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# SHEAR DESIGN OF BEAMS

1. General Principles Design of cross-sections subjected to shear shall be based on: Vn Vu (ACI equation 11-1). Vu is the shear force due to the factored loads (e.g. 1.2DL + 1.6LL) at the section that we consider, and Vn is the nominal shear strength computed as: Vn = Vc + Vs (ACI equation (112). Vc is the nominal shear strength provided by concrete and Vs is the nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement. Average shear stress v =

V bw d

Beams rarely if ever fail in actual shear. In stead, application of shear forces results in tensile stresses, in oblique orientations, which in turn cause failure. Thus the average shear stress, can only provide an indirect measurement or indication of failure. It becomes clear that the average shear stress definition ignores the reduction of available cross-section due to bending cracks. It is common practice to incorporate the effects of bending (reduced available cross-section) in the strength. In areas of large bending it is common to assume concrete shear strength equal to

## v c = 19 . f c ; Vc = 19 . f cbw d (not the equation to use!)

In areas of no bending it is assumed that the concrete shear strength is equal to

v c = 35 . f c ; Vc = 35 . f cbw d
To incorporate the effects of bending and the dowel shear strength provided by the bending reinforcement, ACI code (Eq. 11-5) proposes the relation:

Vu d b d 35 Vc = 19 . f c + 2500 w . f cbw d (1) Mu w Vu d The ratio shall not be taken greater than 1.0 in computing Vc in the equation above. Mu
The ACI code (Eq. 11-3) allows the use of the simplified equation: Vc = 2

f cbw d

(2)

Shear Reinforcement: If a cross section cannot carry the shear load by itself, then shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups of ties may be used. In essence, stirrups act as nails that keep the top and bottom pieces of a beam with a shear crack together. If we assume 45o crack, then the horizontal dimension of the crack is equal to the effective depth d.

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## If stirrups are spaced at a distance s, center to center, then

d stirrups over the cracked area. If ultimate s capacity of each of these stirrups is Av f ys where Av is the
there exist n = cross-sectional area of the stirrup multiplied by the number of vertical legs of the stirrup configuration. Thus, the shear force that is carried by the stirrups is:

Vs = Av f y

d s

(3)

The value of Vs is commonly known (see Eq. 6). Thus, we can use Eq. 3 to find the maximum spacing of the stirrups of a required shear reinforcement capacity Vs:

s=

Av f ys d Vs

(4)

## 2. Practical Information Shear design is now based on the following equation:

Vu = Vn = Vc + Vs
where = 0.75 for shear. From Equation (5) we can see:

(5)

Vs =
ACI code requirements:

Vu Vc Vu = Vc

(6)

## Calculate the shear strength of the cross-section as:

Vc = 2 f cbw d
or

(7)

Vu d b d 35 Vc = 19 . f c + 2500 w . f cbw d Mu w
The first relation is preferred due to its simplicity.

(8)

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1. 2.

If : Vu If

## Vc Vu Vc then minimum reinforcement is required. This is defined as: 2

Av f ys ( psi ) 0.75 f cbw Av f ys ( psi ) 50 bw d s 2

s s
3.

If Vc

## Vu then reinforcement is required:

Av f ys d Av f ys d s = Vu Vu Vc Vc d s 2
Note that the minimum reinforcement requirements of item 2 are still valid for item 3. So, if the spacing of item 3 is larger than the spacing mandated in item 2, the one of item 2 controls. 4. In addition: if Vs 4 if Vs 8

f cbw d , then the max spacing is reduced to s d / 4 . f cbw d , then the cross-section must be redesigned.

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## Prepared by Professor Panos D. Kiousis Last Update:March 7, 2007

3. Design Process. Step-by-step. Consider a beam to be designed for shear reinforcement. The steps for the design are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Select size of stirrups. Usually we start by assuming #3 unless the problem statement requires otherwise. If later on we find that #3 stirrups results in very small stirrup spacing we can change to #4 or larger. Calculate factored loads Qu Calculate and draw shear diagram Vu due to factored loads. Calculate shear capacity of concrete cross-section: Vc

= 2 f c bw d .

Calculate the most critical shear Vu - cr. This is commonly located at distance d from the supports. In the Vu diagram locate the values Vc and Vc / 2. The region for which Vc /2 \$ Vu does not need shear reinforcement. The region for which Vc /2 # Vu # Vc is valid, is designed based on criterion 2 of the previous section: We calculate spacing s

and s =

## where Av is the total stirrup

cross-section that is sheared (commonly 2 @Atie) and fys is the yield strength of the stirrup steel. We also calculate spacing as: s =

## d . We accept the smaller spacing of the three. Note that 2

10.

in comparing the first two expressions, the first controls if fc > 4444 psi, (the second controls otherwise). The region for which Vc # Vu is valid, is designed based on criterion 3 of the previous section: We calculate the shear that needs to be carried by the stirrups: Vs spacing s =

Vu Vc

## and then (A)

Av f ys d Vs

If Vs 8 Vs. If Vs 4

## f c bw d the cross-section needs to be redesigned (become bigger) to reduce f c bw d then calculate s =

d 4

(B-1) (B-2)

Otherwise calculate s =

d 2

11.

Accept the smaller of (A) and (B) - whichever of B-1 or B-2 is applicable. Depending on the size of the range for which Vc # Vu we may wish to apply the process described in this step for multiple sub-regions to achieve better economy. This is a more complex process that is described in your textbook but is not necessary here. Make the proper rounding of the spacing values of reinforcement. Prepared by Professor Panos D. Kiousis Last Update:March 7, 2007

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Shear Design Example Design the beam shown here for shear. We would like to use shear reinforcement consisting of #3, Grade 40 stirrups. fc = 4,000 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; fys = 40 ksi, Stirrups #3 wb = 150 lb/ft3 x 12 x 28/144/1000 = 0.35 k/ft.

Solution Simpler approach 1. 2. 3. Stirrup #3 as of problem statement. Factored loads: wu = 1.2 x (0.933+0.35) + 1.6 x 1.488 = 3.92 k/ft. Create the shear diagram Vu:

4. 5. 6.

## Vc = 2 f cbw d = 2 4,000 12 24.5 = 37,188 lbs and Vc = 27891 lbs

Critical shear section at distance d = 24.5 inches = 2.04 ft from support. At that point shear Vu = 78.4 - 3.92 @ 2.04 = 70.40 kips. Find the location of Vc = 27.9 kips and Vc/2 = 14.0 kips on the Vu diagram. This can be found from the shear equation or from similar triangles: If we call the distance from the 0 shear point x then:

x 20 = or x = 3.57 ft. Thus, the location of Vc/2 is 3.57 ft from the center of 14 78.4
Prepared by Professor Panos D. Kiousis Last Update:March 7, 2007

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## 20 x = or x = 7.12 ft. Thus, the location 27.9 78.4

of Vc is 7.12 ft. from the center or 12.88 ft. from the support. Note that the region from 17.02 to 20 ft (and its mirror image on the right half of the beam) has Vu that is less than Vc/2 and thus does not need reinforcement. From 12.88 ft to 16.43 (and its mirror image on the right half of the beam) we have the design case 2: Range = 16.43-12.88 = 3.55 ft.

(2 011 . ) 40000 = 14.7 in (note that this equation controls because fc < 4444 psi) 50 12

and s 9.

## In the range from 0 to 12.88 ft we have shear design case 3:

Vs =

70.4 37.2 = 56.7 kips (Eq. 6) which is less than 4 4000 12 24.5 = 74377 lbs 0.75 24.5 0.75 (2 011 . ) 40 24.5 s = 380 = 12.25 in. Thus s#3.80 in. . in. and s 70.4 0.75 37.2 2

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Actual Design: From 0 to 12.88 ft: s#3.80 in. We shall use s = 3 in. which over 12.88 ft requires 52 stirrups (the first one is placed 3 inches from the left support). The total length occupied by the stirrups is 52x3 = 156 in. or 13 ft. Thus the first range is from 0 to 13 ft. We use 52 #3's at 3 in. From 13 to 16.43 ft s# 12.25 in. We shall use s = 12 in. which over 3.43 ft. requires 4 stirrups (for a total of 48 in. or 4.00 ft). Thus the second range is 4 ft long or from 13 to 17 ft. We use 4#3's at 12 in. The final design becomes: 0.00 to 13.00 ft. : 52 #3's at 3 in (the first one is placed 3 in. from support). 13.00 to 17.00 ft: 4#3's at 12 in. 17.00 to 23.00 ft: No stirrups 23.00 to 27.00 ft: 4#3's at 12 in. 27.00 to 40.00 ft: 52 #3's at 3 in. Total number of stirrups needed : 112.

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## Prepared by Professor Panos D. Kiousis Last Update:March 7, 2007

More complex (and potentially less expensive) approach . Basic philosophy: At any point of the beam we need to know the magnified applied shear load Vu/ and the nominal shear strength Vc. Then, by examining the relative values of applied load vs. shear strength, we decide whether we are in design case (1), (2), or (3) and design using the proper equations. In designing beams for shear, it is usually sufficient to check a few points along the span and select the stirrup spacing based on those points. In this design we shall use a more detailed (overkill) approach taking advantage of the fact that the V and M equations are easy to produce and also the fact that it is easy to place all calculations in a spread sheet. Reactions: RA = wL/2 = 3.92@40 / 2 = 78.4 kips MA = -wL2/12 = 3.92@402/12 = -522.67 ft-k

Shear equation : V(x) = 78.4 - 3.92 @ x Moment equation : M(x) = -522.67 + 78.4 x - 3.92@x2/2 x(ft)
(1)

Vu(k)
(2)

## Mu(in-k) Vud/Mu 2500Vud/Mu

(3) (4) (5)

Vc
(6)

Vc/2 Vu-Vc
(7) (8)

Vu-Vc/2
(9)

Vs
(10)

s (in)
(11)

2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00

70.56 66.64 62.72 58.80 54.88 50.96 47.04 43.12 39.20 35.28 31.36 27.44 23.52 19.60 15.68 11.76 7.84 3.92 0.00

-373.71 -305.11 -240.43 -179.67 -122.83 -69.91 -20.91 24.17 65.33 102.57 135.89 165.29 190.77 212.33 229.97 243.69 253.49 259.37 261.33

0.32 0.37 0.45 0.56 0.76 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.59 0.39 0.28 0.21 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.00

16.46 19.04 22.74 28.53 38.94 51.02 51.02 51.02 51.02 29.98 20.11 14.47 10.75 8.05 5.94 4.21 2.70 1.32 0.00

30.13 30.69 31.51 32.79 35.08 37.75 37.75 37.75 37.75 33.11 30.93 29.69 28.87 28.27 27.81 27.42 27.09 26.79 26.50

15.06 15.35 15.76 16.39 17.54 18.87 18.87 18.87 18.87 16.55 15.47 14.84 14.43 14.14 13.90 13.71 13.55 13.39 13.25

40.43 35.95 31.21 26.01 19.80 13.21 9.29 5.37 1.45 2.17 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

55.50 51.29 46.96 42.41 37.34 32.09 28.17 24.25 20.33 18.73 15.89 12.60 9.09 5.46 1.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

53.91 47.93 41.61 34.68 26.39 17.62 12.39 7.16 1.94 2.90 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

4.00 4.50 5.18 6.22 8.17 12.24 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 12.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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## Prepared by Professor Panos D. Kiousis Last Update:March 7, 2007

Notes on the tabulated calculations: 1. For x \$17 ft, we have that Vu < Vc/2 (negative values are marked as 0 in column 9). Thus (case a) no stirrups are required. 2. For 13 # x #17 ft. we have that Vc/2 < Vu < Vc. (negative values of Vu - Vc mark the beginning of this region and are marked as 0 in column 8) In this region we require minimum reinforcement-case b. Stirrups are decided based on

3.

Av f y ( psi )

## 2 011 . 40,000 = 14.7 in. 50 12

For 0 <x<13 ft Vu > Vc, thus producing a requirement for shear bearing stirrups. The amount of shear carried by the stirrups is shown in the table column with the Vs heading. In this region, the shear reinforcement is calculated as follows:

## Av f ys d 0.75 2 011 . 40 24.5 = Vu 0.75 Vc Vu Vc s and d in 12 . 25 . = 2

where, Vu is the shear force diagram value at the specific location, and Vc is the nominal shear strength at the same location. As can be seen from the table, the d/2 value was the governing value for part of this region. (8 to 12 ft.) The result of all these calculations is a spacing distribution as shown if the last column of the table. In practice, it makes no sense to allow variation of the spacing for every footing. This is a more practical spacing: 0 < x < 4 ft s = 4.0 in. (12 stirrups) 4 < x < 7 ft 4 in. s = 5 in. (10 stirrups) 7 ft 4 in < x <16 ft 4 in. s = 12 in. ( 9 stirrups) 16ft 4 in. < x < 20 ft No stirrups From 20 ft to 40 ft reinforce in mirror image symmetry. A total of 62 stirrups are needed.

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