deal of efforts by the tourist industry to spread recreational travel more evenly throughout the year. 6. Magazines and newspapers never carry stories or articles about tourism or travel. 7. Travel agents, airline employees, and other tourist industry personnel often receive free trips to resort areas so that they can get to know different tourist places. 8. Tourist promotion is equally spread throughout the world since all places generate a large volume of tourist traffic. 9. Tourist statistics are never used to find out where travellers come from. 10. The different information media reach different groups of people. 11. Television time is cheap; thus, it is frequently used to advertise the details of specific tours. 12. Magazines are used to reach special interest groups with both institutional advertising and information about particular tours. 13. Brochures about tours are frequently mailed to people who are credit card holders. 14. All current airline advertising emphasizes in-flight services since it had been determined that this is what makes people want to fly. 15. Word of mouth has no influence on decisions that other people make about where to go on their vacations. 16. Word of mouth is helpful to the tourist because it helps to make the industry live up to its own advertising claims. Task 3 Insert the corresponding English words and word-combinations for the Russian components in brackets. 1. The first aim of most ( ) is to retain the established market of people for whom travel is a normal ( ). 2. The second purpose of tourist promotion is to ( ) of the market. 3. In order for tourism to grow, it is ( ) people who would not have traveled much until the last few years. 4. It is significant for tourism that labor unions, having achieved ( ) for workers in the industrialized countries, now fight for ( ) such as longer paid vacations and shorter workweeks. 5. The third goal of tourist promotion has been to ( , ) might best be called its seasonal bias. 6. Hundreds of thousands of Frenchmen ( ) Paris in August for the south of France or for destinations outside the country. 7. Winter vacations have been heavily promoted to () tourism (
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). 8. The biggest attraction of all, especially to people who must endure a cold and gloomy northern winter, is ( ). 9. Through their tourist offices, governments do ( ) of travel promotion, both in the form of advertising and publicity. 10. Publicity consists of stories placed in newspapers and magazines about travel, (, ), and other parts of this industry. 11. People in the industry, especially those ( ) - notably travel agents - are frequently provided with free trips to tourist destinations. 12. Professonal travel writers ( ) to report on the facilities and amenities that are available. 13. ( ) are often extended to other people in the tourist industry, especially tour operators and employees of the transportation companies and government bureaus. 14. In Canada and the United States, the cities of the Northeast and of the ( ) produce more travellers than other areas. 15. () is a term that is used for the different means of spreading information in the form of news and (). 16. Once the market area has been pinpointed, the advertiser tries to select the ( ) that will reach those people who are likely to () the services that he is promoting. 17. A person ( ) by a general destination because of the colourful pictures on TV or travel posters could then find in the newspaper specific details about ( ), tours, and prices. 18. A brochure can be an elaborate pamphlet on glossy paper with beautiful colour photographs, or ( ) with a page of details for a tour. 19. Like news stories, the results of ( ) can be good or bad. 20. Word of mouth guarantees that the tourist industry will ( , ) it promises.

Speaking
Task 1 Define what tourist promotion is. Use the following words and wordcombinations: to retain the established market to increase the size of the market to overcome the seasonal bias in tourism to attract not only office workers, but also industrial workers much lprger disposable incomes to fight for fringe benefits longer paid vacations and shorter workweeks Task 2 Divide the text into logical parts and entitle each of them. Task 3 Work in pairs. A. Look at the following words and phrases and think up a story that might combine them all. You may reorder them in any way you want using any form of the verb. to be involved in tourist promotion official and semi-official tourist bureau to be able to combine both attraction to produce more travellers than other areas
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a recommendation of a re sort or hotel a major topic of conversation among people who travel B. When you have decided upon the story, tell it to your partner. Then listen to that of your partner. Ask each other as many questions as you can to learn further details or clarify some points. Task 4 Give summaries of the logical parts you have divided the text into. Task 5 Speak individually or arrange a discussion on the following. The reasons for which people might want to visit Russia. The tourist facilities that are available in Nizhny Novgorod. The means of transportation to reach Nizhny Novgorod. The markets that generate tourism to Nizhny Novgorod.

a big increase in facilities for winter sport to endure a cold and gloomy winter

Additional reading
Task 1 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Art, architecture and culture join with virgin wilderness and sun-splashed beaches, making Russia truly an adventurous traveller's wonderland. From the volcanoes and geysers of Kamchatka, through the Siberian taiga to the mineral spas around the Black Sea coast, it can not be said Russia has nothing to offer the average tourist. The World Tourism Organization considers Russia a country with great potential for tourism development. But figures cited by tourism experts showed that 70 percent to 80 percent of the 3.5 million foreign tourists that came to the country last year rarely ventured father than Moscow, St. Petersburg and perhaps the Golden Ring. Most foreigners don't know what they are missing. They don't realize they could be taking a cruise along the waters of the Volga, bathing in hot springs surrounded by volcanoes in Kamchatka or taking a boat over the crystal-clear waters of Lake Baikal. But this goes for quite a few Russians too. For 70 years, access to a large part of the country was restricted for many Russians; and then with the collapse of the Soviet Union, many of these local tourists headed off abroad. An alternative Seven Wonders of the World could easily be unearthed on Russia's territory, if only tourists and governments were willing to dig them out. Most agree it is difficult to tie Russia down to only seven wonders - yet the country still has to catch on as important destination internationally.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text virgin wilderness sun-splashed beaches wonderland mineral spas the average tourist to venture to miss to realize
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hot springs to be restricted the collapse of the Soviet Union local tourists to head off abroad

to unearth to dig out to catch on , ,

, , ,

Task 2 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. Task 3 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Russia is probably best known for its well-traipsed route of St. Petersburg and Moscow the introduction points for the average tourist and about as far as many are likely to venture. Considered the heart of Russia, Moscow is described by travel operators as a place where ancient Russia meets the Soviet Union and capitalism - illustrated by the golden onion domes of the Kremlin's Orthodox churches, which look out past Lenin's mausoleum and over the massive GUM shopping complex. St. Petersburg, on the other hand, is considered to be a more European capital. The creation of Peter the Great, it is the best known for its 18th- and 19th-century palaces; the Peter and Paul fortress, a former prison; the Hermitage Museum; and the Nights. Often favored over Moscow by tourists, St. Petersburg is one of the few cities that has allocated money from its budget to support the development of tourism. The Golden Ring is a group of towns and cities - including Suzdal, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others - which once played an important political, spiritual and cultural role in ancient Russia. They offer a host of restored and abandoned churches, monasteries and fortresses, rich museums and preserved wooden villages. Whereas in the mid-1980s, the circuit would draw 2 million to 3 million foreign tourists a year, by 1999 this figure had dropped to around 200,000. Now Russian tourist companies are promoting their cruises and tours more to Russian tourists in a bid to attract them to the region, and are offering different itineraries such as tours focusing on the ring's artisan heritage.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text well-traipsed route average to venture Ancient Russia the golden onion domes preserved wooden villages to drop to abandoned churches to play a spiritual and cultural role
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in a bid artisan heritage . . - .

Task 4 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. Task 5 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Set on the Black Sea coast against the backdrop of the snowcapped Caucasus Mountains, the beach resort town Sochi was for a long time the place to spend a vacation, with its subtropical climate, warm seas, arboretum and gardens. The breakup of the Soviet Union saw many Russians jetting off abroad, and Sochi's yearly tourist intake fell. Last year, however, as a result of the 1998 financial meltdown, Russians had less cash for trips abroad and many returned to resorts that they knew well, resulting in a good tourist season for Sochi. Most tourists visit Sochi to relax on the beaches, swim in the sea and partake of its favorable climate; but its mineral spas and sanatoriums make it an ideal health resort. Its healing waters attract people seeking to cure rheumatism and recover from illnesses. The city would benefit greatly by improving its infrastructure base, and could draw tourists to the area year round by developing better ski-resort facilities at nearby Krasnaya Polyana, a 600-meter-high settlement set in the mountains and alpine glades. Anapa, also on Russia's Black Sea coast, has the reputation of being the best curative spa town for children. The town has great potential, but it still lacks direct flights to places in Europe and America.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text against the backdrop beach resort town arboretum the breakup of the Soviet Union to jet off abroad tourist intake financial meltdown to partake mineral spas ideal health resort direct flights

to cure rheumatism recover from illness ski-resort facilities alpine glades Black Sea coast the best curative spa town for children Task 6 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. text.

Task 7 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the For those seeking natural height, Russia's best attractions may be the Altai and Caucasus Mountains. Untouched, unharmed and largely undiscovered by Western tourists, the so-called golden mountains of Russia's Altai republic are noted for being among the most beautiful and primordial parts of Siberia. The Altai mountain chain is set in a rich and diverse landscape of steppe, taiga and semi111

desert, and stretches about 2,000 kilometers from Mongolia's Gobi Desert to the West Siberian Plain, through Chinese, Mongolia, Russian and Kazakh territory. Altai is known for its primordial scenery, the exceptionally clear water of Lake Teletskoye, mysterious rock drawings, tombs beneath mounds and ancient archaeological treasures. In 1999, the Altai republic received about 200,000 tourists, but the flow of visitors was unorganized and could pose an environmental danger to the area. Altai has great opportunities to develop ecological and cultural tourism, and it has resorts for tourists, but these are 5 hours away from the international airport at Barnaul and are not connected to one another. Access to some areas is difficult and sometimes only possible by helicopter, horseback or on foot. Areas of the Caucasus mountains, which rise dramatically above the Black Sea coast and run down to the Caspian Sea, are known for their plant diversity, subalpine pastures grazed by wild animals and lack of human disturbance. Here, one can go skiing, scale Europe's highest peak - the 5,642-meter Mount Elbrus - and relax at the spas of Mineralniye Vody. Home to a range of cultures, peoples and languages, the Caucasus also stretch into the more troubled regions of Dagestan and Chechnya, so travel is unsafe in some areas.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text to seek natural high untouched and unharmed primordial semi-desert to stretch mysterious rock drawings tombs beneath mounds ancient archaeological treasures to pose an environmental danger access by horseback or on foot plant diversity subalpine pastures lack of human disturbance to scale Europe's highest peak , . -

Task 8 Read the previous text once again and entitle it. Task 9 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Getting out of airplane at Kamchatka, one is surrounded on three sides by volcanoes in a land of the most amazing virgin nature. Kamchatka, a more than 1,000-kilometer-long peninsula dividing the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean, is said to be one of the least explored regions on Earth. The most amazing attraction is the Valley of the Geysers in Kronotsky National Park, which was only discovered in 1940s. Its 180 or more volcanoes, thermal activity, hot springs, heated rivers and geysers should be enough to attract any tourist in their right mind. Inhabited by
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less than one person per square kilometer, the peninsula boasts at least 14,000 rivers, 10,000 lakes, thousands of brown bears and sables, and hundreds of bird and plant species indigenous to the area. Once closed to foreigners, the region last year attracted 4,000 visitors. Many people flew over from America and Japan for the chance to hunt and fish, but this type of tourism could pose a threat to the natural environment. Kamchatka's nature is a beautiful wilderness, but there are no roads and the only means of transport is helicopter. But now all helicopters are in the hands of one company, so the prices are non-competitive.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text to be surrounded amazing virgin nature peninsula attraction the Valley of the Geysers hot springs to boast sable plant species indigenous to the area for the chance to to pose a threat to environment wilderness helicopter Task 10 Read the text once again and entitle it. Task 11 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Among the best waters to ply are the crystal-clear depths of the pearl of Siberia - Lake Baikal - one of the genuine Seven Natural Wonders of the World. An impressive spectacle near the border of Russia and Mongolia, Lake Baikal is 636 kilometers long and 80 kilometers wide - and is the world's deepest lake. Surrounded by forests and mountains peaks, the waters are transparent to a depth of 40 meters in the summer, and freeze over so thick in the winter that the ice can reach over a meter thick. The lake has more than 2,000 recorded plant and animal species - bears, elk, lynx, sables, freshwater seal, trout, salmon and sturgeon. 336 rivers feed Lake Baikal, with only one river feeding out. However, its ecological system is threatened by over fishing and pollution from the Selenga River and the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill. The nearby city of Irkutsk, an old merchant town on the tea-trading road between Russia and China, provides easy access to Lake Baikal. But the Eastern Shore of Baikal in Buryatia is less explored, and contains some amazing flora and fauna, national parks and a most picturesque landscape. Last year the region received 35,000 tourists, of whom 24,000 were Russian tourists and 11,000 were foreign, mainly from Asian countries such as Japan and China. However, it has a less-developed infrastructure, with fewer roads, restaurants and places to stay, and no international airport. The best way to arrive is perhaps by the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

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Vocabulary notes on the text to ply waters pearl the genuine seven natural wonders of the World to be surrounded transparent plant and animal species elk lynx freshwater seal trout salmon and sturgeon to be threatened over fishing pulp and paper mill merchant town to provide easy access the eastern shore to be explored places to stay , . -

Task 12 Read the text once again and entitle it. Task 13 Read the text and translate it. For help see the vocabulary notes that follow the text. Siberia tends to conjure up images of frozen wastelands and political prisoners exiled to labor camps, but the region has many natural, historical and cultural wonders waiting to be explored. One of the most famous ways to explore Siberia's vast expanse is the mystical TransSiberian Railroad. The Trans-Siberian Railroad is now the longest continuous rail line on Earth. Lake Baikal, Ulan Ude in Buryatia and Vladivostok, Russian Far East, are all along the journey. The mammoth trip over seven days and across eight time zones can transport a traveller from Moscow to Irkutsk and then Vladivostok. Other popular options are the Trans-Manchurian and Trans-Mongolian lines, which take travellers to Ulan Bator and Beijing.
The Moscow Times, May 5, 2000

Vocabulary notes on the text to conjure up image wastelands to exile to labor camps vast expanse continuous rail line journey the mammoth trip other popular options
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English-English vocabulary of tourist terms


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A la carte type of menu where each dish is individually priced Abroad in a foreign country; overseas Accelerated made quicker Accommodations places at which travellers can obtain a bed (and usually food) while on a trip (hotels, motels, inns, camping grounds, and so forth) Accompaniments equipment on a dining table such as salt, pepper, etc. Accompany travel with Accurate correct Activity holidays holidays offering special activities such as walking or cycling Additional extra Adjoining next to each other Advance reservations reservations made by guests before they arrive Advertisement notice of object or service for sale Advertising agency company which prepares advertisements Air-conditioning system system controlling air quality and temperature Allocation of accommodation deciding in which room each guest will stay Alteration change Amenities places to go to and things to do American Plan full board Amount quantity Amusement park an area that offers different kinds of amusements or entertainments, such as thrill rides, magic shows, and so forth. Apart from except Aperitif alcoholic drink taken before a meal Appeal attraction Appointed chosen Appointment time arranged for a meeting Appropriate suitable Architecture buildings and styles of making them Area code telephone number for a part of the country Arrival and departure cards/ embarkation and disembarkation cards cards filled out by international passengers, usually for statistical purposes Atmosphere feeling; ambience Attend to deal with Audio visual presentation presentation making use of sight and sound, e.g. with tape recordings and films Automatically without special instructions; by itself Available ready for use Banquet large, formal dinner Based located Based on calculated on Basic charges charges that do not include any extra services or orders Bed plan plan used by a tour operator, which describes the flight arrangements and hotel arrangements for tour groups Beverage drink Biannually twice a year
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Bill record of what the customer must pay Block booking booking of a number of beds at one time Booking reservation Book-keeper person who records money paid and received Boutiques small shops Branch local office of a company Brochure a pamphlet usually put out for promotional purposes. Brochures small book or booklet giving information Budget financial plan CAB the Civil Aeronautics Board of the US Department of Transportation. It regulates such matters as routes and fares within the United States. Calculate compute; work out Cancellation message from a person with a booking saying he isn't coming Capacity number that can be accommodated Car ferry a ship that carries automobiles and passengers across relatively small bodies of water like the English Channel Car rental agency / car hire a service for renting automobiles for short periods of time Carafe open glass container for wine, water, etc. Caravan / van a type of automobile with sleeping space. In camping, the traveller carries a tent or other equipment with him Caravanning / camping travelling with one's own facilities for shelter and often for eating Carrier transport company, e.g. airline, ferry company Carving cutting meat, etc. Casino a place for gambling Category type class Catering services / the restaurant and bar business services where the public can obtain food and drink Charged to ...account put on ... bill Charter plane an aircraft that has been rented to fly when and where the service is desired Chartering renting an aircraft, usually from a nonscheduled airline Chat informal talk Check against compare with Checking in registering Chef cook who works in a large kitchen Chilled made cold Chips / French fries / pommes frites deep-fried fingers of potato (GB / US / Fr) CIT charter inclusive tour. This is a packaged tour that uses chartered aircraft for transportation Clarification extra information to make something clear Classification way of dividing Clerk office worker Coach comfortable bus, often used over long distances Coast the part of the land where it joins the sea Cocktail bar bar for drinks before dinner Commemorate is in memory of Comments things to say Commission a percentage of the price of a sale that is paid to the seller Common usual Complimentary free Compulsory necessary; obligatory
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Computer terminals electronic senders and receivers of information to and from a computer Condominium a building or group of buildings in which an individual can buy a unit. The public spaces are owned jointly by all the purchasers of the individual units Confirm agree to a booking Conglomerate a corporation that engages in many different kinds of business, often on an international scale Consecutive one after the other Consist of is composed of; is made of Consultant a person who offers his experience and knowledge in a particular field to individual customers on a fee basis Contact communication Continental breakfast light breakfast Continental Plan bed and breakfast Contract formal agreement, usually written Control direction; supervision Convenient in a useful position Convention a meeting at which people usually within the same field or business exchange their ideas, experiences, specialized knowledge, and so on Cork stopper in top of wine bottle, etc. Corked (of wine) having an unpleasant taste because of a poor cork Correspondence letters Cottage small house in the country Courier tour leader Courses different parts of a meal Couscous a North African dish consisting of meat and vegetables in a spicy sauce, served with semolina Cover the equipment on a dining table laid for each customer Create make Credit card a card issued by a company or a bank to a person with a good credit rating Cruise a pleasure voyage by ship Cuisine cooking Currency money Current in use at the moment Customer person using a hotel Customs government department which checks imports and exports Cutlery knives, forks, spoons, etc. Cut off unable to continue the call because of a broken connection Deals with works with; handles Delays unscheduled periods of waiting Delegates people attending a conference Demand amount people wish to buy Deposit money required to confirm a booking Deposited given for safe keeping Deserted empty; without people Dessert final course in a meal where something sweet is served Destination place to which a person is going Destination advertising advertising that stresses a resort area or some other tourist destination Development growth and advancement; v develop Diabetic a person with the disease diabetes which makes it necessary to limit the amount of sugar eaten
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Diary daily record Diets restricted eating programmers Direct mailing a form of promotion that involves mailing brochures or throwaways to a selected list of people Discotheque dance club with modern music Discount amount deducted from the price for reasons such as quick payment or cash payment Discovered found Discretion freedom to decide Disposable income income that can be spent for purposes other than such necessities as food, shelter, and taxes Documentation documents, pieces of written information Drawn up prepared Drugs medicines Duty-free goods merchandise on which there is no customs tax on foreign merchandise Duty manager manager made responsible for day to day operations Economy saving money Emergency problem which requires immediate attention Enclosing putting with the letter; n enclosure Entertainment amusement, show or performance; v entertain Entertainment activities that amuse people, including going to theaters, nightclubs, art exhibitions, and so on Entree course before the main course Escorted tours tours accompanied by a courier Essential necessary Establishments places of business European Plan only bed Events happenings Exchange rate amount of one currency that can be obtained for an amount of another Excluding the opposite of 'including' Excursion normally, a trip away from a person's usual place of residence for less than twenty-four hours Excursionist a person who takes an excursion Excursions local tours Exhibitions public displays of, for example, products and pictures Expansion increase in size; growth; v expand Expenditure money spent Exported sold abroad Extend make longer Extension internal telephone number Extensive wide External calls calls to numbers outside the hotel Facilitate make easier Facilities equipment Factors facts of particular importance Familiarization making something familiar or known Familiarization tours tours accompanied by a courier Familiarization trips (FAMs) trips for people in the tourist industry to get to know and inspect an area and the services available Family-oriented directed towards families Family plan getting reduced fares by members of a family travelling with the head of the
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family Fares prices of travel tickets Favourable advantageous Fault failure; breakdown Fee charge Fifty-three seater coach with fifty-three seats Fill in complete Filleting removing the bones from fish, meat, etc. Financial concerning money; the n and v finance Fire notice instructions on what to do if there is a fire Fix repair; put right; put in order Fix a price decide on a price Flats large serving plates Flight airline journey Flight inclusive tours tours which include cost of flight, transfers, accommodation, etc. Floor show performance in a club or restaurant Foresee expect; anticipate Fortnight two weeks Franchise a business operated according to guidelines and standards set down by whomever sells or leases the franchise Free-lancers people who work for themselves Free port a port where people can buy some types of merchandise without paying customs duties on their purchases Fringe benefits benefits other than pay Front-desk employees hotel personnel who work at the registration, information, and cashier's desks Fuel petrol, oil etc. Full board accommodation and all meals Function room room used for meetings, lectures, dinners, etc. Gala special; festive Garments pieces of clothing Generating producing Get back to you contact you again Gourmet a lover of good food; also used as an adjective, as in the phrase gourmet meal Grade level Ground arrangements arrangements made at the destination such as booking hotels, hiring cars Guarantee be sure of; n guarantee Guests people staying at a hotel Guest house / tourist home small establishments that accommodate travellers. They usually have relatively few rooms Guide a book or person giving information about a place Guided tour a tour, often for sightseeing purposes, that is accompanied by a guide Handicraft the art or skill of making articles by hand, often pottery or fabrics Handled dealt with Harbour port Headache pain in the head Heart attack sudden illness of the heart Help yourselves take what you want Herbs plants whose leaves are used in cooking High season the period of heavy travel and higher fares
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Hold the line wait Holidaymakers people who are on holiday Hors d'oeuvres small dishes served at the beginning of a meal Hospitality room room used for the reception and entertainment of guests Hotel register book in which information about guests is recorded Hotel voucher form issued by travel agent reserving hotel accommodation and often recording part of full payment in advance House speciality special dish prepared by a restaurant House wine restaurant's own wine IATA the International Air Transport Association, a voluntary association of international airlines Ideal perfect Identification way of showing who you are Immigration government department that deals with the entry of people into a country In association with together with In season at certain times of the year In touch in contact Inaugural opening Incentive trip a trip offered by an organization, usually a business firm, to reward successful effort or to induce an employee to make a greater effort Incorporate include Independent tours tours including flights and hotel only Independent travel holidays for which people make their own travel and accommodation arrangements Independent traveller a traveller or tourist who is travelling on his own rather than as a member of a group Indicated shown; n indication Infrastructure the facilities such as airports, roads, water, sewers, electricity, and so on that are necessary before development of an area can take place Inhabitants people who live in a place Initial first Inn a place that offers shelter and food to travellers, often in rural areas, it was more common before railroads and modern hotels came into existence Institutional advertising advertising intended to keep the name f a corporation - such as an airline - in the public eye rather than to give much information about specific services Insurance protection against accidents, loss or damage; v insure Interconnected connected with each other Interested parties people who are interested Internal tourism / domestic tourism tourist travel within the same country of which the tourist is a resident International tourism tourist travel between two or more countries In the meantime before that time; meanwhile In the region of about; approximately IT inclusive tour, a packaged tour that offers transportation, accommodations, and often other inducements Itemized detailed; n item Itinerary travel program ITX fares tour-basing fares. They are special lower fares offered for sale by the scheduled airlines through tour operators and travel agents Joint-destination combination of two destinations Journalists people who write for newspapers and magazines
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Jumbo jet large aircraft with a seating capacity of about 400 passengers Labor-intensive the industries with a high proportion of workers to the number of people served are called labor-intensive Labour-saving work limiting Launch introduce on the market; n launch Layout arrangement of seating and equipment Leakage the tourist money that leaves the tourist destination area because of imports, profits for foreign investors, and so on Ledger account account paid at a fixed time, for example, the end of the month Left off not put on Leg a segment or a part of a journey Legibly in a way that is easily read Leisure free time Let occupied; rented Liaison co-operation Lift elevator Linen sheets, towels, etc. Link connect Load factor the number of seats that have been sold on an aircraft / the percentage of seats that must be sold before a flight is profitable Long-haul long distance Loosened made free; undone Lounge bars bars with comfortable seating Low season the period of light travel and lower fares Low budget low cost Magazines publications, usually weekly or monthly Mail order firm a company that sells merchandise primarily by mail, sending out a catalogue from which customers can order merchandise that is delivered by mail Main dish most important or principal dish Makes equals; comes to Manual hand-operated Marina a place at which boats can dock, the marina usually offers electricity, telephones, water, etc., so that people can use their boats for accommodation Market a place where people meet to buy and sell Marmalade type of jam made with oranges, lemons, etc. Matter subject; question Media the plural of medium, in current usage, the term refers to the means of spreading information through the print media, like newspapers and magazines, and the broadcast media, like radio and television Medieval from the middle ages, about 1300-1500 Medium-sized between large and small Members of staff people who work in a hotel Memory store of information. Mentioned spoke about Method of payment way of paying Migrants people who travel from one place to another to work or to take up residence Mineral water natural water sold in bottles Missing cannot be found Modified American Plan room, breakfast and dinner Monument something that commemorates Motel hotel with special facilities for motor vehicles
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Multiplier effect the number of times which money that originates with tourism is spent within the economy of a tourist destination area Nearby close; near Night life evening and night entertainment Nonscheduled airline an airline that operates its planes on routes and at times when there is a demand for service rather than following a timetable Normally usually Obtain get Occasions times Occupancy rate the percentage of rooms or beds in a hotel that are occupied in a particular period of time Off-season the part of the year with the fewest guests On board on (used of ships and planes) On call available for contact On display put where it can be seen On me in my possession now On time at the correct time Open round the clock open 24 hours a day Opening ceremonies formal occasions at the opening of conferences Optional visit visit that can be made if desired Original first Otherwise if not Outside line telephone line going out from hotel Outskirts edge; limits Overbooking taking a number of bookings that is greater than the number of beds available Overcharged charged too much Package inclusive tour Packed lunch picnic lunch Participate take part Particularly specially Payable which should be paid Pension a type of accommodation for travellers, especially in Europe. Nowadays, it usually offers bed and breakfast at low prices Place of issue place where passport was obtained Plain simple Pool this is a shorter way of saying swimming pool Post record Postpone deiay until a later date; defer; n postponement Preceding earlier Preliminary introductory Preserves marmalades and jams Previous last Printed out produced in a written form Price elastic market a market that responds to the inducement of lower prices Procedures methods; ways of doing things Programmed instructed; n program Promoting encouraging the success of; n promotion Promotion paid advertising and public relations efforts that in the case of tourism encourage recreational travel either generally or on specific carriers and to specific places
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Promotional fares special cheap fares Proposed suggested in a formal way; n proposal Proportion comparative part Proprietor owner Provide give; supply Public figures well-known people Publicity information that gets people interested Purpose of visit reason for visit Put you through connect you with Qualify meet the requirements Quality level or degree of excellence Query question Quotes prices offered by a supplier; the full form is quotations; v quote Rack rate individual rate for a hotel room Rare only cooked a little; underdone Rate charge Reasonable not too much Recently not long ago Reception welcome party Recommend speak well of; n recommendation Reduce make less; decrease; n reduction Refund repayment; v refund Regret be sorry Region area of a country Registers records information about guests Release-back clause clause in a contract between a tour operator and an hotelier which provides for a period of notice, e.g. two months, if the tour operator does not need the beds he has booked Relevant appropriate Repeat visitors visitors who return to the same place Reservations agent airline employee who makes reservations and give information via telephone Resort 1. place where tourism is the main business; 2. a place where people gather for recreational purposes Retail outlet a place where products are sold to the general public, in the case of travel, the product is a service rather than tangible merchandise Risks dangers Room board board showing room status Room service a catering service in which food and drink are brought to a guest's room in a hotel Room status condition and availability of each room Rough idea approximate idea Rude not polite; impoUte Running total current total Sales ledger statement of sales Sales voucher receipt when credit card is used Scenic route route through beautiful countryside Scheduled airline an airline that operates its aircraft on fixed routes at fixed times Scotch on the rocks scotch whisky served with ice Segment part; sector Selection choice; v select
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Self-catering arrangements arrangements where guests provide and prepare their own food Senior citizen man over 65, woman over 60 years old Set meals meals with a limited choice of dishes Settle pay Short-staffed with fewer staff than necessary Sightseeing excursion a trip of less than a day's duration for the purpose of looking at local attractions Significant full of meaning; important Sittings services of a meal Six p. m. release not holding rooms after six p.m. Skilled good at his work Snack light meal such as a sandwich Snack bar a quick food service Social director a person at a resort hotel or on a cruise ship who is in charge of the activities that are designed to amuse and entertain the customers Social tourism recreational travel that is paid for wholly or in part by a government, a labor union, or a similar organization Soft-boiled eggs eggs boiled for about three minutes Soft drinks non-alcoholic cold drinks Sort type; kind Souvenir object that brings back memories Souvenir shop place where tourists can buy objects that will help them to remember their trip Spicy strong tasting because of high pepper or chili content Sponsors organization or company, which pays for an event; v sponsor Standards levels of performance Standbys unreserved airline tickets obtained shortly before departure Stated said; n statement Straight away immediately Suburbs parts of a town outside the center Suites hotel bedrooms with adjoining living rooms ...suits me is to my liking Sunbathe lie in the sun to get a brown skin Superstructure the development that takes place on the base of the infrastructure Supplement additional cost Surcharge additional charge Survey scientific enquiry Symptoms signs of illness Systems ways of doing things Table d'hote restricted choice Tabular ledger book for recording charges Tailored specially prepared Targets aims, objectives Tasks jobs Tax incentives various kinds of tax benefits offered to investors in a project Tender price offered by a supplier, usually in writing Theme central idea Theme park a special kind of amusement park that has a unifying concept, disneyland in California uses the disney cartoon characters, like mickey mouse and donald duck, as its theme Therefore because of this; for this reason Three-piece band group of three musicians
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Throwaway in advertising, usually a one-page advertisement that can be widely distributed by mail or by hand Throughout all through Ticket agent airline employee who makes reservations, answer inquiries, and sell tickets Tough hard and difficult to eat Tour groups groups of people travelling and staying in hotels under one booking Tour guide / Tour conductor the person in charge of a tour or an excursion Tour leader person in charge a tour groups Tour operators the people who package or put together tours Tourism travel away from a person's usual place of residence for a period longer than twenty-four hours, primarily for pleasure or recreation, and frequently to multiple destinations Tourist attraction anything that may cause a tourist to visit an area, it may be a beach, a mountain, a historical landmark, and so forth Tourist-day a 24-hour period spent by a tourist in a location other than his usual residence Tourist deficit a condition that results from a greater outflow than inflow of tourist money Tourist destination a place or area to which tourists travel Tourist potential possibilities for increasing tourism Trade media newspapers and magazines connected with the trade Traditional not modern Transfer transportation to and from airports, including baggage handling Transferred moved to; n transfer Travel agency place where travel agent works Travel agents companies or people who sell journeys and holidays Traveller's check a special kind of insured check issued by american express and other companies and banks Trend movement Turnover number of customers arriving and leaving Two-hourly intervals every two hours 21-day and 45-day excursions the number of days refers to the length of the passenger's stay at his destination Up front in advance Up-market expensive Upset angry and unhappy; annoyed; v upset Up to date current Urbanization the growth of cities and their immediate suburbs and also the movement of large numbers of people to urban centers Urgent requiring immediate attention US National Park scenic areas that have been set aside by the government for the enjoyment of the public Vacant free; unoccupied Valid in operation; applicable Various different; a number of; v vary; n variety VAT Value Added Tax; a tax on goods and services in Britain Vegetarians people who don't eat meat and other animal products Venue meeting place Veterinary surgeon doctor for animals Visa a travel document that gives permission for a foreigner to enter, or in some cases to leave, another country Volume size
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Walk-on services air services on which seats can not be reserved Washing-up cleaning the plates, cutlery, etc. Well done well cooked Well-sited in a good position Wine list list of wines served with a meal Within before the end of Workshops study groups World famous known all over the world

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References
1. English for the Travel Trade. Koln - Munchen, Haak, Stam Verlag, 1995. 2. Stott ., Holt R. First Class. English for Tourism. Oxford University Press, 1996. 3. Revell R., Stott T. Five Star English for the Hotel and Tourist Industry. Oxford University Press, 1993. 4. Hall E. The Language of Tourism in English. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. 5. Jacob M., Strutt P. English for International Tourism. Longman, 1999. 6. The Moscow Times. - 2000, 2001. 7. . . - .: , 1996. 8. Dictionary of Contemporary English. - London: Langen-scheid-Longman, 1978. 9. - . - : , 1993. 10. - . - .: , 1993.

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TOURISM AS BUSINESS

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03562 19.12.2000 . 22.12.2003 ( ps-) 60x88 1/16. . . . 13,0. .-. . 10,0 20 000 . (1- - 5 000). 5527 - .. 123298, , . , 1 . (095) 194-00-15. /,(095) 194-00-14 www.unily-dana.ru E-mail: unity@unity-dana.ru 432980, . , . , 14

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