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BACKGROUND

For years, the Disney Theme Park Empire was built upon three crown jewels located in California, Florida, and Japan. Combining the familiar, familyfriendly characters and images upon which the Disney reputation was built, with clean and well-operated theme parks helped Disney set new standards for efficient, friendly customer service in the theme park industry, with its parks becoming major international tourist attractions. When Disney expanded its theme park empire across the Atlantic, many expected Disney winning streak would continue. The standard model of Disney theme parks, long considered being a recipe for guaranteed financial success soon ran into trouble when Euro Disney opened in Paris in 1992. Tackling the many problems faced by Euro Disney operations has posed many new challenges to Disney, forcing them to reconsider their cookie-cutter standard model for success. Disney must find ways to adapt their theme park model in a manner which preserves the best of Disney while more closely fitting the needs of the European market for the Euro Disney theme park to survive.

The successful journey of Disney


In 1917, Walt Disney, along with his partner Ub Iwerks, joined the Kansas City Film Ad Company, and began to learn cartooning which would carry him to fame. By 1919, Walt was making independent short cartoon ads for theatres. In 1920, Walts brother Roy became a partner, and soon thereafter they moved to Hollywood. They developed a standardized cast of cartoon characters, which were mass-produced using a large staff and artists working on a single easy-to-draw cartoon. Disneys theme parks in the United States and Japan were models of success whose strong customer base made a significant contribution to the overall bottom line of the Walt Disney Company. After opening the first theme park in California in 1955, the Walt Disney Company opened two more parks in Florida and in Tokyo, Japan, based upon a successful formula in which Disney characters used to create a family-friendly atmosphere in which theme park visitors were treated to excellent customer service in a very clean environment. Dependent upon its employees to provide the high level of customer service that is at the heart of the Disney experience, the company had created a careful screening process for applicants, an intensive employee training program to insure they would meet the strict standards of service, and a comprehensive communication program to keep employees fully informed.

Constantly under refinement, this process helped insure Disney employees were able to conform to Disneys standards and deliver the high level of customer service their millions of annual guests have come to expect.

Disneyland in Anaheim, California


In 1955, Walt decided to send his train of characters into the real world, through the creation of Disneyland in Anaheim, California. His Disneyland dream was to create a place where people from all over would be able to go for clean, safe fun, unlike the less-than-wholesome carnivals of the day. He wanted a place that would teach both young and old about Americas heritage and about the diversity of the world. Disneyland has stood as the icon of Walts dream-a park for family-type entertainment that would provide clean, safe fun from July 17, 1955.

DisneyWorld, Orlando, Florida


DisneyWorld in Orlando was the most popular vacation spot in the United States. The Orlando area had 64,000 hotel rooms; fewer than 10% belonged to Disney. With the expansion plan, the total number of hotel rooms owned by Disney exceeded 20,000. Prices ranged from $104-455/night. In October 1982, Disney brought yet another addition to the Orlando theme park- EPCOT Center or the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow. This new park consisted of two large complexes-Future world and World Showcase-that are completely different in nature. Future World was a series of pavilions designed to show the technological advances expected in the next 25 years. World Showcase was a collection of foreign villages designed to allow various countries to present some aspect of their country and culture.

Tokyo Disneyland
Disney characters used to create a family-friendly atmosphere in which theme park visitors were treated to excellent customer service in a very clean environment, based on which Walt Disney Company opened their third park in Tokyo, China on April 15, 1983.Tokyo Disneyland is 204 acres of American culture placed on Japanese soil. All signs are in English, with only small katakana (a phonetic Japanese alphabet) translations. The food is mainly American, and Disneys strict rule of no alcohol and no outside food allowed is enforced.

EuroDisney, Paris, France


On the heels of the strong success of Tokyo Disneyland and encouraged by strong sales of Disney licensed products in the European market, Disney began work on opening a European-based Disney theme park. After ten years of planning and development, Euro Disney opened in Paris, France, in 1992, with high hopes that the Disney magic, which had worked so well in the United States and Japan, was sure to repeat itself in France.

Problems in EuroDisney
Early hopes for a similar success soured soon after Euro Disney opened, and the experience of opening Euro Disney delivered unexpected surprises to Disney management. The park soon encountered several major problems:

Attendance Disneys consulting firm, Arthur D. Little, has projected first year park attendance to range between 11.7 and 17.8 million attendees. To be cautious, Disney used the low range of Littles figures and predicted eleven million attendees, with seven million of those visitors attending in the six month period between the opening of the park and September 30. While initial hotel bookings at the theme park during the summer looked promising, in the summer months, as the theme park entered its first winter, bookings dropped to twenty percent or less of monthly projects. With the park located near Paris, it was expected that French residents would comprise half of the visitors to the park, helping to act as a safety net to poor response from other European nations. However, far fewer French visitors were coming than projected, and it soon became clear this safety net was not going to bolster Euro Disneys sagging customer volume.

Staffing In a service-oriented business such as Disney with very exacting customer service standards, proper staffing is crucial to an organizations success. In spite of the importance of having a top-notch workforce, many considerations crucial to developing that effective workforce were overlooked at Euro Disney. Staffing shortages created a negative cycle in which extra workloads on employees resulted in increased turnover, which in turn hurt Disneys ability to retain and develop its employees. Poor union relations caused by reactions to Disneys exacting requirements for dress and appearance, such as a ban on facial hair and colored stockings, as well as to Disneys high standards of customer service, further hurt their ability to attract employees.

Seeking to address the shortages created by this high turnover, Disney management accelerated its complex training program. This put more stress on new hires, and left them even less prepared to provide the level of service expected of Disney employees. Communication barriers in the workplace were created by language and cultural gaps between American management and European employees. Also, planners failed to consider the impact of the shortage of housing near the theme park upon their ability to attract workers.

Customer Service Those who visited other Disney parks were used to the clean and wellorchestrated atmosphere of other Disney theme parks. However, those visitors were often disappointed with their Euro Disney experiences. In many respects, Euro Disney was failing to deliver the high level of customer service standard to Disney theme parks, as well as failing to provide the service needs that were unique to the European market. A failure to modify Disneys standard theme park program to better fit the unique needs of European customers was a problem. Restaurants were not prepared for the eating habits and times of European customers. By not selling alcoholic beverages in the park, Euro Disney forced customers to leave the park to purchase them, and insulted the deeply-held tradition of French wine-making. In many respects, there were clear disconnects between Disney management and their customers.

Lack of local management and autonomy Until Euro Disney, every Disney theme park was locally owned and operated, with the American theme parks run by the Walt Disney Company, and Tokyo Disneyland operations by the Oriental Land Company. Euro Disney was the first Disney Park that had a significant amount of foreign ownership. While the Walt Disney company owned a 49% share in Euro Disney, their role as the operator of the theme park allowed for an arrangement in which they would receive between seventy and eighty percent of the pre-taxable income generated by the park. This resulted in management by remote control, in which decisions were often made by people who were far removed from the day-to-day operations of the park, and who did not have a strong understanding of the culture and the market. This made it harder to accurately understand the European Disney market, as well as reduced their ability to respond effectively to concerns by European shareholders. In spite of the importance of having a top-notch workforce, many considerations crucial to developing that effective workforce were overlooked at EuroDisney. The "Disney Look" - a rigid code of Cast Member appearance

that entailed an all-American look was imposed on the European workers, who believed that these requirements interfered with their "individualism."

Disney practiced an employment system of sending workers home during offpeak seasons in many of its operations which gave a rise of intimidation and insecurity among workers. EuroDisney required a lot of people more than technologies and buildings. Unlike Disney's American theme parks, EuroDisney aimed for permanent employees as opposed to seasonal and temporary part-time employees. Staffing shortages create a negative cycle in which extra workloads are put on the existing employees. Overall, Disney was looking for workers who had good communication skills, spoke two European languages (French and one other), were outgoing, and liked to be around people. Since EuroDisneyLand practices a Top-down management approach, in many situations, workers are not aware of the operational mechanisms brought about by the upper management. Communication barriers in the workplace were created by language and cultural gaps between the American management and the European employees. EuroDisneys management failed to recognize local employees for their contributions or to even seek their contributions in the initial planning process. This reduced employee belongingness and morale. The management of EuroDisney also failed to consider the impact of the shortage of housing near the theme which had a potential to hamper the lives of the workers and result in turnover.

THEME
EuroDisneyLand, a subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company located in France, has experienced numerous complications from its inception. Because the Walt Disney Company management was determined to adhere to American philosophies, they did not thoroughly investigate all aspects of the European environment. The standard model of Disney theme parks, long considered being a recipe for guaranteed financial success, soon ran into trouble. Management relied on their own cultural values, experiences and past successes, and knowledge, which accompanied by ethnocentrism, caused several kinds of losses. The absence of strategic human resource management gave rise to lack of awareness of the French culture, the French labor laws, inappropriate recruitment, lack of training and assigning the right personnel, which together contributed to the failure of Walt Disney in Europe. For the Euro Disney theme park to survive, Disney must find ways to adapt their theme park model, through a culturally aware and motivated human resource base, which will preserve the best of Disney while more closely fitting the needs of the European market.

MAIN ISSUE
What strategies should be undertaken in EuroDisneyLand to bridge the gap of culture differences by establishing HR as a strategic partner in the formulation of the companys strategies, as well as, in the implementation of those strategies with the aid of a workers union through relevant human resource activities of recruitment, selection, training, and compensation?

BIASED SWOT ANALYSIS


(From the perspective of the union)

Strength
In a service-oriented business such as Disney with very exacting customer service standards, proper staffing is crucial to an organizations success. In spite of the importance of having a top-notch workforce, many considerations crucial to developing that effective workforce were overlooked at euro Disney. Staffing shortages created a negative cycle in which extra workloads on employees resulted in increased turnover, which in turn hurt Disneys ability to retain and develop its employees .Poor union relations caused by reactions to Disneys exacting requirements for dress and appearance, such as a ban on facial hair and colored stockings, as well as to Disneys high standards of customer service, further hurt their ability to attract employees. A union should be formed through proper election so that labor welfare issues are taken care of, and to ensure that representatives of labor can negotiate with the management through collective bargaining in good faith if problems arise, etc.

Seeking to address the shortages created by this high turnover, Disney management accelerated its complex training program. Many employees failed to conform to the high standards of customer service that were expected in Disney theme parks. One employee described the high standards and rigorous training required by Disney management as brain washing. Visitors complained of apathetic employees who looked and acted more like real people instead of Disney people. The strong work ethic that was commonplace among American and Japanese workers was harder to find among Europeans, making it difficult for Disney to find and retain employees who shared Disneys corporate philosophies regarding excellent customer service.

Lack of accommodation and services, to fit the needs and desires of the multi-lingual and multi-cultural European customer base. Disney has long prided itself on the quality of customer service offered by its theme parks, and maintaining this standard is essential to its continued success. While reaching the same levels of quality may be more difficult with

the European workforce, reaching this goal is crucial to its success of duplicating the Disney model. Considering the relative scarcity of employees who are willing to commit to meeting Disneys expectations, greater efforts should be made to identify and retain employees that are compatible with the corporate values of Disney.

Shortage of housing near the theme park As part their overall effort to improve customer service, Disney must address the problems affecting its workforce. This requires improving communications with its employees, and improving overall morale among employees. The organization should do a better job of better planning to meet staffing needs to reduce the workload placed upon its employees, as well as addressing factors which limit staffing options, such as lack of nearby housing, which reduces the supply of employees. These improvements must go hand-in-hand with efforts to increase Disneys appeal to potential applicants and improve relations with unions. Options to overcome the housing shortage should be explored to allow workers to live closer to the theme park. In addition, Disney should make a greater effort to increase the diversity of its workforce, to provide a better level of service for visitors from outside of France.

With no experience in the European market, Disneys plans to move swiftly with a second phase, which were based upon the presumption that the first phase would meet expectations, were a risky gamble to undertake. With Disneys lack of experience in operating theme parks in Euro pe, problems and setbacks should have been expected, and expectations regarding growth should have been more cautious. Plans for a second phase should not have been allowed to advance until such time that the problems facing the first phase were corrected, giving them a more secure base of knowledge upon which plans and decisions could be made. Otherwise, the company risks duplicating and compounding the problems encountered with its first phase.

The Disney look The guidebook details the requirements for just about everything one could imagine. Mens hair must be cut above the collar and ears; no beards or mustaches are allowed; all tattoos must be covered. Women must keep their

hair in one natural color, no frosting or streaking. Use of makeup is limited. False eyelashes, eyeliner, and eye pencil are completely off limits. Fingernails are not allowed to pass ones fingertips. Jewelry is allowed at an absolute minimum: women can wear only one earring in each ear, but the earring must not go beyond the specified three-quarters of an inch diameter limit. Men and women alike are restricted to one ring per hand. In addition, women must wear the appropriate undergarments, and only transparent pantyhose are permitted. Cast members were also informed that they were expected to show up fresh and clean each day. A related training video contained a shower scene, indirectly saying that a daily bath was required. Controversy did arise over Disneys strict appearance code, enforced in all its parks. The rules were spelled out in a video presentation and in a guidebook given to all new cast members. Eurodisneyland management should respect the cultural values of the workers and restructure the dress code by aligning it with the French dress code.

Insecurity among workers Job insecurity is an employee's perception that his or her job is uncertain and may come to an end sooner than expected. From what has been theorized and inferred, it is understandable that job insecurity is highly threatening to employees given the prospect of losing the positive material, social, and psychological benefits associated with employment. As the workers did not have any well organized contract most of employees felt job insecurity which eventually affected the work environment as well.

Weakness
No Labor Union There is no Unionization found in the Euro Disney. As long as the workers do not have a trade union, there is less opportunity to get a platform and speak up for their rights. Trade unions often create problem when workers try to bargain with the factory owner. They even call strikes if their needs are not met. The reason behind we are describing as our weakness is as long as there is no existence of labor union in Euro Disney the chances of claiming the rights of the labors are always in uncertainty.

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On an optimistic note, Disney executives showed great optimism about long-term prospects, and have not allowed short-term problems to dampen their enthusiasm for the long-term prospects of Euro Disney. As Disney is still in the learning process, which is required to develop a greater knowledge base about the European market, it is crucial this patient attitude be maintained. As the organization is still dealing with a large range of unknowns, flexible problem-solving attitudes should be encouraged to help allow Disney to learn and adapt to its new environment. Disney has achieved a strong market position in other locations, and there is no

Aimed for permanent employees Dependent upon its employees to provide the high level of customer service that is at the heart of the Disney experience, the company had created a careful screening process for applicants, an intensive employee training program to insure they would meet the strict standards of service, and a comprehensive communication program to keep employees fully informed. Constantly under refinement, this process helped insure Disney employees were able to conform to Disneys standards and deliver the high level of customer service their millions of annual guests have come to expect.

Language and cultural gap Creating a fantasy of the Magic Kingdom required more than just buildings and technology; it required peoplea lot of people. Disney needed 12,000 employees for the theme park alone. Unlike either of the two U.S. theme parks, which have many seasonal and temporary, part-time college workers, these employees would be permanent cast members on the Eurodisney stage. Casting centers were set up in Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt, in a drive to mirror the multicounty aspect of Eurodisneys visitors. It was nonetheless understood between the French government and Disney that a concentrated effort would be made to tap into the local French labor market. Overall, Disney was looking for workers who had good communication skills, spoke two European languages (French and one other), were outgoing, and liked to be around people though it became a tough job for the management.

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Opportunity
Forming a Labor union There is no Unionization found in the Euro Disney Limited. As long as the workers do not have a trade union, there is less opportunity to get a platform and speak up for their rights. Trade unions often create problem when workers try to bargain with the factory owner. They even call strikes if their needs are not met. This creates problems in Euro Disney Limited regarding the maintaining the labor force. The work flow will not remain consistent and the environment in the industry will face obstacles in becoming responsive for the workers and the company.

Disney must better understand and meet the different habits, expectations, and needs of the European theme park visitors. Greater efforts should be made to build better relations with groups opposed to the theme park, as well as those influenced by those groups, would help reduce the negative publicity that has undone much of Disneys marketing efforts, especially in France. In addition, a greater role should be given to European investors in planning and decision making, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park.

Labor welfare issues French labor unions mounted protests against the appearance code, which they saw as an attack on individual liberty. Others criticized Disney as being insensitive to French culture, individualism, and privacy, because restrictions on individual and collective liberties are illegal under French law, unless it can be demonstrated that the restrictions are requisite to the job and do not exceed what is necessary. Disney countered by saying that a ruling that barred them from imposing a squeaky-clean employment standard could threaten the image and long-term success of the park. To handle this kind of issues Eurodisney badly need a labor union where the union would talk to the management regarding the labor welfare issues.

Developing the work force Disneys first ads for work bids were all placed in English, which left smalland medium-sized French firms feeling like foreigners in their own land. A data bank was eventually set up with information on over 20,000 French and European firms looking for work. The Chamber of Commerce, with the aid of

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Disney, developed a video text information bank which the smaller companies would be able to tap into. Local companies were told they would get work, but had to compete for it. A role should be given to the European workers in day-to-day decision making through empowerment, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park. The employees should be rewarded appropriately so that they can enhance the firms overall success.

Lack of comprehensive communication Euro Disney was the first Disney park that had a significant amount of foreign ownership. While the Walt Disney company owned a 49% share in Euro Disney, their role as the operator of the theme park allowed for an arrangement in which they would receive between seventy and eighty percent of the pre-taxable income generated by the park. This resulted in management by remote control, in which decisions were often made by people who were far removed from the day-to-day operations of the park, and who did not have a strong understanding of the culture and the market. This made it harder to accurately understand the European Disney market, as well as reduced their ability to respond effectively to concerns by European shareholders

Maximum working weeks Many employees failed to conform to the high standards of customer service that were expected in Disney theme parks. One employee described the high standards and rigorous training required by Disney management as brain washing. Visitors complained of apathetic employees who looked and acted more like real people instead of Disney people. The strong work ethic that was commonplace among American and Japanese workers was harder to find among Europeans, making it difficult for Disney to find and retain employees who shared Disneys corporate philosophies regarding excellent customer service. A failure to modify Disneys standard theme park program to better fit the unique needs of European customers was a problem. Restaurants were not prepared for the eating habits and times of European customers. By not selling alcoholic beverages in the park, Euro Disney forced customers to leave the park to purchase them, and insulted the deeply-held tradition of French wine-making. In many respects, there were clear disconnects between Disney management and their customers.

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Threat
Employee belongingness and morale Disney practiced an employment system of sending workers home during offpeak seasons in many of its operations which gave a rise of intimidation and insecurity among workers. Job security should be given to the permanent employees at Eurodisneyland irrespective of peaks/seasons cycles.

Abuse of dress code The "Disney Look" - a rigid code of Cast Member appearance that entailed an all-American look was imposed on the European workers, who believed that these requirements interfered with their "individualism." EuroDisneyland management should respect the cultural values of the workers and restructure the dress code by aligning it with the French dress code.

Impact of the shortage of housing The management of Eurodisney failed to consider the impact of the shortage of housing near the theme which had a potential to hamper the lives of the workers and result in turnover. Options to overcome the housing shortage should be explored by the Eurodisney management to allow workers to live closer to the theme park.

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UNION PERSPECTIVE
Formation of a labor union Staffing shortages created a negative cycle in which extra workloads on employees resulted in increased turnover, which in turn hurt Disneys ability to retain and develop its employees. Poor union relations caused by reactions to Disneys exacting requirements for dress and appearance, such as a ban on facial hair and colored stockings, as well as to Disneys high standards of customer service, further hurt their ability to attract employees. To handle the labor welfare issues EuroDisney needs a proper labor union.

Labor welfare issues Disney countered by saying that a ruling that barred them from imposing a squeaky-clean employment standard could threaten the image and long-term success of the park. Issues like dress code and training and housing will arise one after another if there is no existence of labor union in EuroDisney. So to ensure worker satisfaction and develop the level of workforce EuroDisney needs a Labor Union.

Developing the work force A data bank was eventually set up with information on over 20,000 French and European firms looking for work. The Chamber of Commerce, with the aid of Disney, developed a video text information bank which the smaller companies would be able to tap into. Local companies were told they would get work, but had to compete for it.

Lack of comprehensive communication This resulted in management by remote control, in which decisions were often made by people who were far removed from the day-to-day operations of the park, and who did not have a strong understanding of the culture and the market. This made it harder to accurately understand the European Disney market, as well as reduced their ability to respond effectively to concerns by European shareholders

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Complex training program The strong work ethic that was commonplace among American and Japanese workers was harder to find among Europeans, making it difficult for Disney to find and retain employees who shared Disneys corporate philosophies regarding excellent customer service.

Shortage of housing near the theme park The organization should do a better job of better planning to meet staffing needs to reduce the workload placed upon its employees, as well as addressing factors which limit staffing options, such as lack of nearby housing, which reduces the supply of employees.

Management failed to recognize local employees for their contributions EuroDisneys management failed to recognize local employees for their contributions or to even seek their contributions in the initial planning process. This reduced employee belongingness and morale. A role should be given to the European workers in day-to-day decision making through empowerment, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park. The employees should be rewarded appropriately so that they can enhance the firm s overall success.

The Disney look The "Disney Look" - a rigid code of Cast Member appearance that entailed an all-American look was imposed on the European workers, who believed that these requirements interfered with their "individualism." EuroDisneyland management should respect the cultural values of the workers and restructure the dress code by aligning it with the French dress code.

Insecurity among workers Disney practiced an employment system of sending workers home during offpeak seasons in many of its operations which gave a rise of intimidation and insecurity among workers. Job security should be given to the permanent employees at EuroDisneyland irrespective of peaks/seasons cycles.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Problem 01
In spite of the importance of having a top-notch workforce, many considerations crucial to developing that effective workforce were overlooked at Euro Disney. Simply talking about issues that affect employees at Sicily garments isnt enough. To make a difference, their voices must be heard. And they can be heard only when they organize as a union and gain the strength to make real change regarding wage issues, job security, dress codes, etc. If there is no union in the workplace, there is no presence of guaranteed wages, health benefits or job security. Everyone is an "at-will" employee. They check your rights at the door, and the employer can fire anyone or change the conditions of employment at any time and for almost any reason.

Solution
A union should be formed through proper election so that labor welfare issues are taken care of, and to ensure that representatives of labor can negotiate with the management through collective bargaining in Good Faith if problems arise, etc. There are real advantages to having a union as an individual and for society in general. By forming a union with co-workers, together the employees will have the strength to negotiate a legally binding contract with the employer that includes better wages, housing needs, job security and a dress code that is acceptable from the perspective of the French workers.

Justification
Working people have struggled for fair wages, safe working conditions and fair treatment since the dawn of the industrial age. They have found that the only effective way to meet the power held by employers and supervisors is to act together rather than as individuals. This collective action is most often expressed by joining a union. The specific reasons that prompt a person to choose union membership vary from individual to individual, but they generally will include the desire for improved wages and benefits, housing, an acceptable dress code and increased job security in case of Euro Disney.

Problem 02
Since EuroDisneyLand practices a Top-down management approach, in many situations, workers are not aware of the operational mechanisms brought about by the upper management.

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The organizational structure at EuroDisney is strictly top-down. Many decisions taken by the American upper management are not conveyed to the employees working in the park which results in inappropriate decisions taken by employees on the job and also leads to degraded belongingness.

Solution
A comprehensive communication program to keep employees fully informed should be introduced. Constantly under refinement, this process will help to insure that Disney employees are able to conform to Disneys standards and deliver the high level of customer service. A planned communication program should be established which will open a room for information exchange and discussion between the management and employees at EuroDisney. The program should be scheduled to take place once a month to make the employees more informed, motivated and thus more flexible to adapt to minor and major issues and changes at the workplace.

Justification
The comprehensive communication program, if designed and conveyed effectively, will ensure that a flow of information is diffused correctly. This passage of data is necessary for the critical success of EuroDisney since will make the management as well as the employees more open to ideas and effectual execution of those ideas at EuroDisney. Employees will put in that extra discretionary effort when they are kept informed openly and honestly on aspects of their job and the business and they feel that they are being informed about the decisions that affect EuroDisney.

Problem 03
Unlike Disney's American theme parks, EuroDisney aimed for permanent employees as opposed to seasonal and temporary part-time employees. Staffing shortages create a negative cycle in which extra workloads are put on the existing employees. Unlike Disney's American theme parks, Euro Disney aimed for permanent employees (an estimated requirement of 12,000 for the theme park itself), instead of seasonal and temporary part-time employees. Seeking to address the shortages created by high turnover due to excessive stress, Disney management accelerated its complex training program. This put more stress on new hires, and left them even less prepared to provide the level of service expected of Disney employees.

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Solution
It should implement flexible labor systems by hiring part-time workers that will be adaptable to the situation. A maximum working week, average compensation and annualized hourly work schedules should be established for the permanent employees. To end numerous labour disputes over long-hours and poor pay, Euro Disneyland should shift away from imported American working practices and towards a more French approach. This new approach should set a maximum working week and annualized hourly work schedules for the employees.

Justification
In a service-oriented business such as Disney with very exacting customer service standards, proper staffing is crucial to an organizations success. Disney can implement and apply flexible labor systems that will be adaptable to the situation, and is accepted by the French labourers and thus, the need also to cut down costs and manage risks and small changes properly to have balance of business.

Problem 04
Communication barriers in the workplace were created by language and cultural gaps between the American management and the European employees. Barriers to effective communication between the management and the workers caused roadblocks at EuroDisney and it could be one of the major hurdles in the achievement of professional goals. Inability to converse in a language that is known by both the sender and receiver completely, and the proper addressing of the cultural differences were the greatest barrier to effective communication.

Solution
Appropriate training and development in regard to cross-cultural differences should be provided to the workers, as well as the management so that they acquire a collective understanding of the cultural issues. Cultural competency training seeks to provide participants with an insight into how cultures differ. This should be initiated at EuroDisney so as to make both the management and the employees to possess a better understanding towards one another and thus handle issues regarding EuroDisney more competently. Participants will develop better 'people skills' - they begin to deal

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with people with sensitivity and empathy, become good listeners and good communicators, too.

Justification
People belonging to different demographic make-ups and the life associated with that difference are working at EuroDisney. Cultural competency training is critical for anyone working either internationally or in a multicultural environment. Once a foundation has been set through cross-cultural training, manifestations of culture in a number of settings can be explored at EuroDisney. Through greater self-awareness, the management and the workers will be encouraged to develop strategies that can be implemented when working across cultures.

Problem 05
Disney practiced an employment system of sending workers home during off-peak seasons in many of its operations which gave a rise of intimidation and insecurity among workers. In its operations in Orlando, Florida and Japan, Disney sent employees home when the number of visitors of the theme parks was low in off-peak seasons. This acted as an intimidating factor for the workers in EuroDisney since they were in constant fear regarding their job security.

Solution
Job security should be given to the permanent employees at EuroDisneyLand irrespective of peaks/seasons cycles. An average compensation package should be rendered to them all throughout the year. Employment security should be secured for the permanent employees of EuroDisney all around the year. An average pay should be provided to them persistently no matter whether the season was off-peak or on-peak.

Justification
Security of employment signals a long-standing commitment by the organization to its workforce. Norms of reciprocity tend to guarantee that this commitment is repaid. However, on the other hand, an employer that signals through word and deed that its employees are dispensable is not likely to generate much loyalty, commitment, or willingness to expend extra effort for the organizations benefit. This commitment should be met in the face of temporary slow demand at EuroDisney since trust between employees and the organization will increase substantially.

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Problem 06
EuroDisneys management failed to recognize local employees for their contributions or to even seek their contributions in the initial planning process which reduced employee belongingness and morale. Involvement of the employee of EuroDisney was not enough, and it was due to the lack of recognition of the employees contribution by the management. The EuroDisney employees worked hard. They gave their best to fit themselves into Disneylands culture. And, all they wanted is a little motivational boost by the management through recognition.

Solution
A role should be given to the European workers in day-to-day decision making through empowerment, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park. The employees should be rewarded appropriately so that they can enhance the firms overall success. The EuroDisney was situated inside France. Most of the employees were French people. But the top management was from United States of America. Employees as local people want to alter a few rules and regulation of the park which represents them more than the Disneyland itself. This is just to boost their work spirit. The employees should not feel like that their hands and feet are tied into a set barrier. The small decisions will obviously motivate them and make them feel that they are part of the show.

Justification
As employees of EuroDisney are mostly French people and the visitors of the park are also mostly French, it is better that the parks few rules and regulations should be altered in order to attract more visitors and motivate the employees. Employees will get motivated if they are involved to the day to day preparations. Involvement does not necessary mean to work had or give more work. It means how much they know about the work, want to do the work and responsibilities towards the work. The duties and the responsibilities are there but in a precise manner. But the involvement and the empowerment of the work are missing.

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Problem 07
The "Disney Look" - a rigid code of Cast Member appearance that entailed an all-American look was imposed on the European workers, who believed that these requirements interfered with their "individualism." The rule has unintentionally set discrimination in the recruitment process. The people with tattoos or piercing have disadvantages when it comes to recruitment. The persons who had tattoos had it for a long period of time and it symbolized many things to them. Tattoos are not only a fashion statement; they are a ritual for many societies. Disney set these rules actually discriminating them from the right these people have.

Solution
EuroDisney management should respect the cultural values of the workers and restructure the dress code by aligning it with the French dress code. As there are people who would love to work for Disneyland and will be some efficient employee but wont be able to get the job because of some rigid rule that cannot be changed by the park management. This is very painful for them as they are judged by their outer look than the inside. They feel like they have to be the social machines to entertain the park visitors than actually interacting with them as individuals.

Justification
Different countries/ places have their own unique culture. It is the moral duty of members of those particular cultural groups to follow the customs and do whatever to protect it. But they also have the right to work in different organizations, in this case Disneyland. But they are being rejected or forced to follow the rules set by Disneyland, which is not only unfair but also very disheartening.

Problem 08
The management of EuroDisney failed to consider the impact of the shortage of housing near the theme park, which had a potential to hamper the lives of the workers and result in turnover.

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The Disney chose to ignore the importance of the availability of workers and their families and their mode of earning and livelihood.

Solution
Options to overcome the housing shortage should be explored by the EuroDisney management to allow workers to live closer to the theme park. A housing colony should be constructed not only in order to give the workers a place to stay but to create homes near the workplace so that they have a place to live and it would be near their work also. If not a housing colony, then their pay scales should be increased so that they are able to afford the transport cost.

Justification
This act is completely justified because firstly, Disney is taking away the workers land, where they would construct their mega structure and inevitably make a lot of money from it. So how does that benefit the employees? It doesnt. The workers are left landless and the commute to and fro is costly. So by giving them a housing complex, the workers will be living near their workplace and that reduces transport cost. And if a housing complex does not cut the deal, then transport cost should be provided to the workers.

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IMPLEMENTATION
Problem 01
In spite of the importance of having a top-notch workforce, many considerations crucial to developing that effective workforce were overlooked at Euro Disney. Simply talking about issues that affect employees at EuroDisney isnt enough. To make a difference, their voices must be heard. And they can be heard only when they organize as a union and gain the strength to make real change regarding wage issues, job security, dress codes, etc. If there is no union in the workplace, there is no presence of guaranteed wages, health benefits or job security. Everyone is an "at-will" employee. They check the employee rights at the door, and the employer can fire anyone or change the conditions of employment at any time and for almost any reason.

Solution
A union should be formed through proper election so that labor welfare issues are taken care of, and to ensure that representatives of labor can negotiate with the management through collective bargaining in Good Faith if problems arise, etc. There are real advantages to having a union as an individual and for society in general. By forming a union with co-workers, together the employees will have the strength to negotiate a legally binding contract with the employer that includes better wages, housing needs, job security and a dress code that is acceptable from the perspective of the French workers. How will it be implemented? Legal implications and requirements to form a union at EuroDisney should be researched. An Appropriate Bargaining Unit (ABU) should be established. A union can be formed if at least 30 percent of those interested submit authorization cards to show willingness. Certification should be acquired from the appropriate authority. Once all the requirements are met, the documentation should be submitted to the authority for approval to get the certification to form a union. Union elections to establish the required roles in union organization should be carried out. The employees should be aware of their rights and develop a strong case for the formation of a union. It can be difficult to form a union and

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it makes the process easier if they have backup and documentation to support their case. Who will implement it? The workers at EuroDisney should come forward to form a union and the management of the company should grant them the permission to do so officially. Where will it be implemented? The solution will be employed at the EuroDisney worker level. When will it be implemented? The solution should be implemented as soon as possible to communicate the grievances of the workers to the management in a peaceful and organized manner regarding wage rates, dress code, housing, job security, etc.

Problem 02
Since EuroDisneyLand practices a Top-down management approach, in many situations, workers are not aware of the operational mechanisms brought about by the upper management. The organizational structure at EuroDisney is strictly top-down. Many decisions taken by the American upper management are not conveyed to the employees working in the park which results in inappropriate decisions taken by employees on the job and also leads to degraded belongingness.

Solution
A comprehensive communication program to keep employees fully informed should be introduced. Constantly under refinement, this process will help to insure that Disney employees are able to conform to Disneys standards and deliver the high level of customer service. A planned communication program should be established which will open a room for information exchange and discussion between the management and employees at EuroDisney. The program should be scheduled to take place once a month to make the employees more informed, motivated and thus more flexible to adapt to minor and major issues and changes at the workplace.

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How will it be implemented?

In the very initial stage, the management of EuroDisney should feel the
need to communicate the decisions taken about operational mechanisms in the company.

Language and cultural differences should be kept in mind in mind while


designing the program.

To do this, the HR department should design a comprehensive


communications program to facilitate effective exchange of data between the management and the employers.

The schedule of the program should be set to take place once a month.
Where will it be implemented? The solution will be implemented at the management and the employee level at EuroDisney. Who will implement it? The Human Resource Department should be responsible for designing and executing the comprehensive communication program. When will it be implemented? Its design and application should be initiated as soon as possible which will in the long run bring prosperity for EuroDisney.

Problem 03
Unlike Disney's American theme parks, EuroDisney aimed for permanent employees as opposed to seasonal and temporary part-time employees. Staffing shortages create a negative cycle in which extra workloads are put on the existing employees. Unlike Disney's American theme parks, Euro Disney aimed for permanent employees (an estimated requirement of 12,000 for the theme park itself), instead of seasonal and temporary part-time employees. Seeking to address the shortages created by high turnover due to excessive stress, Disney management accelerated its complex training program. This put more stress on new hires, and left them even less prepared to provide the level of service expected of Disney employees.

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Solution
It should implement flexible labor systems by hiring part-time workers that will be adaptable to the situation. A maximum working week, average compensation and annualized hourly work schedules should be established for the permanent employees. To end numerous labour disputes over long-hours and poor pay, Euro Disneyland should shift away from imported American working practices and towards a more French approach. This new approach should set a maximum working week and annualized hourly work schedules for the employees. How will it be implemented?

EuroDisney management should pay strong attention on this issue. At


first they have to make a forecast of demand for the theme park during different seasons.

Number of employees required during different phases should be


planned out.

During on-peak seasons, part-time employees should be hired.


Compensation should be planned for them according to number of days/hours worked.

Maximum working week, average compensation and annualized


hourly work schedules should be established for the permanent employees. Where will it be implemented? The solution should be implemented for the permanent employees in the organization and also apply when they are recruiting part-time employees. Who will implement it? The Human resource department should be responsible for implementing the suggested solution. When will it be implemented? The solution should be implemented immediately and the issue of hiring parttime workers should be implemented during on-peak seasons.

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Problem 04
Communication barriers in the workplace were created by language and cultural gaps between the American management and the European employees. Barriers to effective communication between the management and the workers caused roadblocks at EuroDisney and it could be one of the major hurdles in the achievement of professional goals. Inability to converse in a language that is known by both the sender and receiver completely, and the proper addressing of the cultural differences were the greatest barrier to effective communication.

Solution
Appropriate training and development in regard to cross-cultural differences should be provided to the workers, as well as the management so that they acquire a collective understanding of the cultural issues. How will it be implemented? The management should realize the adverse sides of not having crosscultural training resulting in communication barriers in the workplace. The Human Resource department should carefully design cultural competency training for both the management and the employees. The Human Resource department should ensure that the results of the training are visible and beneficial for EuroDisney. The results from the training programs should be ensured to have a direct effect on the performance of the employees. Who will implement it? The Human Resource department will be responsible for designing cultural competency training programs. It will also have to make sure that the programs are implemented in a timely manner. Where will it be implemented? The solution will be employed at the management and the employee level at EuroDisney. When will it be implemented? After the Human Resource department is done designing the training programs relevant to the employees and the management, the programs should be executed immediately so as to prevent communication barriers at workplace and lowered levels of productivity at EuroDisney.

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Problem 05
Disney practiced an employment system of sending workers home during off-peak seasons in many of its operations which gave a rise of intimidation and insecurity among workers. In its operations in Orlando, Florida and Japan, Disney sent employees home when the number of visitors of the theme parks was low in off-peak seasons. This acted as an intimidating factor for the workers in EuroDisney since they were in constant fear regarding their job security.

Solution
Job security should be given to the permanent employees at EuroDisneyLand irrespective of peaks/seasons cycles. An average compensation package should be rendered to them all throughout the year. How will it be implemented? Since the demand of theme parks is frequently changing, employees should not be sacked at times of off-seasons. The management should provide job security to the permanent employees of EuroDisney. The Human Resource Department should design an average compensation package for the permanent employees that will be implemented throughout the year. Where will it be implemented? Employment security should be implemented at the permanent workers level at EuroDisney in order to make them more loyal, committed, and willing to expend extra effort for the organizations benefit. Who should implement it? The management of EuroDisney should recognize the need of rendering job security to the permanent employees immediately.

Problem 06
EuroDisneys management failed to recognize local employees for their contributions or to even seek their contributions in the initial planning process which reduced employee belongingness and morale.

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Involvement of the employee of EuroDisney was not enough, and it was due to the lack of recognition of the employees contribution by the management. The EuroDisney employees worked hard. They gave their best to fit themselves into Disneylands culture. And, all they wanted is a little motivational boost by the management through recognition.

Solution
A role should be given to the European workers in day-to-day decision making through empowerment, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park. The employees should be rewarded appropriately so that they can enhance the firms overall success. The EuroDisney was situated inside France. Most of the employees were French people. But the top management was from United States of America. Employees as local people want to alter a few rules and regulation of the park which represents them more than the Disneyland itself. This is just to boost their work spirit. The employees should not feel like that their hands and feet are tied into a set barrier. The small decisions will obviously motivate them and make them feel that they are part of the show. How will it be implemented? EuroDisney management should go through the following steps in order to implement the solution Employees should be provided with detailed work schedule and responsibilities by which an employee can have complete knowledge about his/ her job. Management should allow employees to take small decisions. Management should know in what decision making process they will let their employees participate. Employees will directly send a report to the management about the decision they have given to a particular problem. Their decision will be evaluated by their seniors and if anything wrong happens the corrective measure will be taken by the management. If any employee faces any problem regarding taking a decision, he/she might take help from their peers and seniors. They should not hesitate to ask others. The management should give them a clear briefing on the dos and donts of the decision making process and equip them with the

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knowledge that is needed for better decision making process for Disneyland. Who will implement it? The management will be there to train and help the employees to take decisions. The employees are solely responsible for their own work and decision. So the employees should be more careful about their decisions. The management will monitor them while the employees take their decisions to ease the managements work load. Where will it be implemented? The process will be implemented both on managements side and employees side. The management will train, help and cover the employees decisions and on the other hand the employees will get knowledge from management and apply it. When will it be implemented? As it an initiative to motivate the employees, it should be started as soon as possible. But the management should be prepared as they will conduct the training process and will be ready for the backup of any wrong decision of the employees.

Problem07
The "Disney Look" - a rigid code of Cast Member appearance that entailed an all-American look was imposed on the European workers, who believed that these requirements interfered with their "individualism." The rule has unintentionally set discrimination in the recruitment process. The people with tattoos or piercing have disadvantages when it comes to recruitment. The persons who had tattoos had it for a long period of time and it symbolized many things to them. Tattoos are not only a fashion statement; they are a ritual for many societies. Disney set these rules actually discriminating them from the right these people have.

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Solution
EuroDisney management should respect the cultural values of the workers and restructure the dress code by aligning it with the French dress code. How will it be implemented? Walt Disney as an organization, works for children and clean entertainment for them, should not discriminate people as it will affect to the small kids those who come to visit the park. So for that Disney should engage them into the following steps Disneys top management should analyze the French culture. They should consider what the extremes are and how far they can accept changes. Match the French culture and the Disneys culture. Come up with the new set rules for EuroDisney and act according to it. Evaluate the total process and look for the loopholes. Take corrective measures to fine tune the new process for better success of the organization. Who will implement it? It is the duty of the top managers to come up with the idea and analyze the variables which need to be considered for the new set rules. The evaluation process will also be conducted by them to enable fine tuning. Where will it be implemented? The implementation process will take place on the employees and in the recruitment process, where people of different backgrounds (who have previously suffered) will get equal job opportunity. When will it be implemented? The process should start right away. But before that the Disney should consider all the changes that they need to adopt and practice before implementing it.

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Problem 08
The management of EuroDisney failed to consider the impact of the shortage of housing near the theme park, which had a potential to hamper the lives of the workers and result in turnover.

Solution
Options to overcome the housing shortage should be explored by the EuroDisney management to allow workers to live closer to the theme park. How will it be implemented? The methods of implementation are Disney should analyze the losses of their employees and the people who were previously lived in their region. Restructure the pay scale and include housing and transportation allowances. The allowances should match with the employees needs and wants, and should be justified by the top management. Future plan for the colony should be evaluated and should take sufficient steps to go further with it. Who will implement it? The methods will be implemented by the top level managers at EuroDisney. As Disney was responsible for the losses of these people, the process responsibility goes to them. Where will it be implemented? These methods should be implemented to the employee level because that is where they need it the most. It is of no use applying it elsewhere because it wouldnt benefit anywhere else. When will it be implemented? It should be implemented as soon as possible because the sooner the problem is dealt with, the sooner losses are cut. By losses we mean, the sooner the workers can settle in and begin work and sooner the work is done, the sooner the theme park can be up and running and making money.

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