You are on page 1of 40

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN BHD (14142-M)

CONSULTING ENGINNERS
PROJECT
DETAIL
JOB NUMBER

:
:
:

PROJECT TITLE
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
37478

Designed
Checked

:
:

KKL
LTC

File name

W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

Date
Date

:
:

19-Mar-2013
19-Mar-2013

S37T1 - EDGE BEAM (T1)


DESIGN DATA :
(I)

Number Of Stage For Stressing

(II)

Concrete Properties for Precast Beam:

Stages

fci1 =

30

N/mm2

Ec1 =

28

kN/mm

fci2 =

50

N/mm2

Ec2 =

34

kN/mm2

fcu =

50

N/mm

Ecu =

34

kN/mm2

fs =
As =

12.9

mm

(b) Cross Section Area

100

mm2

(c) Mudulus of Elasticity

Es =

195

kN/mm2
kN
/rad
rad/m
mm

(a) 1st Stage :

(i)
(ii)

(b) 2nd Stage :

(i)
(ii)

(c) 28 days

(i)
(ii)

(III)

Concrete Cube Strength


Modulus of Elasticity
Concrete Cube Strength
Modulus of Elasticity
Concrete Cube Strength
Modulus of Elasticity

Prestressing Strands Properties :


(a) Strand Diameter

(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

(IV)

U.T.S per Strand


Co-efficient of Friction
Wobble Factor
Average Anchorage Draw in

PUTS =
m =
K=
draw-in =

186
0.2
0.0033
10

Prestressing Losses Data:


(a) Relaxation of Strand Cable (At 1000 hours)
(b) Creep of Concrete per unit Length

=
ec =

2.5
0.000036

(c) Shrinkage per unit Length


(d) Creep reduction Coefficient

es =
k=

0.0002
0.43

% of Jacking Force
per N/mm2

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING (14142-M)


POST-TENSIONED BEAM DESIGN - Calculation of Post-Tensioning Cable Profile

Project
:
Detail
:
Filename :

JOB NO :

PROJECT TITLE
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

(1)

CALCULATION OF POST-TENSIONED CABLES PROFILE

(a)

Input Data
Leff =

39.00 m

Beam Length

Lbeam =

39.60 m

Cable Length

Lcable =

39.60 m

Effective Span

Nos. of Cables

Designed :
Checked :

KKL
LTC

4 nos

(b)

Cable Profile Formula

(i)

Formulae used for computing cable profile :


Y0 = Ym + (Ye - Ym) * (X0/Half beam length)2

(ii)

Formulae used for computing cable angle at anchorage :


Angle = arctan(2 * Drape / Half beam length)
Drape = Ye - Ym
where,

Y0 = Height of centre-line of cable from soffit at distance X0 from midspan.


Ye = Height of centre-line of cable from soffit at beam end.
Ym = Height of centre-line of cable from soffit at midspan.

(2)

CABLE INFO
Height of centre-line of cable
from soffit of beam

Drape

Mark

(mm)

Ye - Ym

Ye
Cable
Cable
Cable
Cable

(3)

Cable angle

Cable

A
B
C
D

1875.00
1525.00
1175.00
825.00

Ym
460.00
340.00
220.00
100.00

at anghorage

(mm)

(degree)

(nos)

1415.00
1185.00
955.00
725.00

8.134
6.826
5.510
4.188

19
19
19
19
76

Height of centre-line of cable


from soffit of beam
(mm)
Cable angle
Support

Midspan

X (m)

X0 (m)

Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Section 12
Section 13
Section 14
Section 15
Section 16
Section 17
Section 18
Section 19
Section 20
Section 21
Section 22

19.500
18.500
17.500
16.500
15.500
14.500
13.500
12.500
11.500
10.500
9.500
8.500
7.500
6.500
5.500
4.500
3.500
2.500
1.500
0.500
-0.300
-0.300

0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
7.000
8.000
9.000
10.000
11.000
12.000
13.000
14.000
15.000
16.000
17.000
18.000
19.000
19.800
19.800

8.134

6.826

5.510

4.188

A
19

B
19

C
19

D
19

460
464
474
492
518
550
590
637
691
752
821
897
980
1070
1167
1272
1384
1503
1629
1763
1875
1875

340
343
352
367
388
416
449
488
533
585
642
706
775
851
932
1020
1114
1214
1319
1431
1525
1525

220
222
230
242
259
281
308
339
376
417
464
515
571
632
697
768
844
924
1009
1099
1175
1175

100
102
107
117
130
146
167
191
218
250
285
324
366
413
462
516
573
634
699
768
825
825

at anchorage
Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

Strands
per Cable

CALCULATION OF CABLE PROFILE


Distance from

Total Nos of

Date :
Date :

37478

19-Mar-2013
19-Mar-2013

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Job No. :

Summary of Computer Analysis Output for Post-tensioned Beam Design

37478

Summary of Computer Analysis Output for Post-tensioned Beam Design


Project
Detail
Filename
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

:
:
:

PROJECT TITLE
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

Beam Type
Beam Position
Effective Span /Length Between Centreline of Bearings

(iv) Section Modulus :

@ Bottom Fibre of Precast Beam

(v)

@ Bottom Fibre of Composite Beam

Section Modulus :

KKL
LTC

Date :
Date :

19-Mar-2013
19-Mar-2013

= S37T1 (SAG)
= ELE 89 TO 96
Leff =
39.000 m
Zb =
4.526E+08 mm3
Zb,p =
5.369E+08 mm3
wpre =
20.868 kN/m

(vi) Precast Beam Selfweight

wslab =

(vii) Deck Slab Selfweight


NOTE :

Designed :
Checked :

8.900 kN/m

UDLMoment =w/2(Lx) (Leff-Lx)


UDL Shear =w (Leff/2-Lx)

MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT WITH CO-EXISTING SHEAR FOR PRESTRESSING DESIGN


(1a) SUMMARY OF THE NOMINAL MOMENT FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

NOMINAL MAXIMUM MOMENT (KNm)

NOMINAL - MOMENT
Distance
from
Support
Section
Support 1
1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

Nominal Moment Due to


Dead Load
Precast
Insitu Slab
Total
Lx (m)

Beam

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

0.00
740.30
1269.08
1586.36
1692.11
1586.36
1269.08
740.30
0.00

0.00
2476.09
4244.73
5305.91
5659.64
5305.91
4244.73
2476.09
0.00

Nominal Moment Due to


Superimposed Dead Load
Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-811.40
-275.30
106.20
356.10
492.20
523.20
449.20
261.20
-62.73

Premix

-393.80
-137.90
61.42
202.30
283.20
303.60
263.30
163.20
5.03

DS.CR,DSETT

2812.00
2460.62
2109.25
1757.87
1406.50
1055.12
703.75
352.37
0.00

NOMINAL LIVE LOADING MOMENT (kNm)

HA1003

1606.80
2047.42
2276.87
2316.27
2181.90
1881.92
1416.25
776.77
-57.71

HAHB4503

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OUTPUT

Total

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

511.50
433.60
1614.00
2486.00
3050.00
2903.00
2456.00
1403.00
-188.30

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

694.60
601.60
3170.00
4387.00
4885.00
4749.00
4290.00
2204.00
-329.50

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

(1b) SUMMARY OF THE NOMINAL CO-EXISTING SHEAR FORCE FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

NOMINAL CO-EXISITING SHEAR FORCE (kN) FOR MAXIMUM MOMENT

NOMINAL - SHEAR
Distance
from
Support
Section
Support 1
1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

Nominal Shear Force Due to


Dead Load
Precast
Insitu Slab
Total
Lx (m)

Beam

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

406.93
305.19
203.46
101.73
0.00
-101.73
-203.46
-305.19
-406.93

173.55
130.16
86.78
43.39
0.00
-43.39
-86.78
-130.16
-173.55

580.48
435.36
290.24
145.12
0.00
-145.12
-290.24
-435.36
-580.48

Nominal Shear Force Due to


Superimposed Dead Load
Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

70.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-70.00

135.00
101.20
72.21
47.00
23.70
0.41
-24.79
-53.93
-88.08

Premix

62.24
49.83
37.03
23.92
10.66
-2.60
-15.70
-28.49
-40.86

DS.CR,DSETT

123.65
117.78
111.90
106.03
-100.15
-94.28
-88.40
-82.53
-76.65

NOMINAL LIVE LOADING SHEAR (kN)

HA1003
Total

390.89
268.81
221.14
176.95
-65.79
-96.46
-128.89
-164.95
-275.59

HAHB4503

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OUTPUT


Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

-22.75
15.81
149.50
123.70
-36.25
-98.29
-231.30
-319.40
-239.50

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-33.26
165.80
203.80
109.20
-82.27
-102.50
-459.90
-542.50
-468.80

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Page 3

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Job No. :

Summary of Computer Analysis Output for Post-tensioned Beam Design

37478

(2a) SUMMARY OF THE SLS MOMENT FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

S.L.S - MOMENT

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE MOMENT (KNm)


Due to Dead Load
Precast
Insitu Slab
Total

Distance
from
Support

Due to Superimposed Dead Load


Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

Beam

Premix

DS.CR,DSETT

Total

HA1003

Due to Live Loading


HAHB4503

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS1

SLS

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS 2

SLS 2

Section

Lx (m)

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.200

1.000

1.20

1.20

1.00

1.00

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

0.00
740.30
1269.08
1586.36
1692.11
1586.36
1269.08
740.30
0.00

0.00
2476.09
4244.73
5305.91
5659.64
5305.91
4244.73
2476.09
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-811.40
-275.30
106.20
356.10
492.20
523.20
449.20
261.20
-62.73

-472.56
-165.48
73.70
242.76
339.84
364.32
315.96
195.84
6.03

2812.00
2460.62
2109.25
1757.87
1406.50
1055.12
703.75
352.37
0.00

1528.04
2019.84
2289.15
2356.73
2238.54
1942.64
1468.91
809.41
-56.70

613.80
520.32
1936.80
2983.20
3660.00
3483.60
2947.20
1683.60
-225.96

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

694.60
601.60
3170.00
4387.00
4885.00
4749.00
4290.00
2204.00
-329.50

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

(2b) SUMMARY OF THE SLS BOTTOM STRESS FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE BOTTOM STRESS (N/mm2)

S.L.S - STRESS (fb)


Due to Dead Load
Insitu Slab
Total

Distance
from
Support

Due to Superimposed Dead Load

Precast

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

Beam

& Services

Premix

DS.CR,DSETT

Total

HA1003

Due to Live Loading


HAHB4503

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS1

SLS

SLS 1

SLS 1

SLS 2

SLS 2

Section

Lx (m)

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.200

1.000

1.200

1.200

1.000

1.000

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
3.83
6.57
8.22
8.77
8.22
6.57
3.83
0.00

0.00
1.64
2.80
3.50
3.74
3.50
2.80
1.64
0.00

0.00
5.47
9.38
11.72
12.50
11.72
9.38
5.47
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-1.51
-0.51
0.20
0.66
0.92
0.97
0.84
0.49
-0.12

-0.88
-0.31
0.14
0.45
0.63
0.68
0.59
0.36
0.01

5.24
4.58
3.93
3.27
2.62
1.97
1.31
0.66
0.00

2.85
3.76
4.26
4.39
4.17
3.62
2.74
1.51
-0.11

1.14
0.97
3.61
5.56
6.82
6.49
5.49
3.14
-0.42

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1.29
1.12
5.90
8.17
9.10
8.84
7.99
4.10
-0.61

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

(2c) SUMMARY OF THE SLS BOTTOM STRESS FOR SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD + LIVE LOADING

S.L.S - fb(SDL+LL)

SDL + Live Loading

Distance
from
Support
Section

Lx (m)

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE BOTTOM STRESS (N/mm2)

SDL + HA1003

SDL + -

SDL + HAHB4503

SDL + -

3.99
4.73
7.87
9.95
10.99
10.11
8.22
4.64
-0.53

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

4.14
4.88
10.17
12.56
13.27
12.46
10.73
5.61
-0.72

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Page 4

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers

37478

Job No. :

Summary of Computer Analysis Output for Post-tensioned Beam Design

(3a) SUMMARY OF THE ULS MOMENT FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD + LIVE LOADING

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE MOMENT (KNm)

U.L.S-DESIGN Moment

Due to Dead Load


Precast
Insitu Slab
Total

Distance
from
Support

Beam

ULS 1

ULS 1

Section

Lx (m)

1.265

1.265

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
2195.78
3764.19
4705.24
5018.92
4705.24
3764.19
2195.78
0.00

0.00
936.48
1605.39
2006.74
2140.52
2006.74
1605.39
936.48
0.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

Due to Superimposed Dead Load

ULS

0.00
3132.26
5369.58
6711.98
7159.45
6711.98
5369.58
3132.26
0.00

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

Premix

ULS LIVE LOADING MOMENT (kNm)

DS.CR,DSETT

Total

HA1003

HAHB4503

ULS

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

1.65

1.65

1.43

1.43

843.98
715.44
2663.10
4101.90
5032.50
4789.95
4052.40
2314.95
-310.70

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

993.28
860.29
4533.10
6273.41
6985.55
6791.07
6134.70
3151.72
-471.19

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS1

1.320

1.320

1.925

1.320

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-1071.05
-363.40
140.18
470.05
649.70
690.62
592.94
344.78
-82.80

-758.07
-265.46
118.23
389.43
545.16
584.43
506.85
314.16
9.67

3711.84
3248.02
2784.21
2320.39
1856.58
1392.76
928.95
465.13
0.00

1882.73
2619.16
3042.63
3179.87
3051.44
2667.81
2028.75
1124.07
-73.13

(3b) SUMMARY OF THE ULS CO-EXISTING SHEAR FORCE FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD + LIVE LOADING

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE CO-EXISTING SHEAR FORCE (KN)

U.L.S-DESIGN Shear

Due to Dead Load


Precast
Insitu Slab
Total

Distance
from
Support

Beam

ULS 1

ULS 1

Section

Lx (m)

1.265

1.265

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

514.76
386.07
257.38
128.69
0.00
-128.69
-257.38
-386.07
-514.76

219.54
164.66
109.77
54.89
0.00
-54.89
-109.77
-164.66
-219.54

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

Due to Superimposed Dead Load

ULS

734.30
550.73
367.15
183.58
0.00
-183.58
-367.15
-550.73
-734.30

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

ULS LIVE LOADING SHEAR (kN)

Premix

DS.CR,DSETT

Total

HA1003

HAHB4503

ULS

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

1.65

1.65

1.43

1.43

-37.54
26.09
246.68
204.11
-59.81
-162.18
-381.65
-527.01
-395.18

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-47.56
237.09
291.43
156.16
-117.65
-146.58
-657.66
-775.78
-670.38

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Beam

& Services

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS1

1.320

1.320

1.925

1.320

92.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-92.40

178.20
133.58
95.32
62.04
31.28
0.55
-32.72
-71.19
-116.27

119.81
95.92
71.28
46.05
20.52
-5.00
-30.22
-54.84
-78.66

163.22
155.46
147.71
139.95
-132.20
-124.44
-116.69
-108.93
-101.18

553.63
384.97
314.31
248.04
-80.39
-128.90
-179.63
-234.96
-388.50

(3c) SUMMARY OF THE ULS TOTAL MOMENT AND TOTAL CO-EXISTING SHEAR FORCE FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD + LIVE LOADING

TOTAL MOMENT & SHEAR FOR U.L.S-DESIGN

U.L.S-DESIGN

DL + SDL + LIVE LOAD

Distance
from
Support

HA1003

Section

Lx (m)

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

2726.70 1250.39
6466.86
961.78
11075.31 928.13
13993.75 635.72
15243.39 -140.21
14169.74 -474.65
11450.73 -928.43
6571.28 -1312.70
-383.83 -1517.98

HAHB4503

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

2876.01
6611.71
12945.31
16165.26
17196.44
16170.86
13533.03
7408.05
-544.32

1240.37
1172.79
972.89
587.77
-198.04
-459.05
-1204.44
-1561.47
-1793.19

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Page 5

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers

37478

Job No. :

Summary of Computer Analysis Output for Post-tensioned Beam Design

MAXIMUM SHEAR FORCE WITH CO-EXISTING MOMENT FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT DESIGN
(4a) SUMMARY OF THE NOMINAL CO-EXSITING MOMENT WITH MAXIMUM SHEAR FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

NOMINAL CO-EXISITING MOMENT (kNm)

NOMINAL - MOMENT
Distance
from
Support
Section
Support 1
1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

Nominal Moment Due to


Dead Load
Precast
Insitu Slab
Total
Lx (m)

Beam

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

0.00
740.30
1269.08
1586.36
1692.11
1586.36
1269.08
740.30
0.00

Nominal Moment Due to


Superimposed Dead Load

0.00
2476.09
4244.73
5305.91
5659.64
5305.91
4244.73
2476.09
0.00

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-811.40
-275.30
106.20
356.10
492.20
523.20
449.20
261.20
-62.73

Premix

-393.80
-137.90
61.42
202.30
283.20
303.60
263.30
163.20
5.03

CR,DS,DSETTL

2812.00
2460.62
2109.25
1757.87
1406.50
1055.12
703.75
352.37
0.00

NOMINAL LIVE LOADING MOMENT (kNm)

1606.80
2047.42
2276.87
2316.27
2181.90
1881.92
1416.25
776.77
-57.71

HAHB4513 HAHB4514

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OUTPUT

Total

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-2510.00
-893.30
1828.00
1771.00
3481.00
1088.00
-515.50
-185.30
-210.90

654.40
508.10
2076.00
1658.00
4532.00
3706.00
4182.00
2100.00
163.00

(4b) SUMMARY OF THE NOMINAL MAXIMUM SHEAR FORCE FOR DEAD LOAD, SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD AND LIVE LOADING

NOMINAL MAXIMUM SHEAR FORCE (kN)

NOMINAL - SHEAR
Distance
from
Support
Section
Support 1
1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

Nominal Shear Force Due to


Dead Load
Precast
Insitu Slab
Total
Lx (m)

Beam

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

406.93
305.19
203.46
101.73
0.00
-101.73
-203.46
-305.19
-406.93

173.55
130.16
86.78
43.39
0.00
-43.39
-86.78
-130.16
-173.55

Nominal Shear Force Due to


Superimposed Dead Load

580.48
435.36
290.24
145.12
0.00
-145.12
-290.24
-435.36
-580.48

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

70.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-70.00

135.00
101.20
72.21
47.00
23.70
0.41
-24.79
-53.93
-88.08

Premix

62.24
49.83
37.03
23.92
10.66
-2.60
-15.70
-28.49
-40.86

CR,DS,DSETTL

123.65
117.78
111.90
106.03
-100.15
-94.28
-88.40
-82.53
-76.65

NOMINAL LIVE LOADING SHEAR (kN)

HAHB4513 HAHB4514

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OUTPUT

Total

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

Unfactored

390.89
268.81
221.14
176.95
-65.79
-96.46
-128.89
-164.95
-275.59

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

629.60
598.50
411.20
375.50
162.20
125.20
74.09
76.36
-506.40

-32.06
-27.81
-91.74
-88.68
-269.70
-296.30
-492.30
-506.40
76.36

(4c) ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE FACTORS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT DESIGN


ULS FACTORS
Elements

DEAD LOAD & SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD ULS FACTORS


Precast

Insitu Slab

Beam

Diaphragm

Parapet, Kerb

Beam

& Services

Premix

CR,DS,DSETTL

LIVE LOADING ULS FACTORS


-

HAHB4513 HAHB4514

Load Combinations

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS 1

ULS1

ULS 1

ULS 1

gf3*gfL

1.265

1.265

1.320

1.320

1.925

1.320

1.43

1.43

(4d) SUMMARY OF THE ULS TOTAL CO-EXSITING MOMENT AND TOTAL MAXIMUM SHEAR FORCE FOR SHEAR DESIGN
SHEAR DESIGN (ULS)

TOTAL CO-EXISITING MOMENT & MAXIMUM SHEAR FOR SHEAR DESIGN


DL + SDL + LIVE LOAD

Distance
from
Support

Section

Lx (m)

Moment
(kNm)

Support 1

0.00
4.88
9.75
14.63
19.50
24.38
29.25
34.13
39.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

1/8
2/8
3/8
Mid Span
5/8
6/8
7/8
Support 2

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

HAHB4513

HAHB4514

Shear
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)

Shear
(kN)

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-1706.57
4474.00
11026.25
12424.38
15188.72
10935.63
6661.17
3991.35
-374.72

2188.26
1791.55
1269.48
968.58
151.55
-133.44
-440.84
-676.50
-1846.95

2818.52
6478.01
11380.89
12262.79
16691.65
14679.37
13378.59
7259.33
159.96

1242.09
895.93
550.27
304.80
-466.06
-736.18
-1250.77
-1509.84
-1013.61

Page 6

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

Calculation of Prestress Losses & Differential Shrinkage At SLS


For PRECAST POST-TENSIONED PRESTRESSED BEAM Design
Project
:
Detail
:
Filename :

PROJECT TITLE
Designed :
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/WChecked
WIDTH :
W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

Design Data :

KKL
LTC

Lbeam

S40T1 BEAM

x
(1)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Spanning Length & Cable Length


Total Beam Length
Edge of Precast Beam to Centreline of Bearing Pads
Effective Span /Length Between Centreline of Bearings

(iv)

Total Cable Length/Beam Length

(2)
(i)

Precast Beam Concrete Properties


Number of Stage of Stressing (Max. = 2)
Concrete Cube Strength :

(ii)

(iii)

Lbeam =
Leff = Lbeam - 2x

x =
Leff =
Lcable =

Modulus Of Elasticity of Concrete :

m
m
m
m

@ 28 Days

Ecu =

@ Stage 1 Stressing

Ec1 =

@ Stage 2 Stressing

Ec2 =

2
50
30
50
34.0
28.0
34.0

gcon =

24.0 kN/mm3

@ Stage 1 Stressing

fci1 =

@ Stage 2 Stressing

fci2 =

Concrete Density

(3)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Section Properties Of Precast Beam


Cross Sectional Area
Total Height
Centriod of Precast Beam To Bottom Fibre

(iv)

Centriod of Precast Beam To Top Fibre

(v)

Moment of Inertia

(vi)

Section Modulus :

@ Top Fibre of Precast Beam

Zt =

(vii)

Section Modulus :

@ Bottom Fibre of Precast Beam

Zb =

(viii)

Selfweight of Precast Beam

(4)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Stressing Cable Properties


Coefficient of Friction
Wobble Factor
Average Anchorage Draw in
Strand Diameter

(v)

Ultimate Tensile Strength per Strand

(vi)

Cross Sectional Area per Strand

As =

(vii)

Modulus of Elasticity of Strand

Es =

(5)

Proposed Stressing Sequence


STAGE 1 :

(6)

39.600
0.300
39.000
39.600

Number of Stage =
fcu =

@ 28 Days

(iv)

Ap =
H =
yb =
yt =
Ipxx =

wpre =

m =
K =
draw-in =
fs =
PUTS =

STAGE 2 :

Date : 19-Mar-2013
Date : 19-Mar-2013

Stress Cable "A" to

Stress Cable "B" to

Stress Cable "C" to

Stress Cable "D" to

Stress Cable "A" to

Stress Cable "B" to

Stress Cable "C" to

Stress Cable "D" to

869500
2125
1162.3
962.7

Stages

O.K.!

N/mm2
N/mm2

O.K.!

N/mm2
kN/mm2
kN/mm2

O.K.!

kN/mm2

O.K.!

mm2
mm
mm
mm

5.26080E+11 mm4
5.4646E+08 mm3
4.5262E+08 mm3
20.868 kN/m

0.2
0.0033
10
12.9
186.0
100
195.0

/rad
/m
mm
mm
kN
mm2
kN/mm2

50
50
50
50

% of PUTS O.K.!
% of PUTS O.K.!

73
73
73
73

% of PUTS O.K.!
% of PUTS O.K.!

% of PUTS O.K.!
% of PUTS O.K.!

% of PUTS O.K.!
% of PUTS O.K.!

Jacking Force , Pj (kN) = n(%of PUTS)

Jacking Force

pj1

Stage 1

A
19
1767.0

pj2

Stage 2

2579.8

Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

B
19
1767.0

C
19
1767.0

D
19
1767.0

Total
76
7068.0

2579.8

2579.8

2579.8

10319.3
7 of 21

KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

(7)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

In-Situ Slab/Flange Properties


Embedment of The Insitu Slab
Thickness of The In-situ Slab
Width of the Top in-situ Slab

(iv)

Area of in-situ flange/slab

Af =

(v)

Concrete Grade

fc =

(vi)

Modulus Elasticity of In-situ

Ein-situ =

(vii)

SelfWeight Of In-Situ Slab

wslab =

(8)
(a)

Composite Beam Section Properties


Total Height of The Composite

Hc =

(b)

Cross Section Area

Ac =

(c)

Centroid from Soffit

yb,c =

(d)

Second Moment of Area

Icxx =

(e)

Section Moduli :

@ Top of Composite section

Zt,c =

(f)

Section Moduli :

@ Top of Precast Beam

Zt,p =

(g)

Section Moduli :

@ Bottom of Top In-situ Slab

Zb,s =

1.0798E+09 mm3
1.0798E+09 mm3

(h)

Section Moduli :

@ Bottom of Precast Beam

Zb,p =

5.3693E+08 mm3

(9)

Modular Ratio

(Einsitu/Ecu2)

(10)
(i)
(ii)

Prestress Losses Calculation Data


Maximum Relaxation of Strands after 1000 h durations
Creep of Concrete per Unit Length

(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Shrinkage per Unit Length


No. of weeks of Stage 2 Prestressing after Stage 1
Allowed % of Final Losses at Stage 1 Transfer, Stage 2 Transfer and Stage 2 Service :

At Stage 2 Service

mm
mm
mm
mm2
N/mm2
kN/mm2
kN/m

2305 mm
1150300 mm2
1419.28 mm
7.6205E+11 mm4
8.6037E+08 mm3

0.824

% =
ec =

2.5 %
2
0.000036 per N/mm

es =
=

2.00E-04
2 weeks

% of Total Final Losses During Stage 1 Stressing


During Stage 1 Stressing
Friction Losses

Draw-In Wegdes

Elast. Shrt.

100

100

100

Occured During Stage 1 but Before Stage 2 Stressing

% of Total Final Losses During Stage 2 Stressing

Assumed Losses

At Stage 2 Transfer

0
180
1950
351000
30
28.0
8.900

m =

Assumed Losses

At Stage 1 Transfer

=
t =
lf =

37478

Steel Relaxation

Shrinkage

Creep

33

33

% of Total Final Losses @ Stage 1 Stressing

During Stage 2 Stressing

Remaining from Stage 1

Friction Losses

Draw-In Wegdes

Elast. Shrt.

Steel Relaxation

Shrinkage

Creep

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100
100

67
67
100

67
67
100

Total (%) of Loss From Stage 1 and Stage 2

(11)

Post-Tensioning Cable Profile

(12)

Height of Centre-Line of Cables From Soffit of Beam


(m)
End Conditions
-1 *
1 *
-1 *
1 *
Support
Midspan
Cable Mark
A
B
C
D
Total
Lx (m)
X0 (m)
Nos. Of Strands
19
19
19
19
76
Near End
e'
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Ye
Beam Ends
19.800
1875.0
1525.0
1175.0
825.0
1350.0
0.000
19.500
1832.4
1489.4
1146.3
803.2
1317.8
4.875
14.625
1232.0
986.5
741.0
495.5
863.8
9.750
9.750
803.1
627.3
451.6
275.8
539.5
14.625
4.875
545.8
411.8
277.9
143.9
344.9
Ym
19.500
0.000
460.0
340.0
220.0
100.0
280.0
24.375
4.875
545.8
411.8
277.9
143.9
344.9
29.250
9.750
803.1
627.3
451.6
275.8
539.5
34.125
14.625
1232.0
986.5
741.0
495.5
863.8
39.000
19.500
1832.4
1489.4
1146.3
803.2
1317.8
Ye
Beam Ends
19.800
1350.0
1875.0
1525.0
1175.0
825.0
Far End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Note : * = Please Type " -1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Far End and Type " 1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Near End.
2 * artanh [4(Drape)/Lbeam ]
qsum = qsupport1 qmidspan+ qsupport2 =
Sum Of Cable Deviation Angle
Distance of Section from

Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

Drape = Ye - Ym

(mm)

qsum
(rad)
Sum of Cable Angular Deviations (in radian),
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

A
19
1415.00

B
19
1185.00

C
19
955.00

D
19
725.00

0.2839

0.2383

0.1923

0.1462

76

8 of 21

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

Stage 1 Post Tensioning


Prestress Losses
(1)

Immediate Losses

1(a) Friction Loss


(i)

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.3)

Force Gradient

A
0.2839

B
0.2383

C
0.1923

D
0.1462

0.1875
0.8291

0.1783
0.8367

0.1691
0.8444

0.1599
0.8522

Total Loss of Prestr. Force due to Friction Losses


pfrict.Loss (kN)
pfrict.Loss = (1 - e-(mq+KLcable))*pj1

302.1

288.6

275.0

261.1

1126.79

As a percentage of pj1

% of pj1

17.1

16.3

15.6

14.8

15.94

% of PUTS

8.5

8.2

7.8

7.4

7.97

Cable Mark

qsum
mqsum + KLcable
e-(mq + KLcable)

As a percentage of PUTS

Cable Force @ Dead End after Frict. Losses


pd = pj1 - pfrict.Loss
pd (kN)

1464.9

1478.4

1492.0

1505.9

5941.21

% of PUTS

41.5

41.8

42.2

42.6

42.03

Loss of Pres. Force per unit length/Force Gradient


dp = (pfrict.Loss/Lcable)
dp (kN/m)

7.628

7.288

6.944

6.595

28.454

As a percentage of PUTS

(ii)

Total

Cable Force Along Beam Length After Friction Losses


A
B
C
D
-1 *
1 *
-1 *
1 *
Total
Lx (m)
X0 (m)
dp (kN/m)
-7.628
7.288
-6.944
6.595
Near End
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Beam Ends
19.800
1767.0
1478.4
1767.0
1505.9
6518.2
SUPPORT 1
0.000
19.500
1764.7
1480.6
1764.9
1507.8
6518.0
4.875
14.625
1727.5
1516.1
1731.1
1540.0
6514.7
9.750
9.750
1690.3
1551.6
1697.2
1572.1
6511.3
14.625
4.875
1653.2
1587.2
1663.4
1604.3
6508.0
MIDSPAN
19.500
0.000
1616.0
1622.7
1629.5
1636.4
6504.6
24.375
4.875
1578.8
1658.2
1595.7
1668.6
6501.2
29.250
9.750
1541.6
1693.8
1561.8
1700.7
6497.9
34.125
14.625
1504.4
1729.3
1528.0
1732.9
6494.5
SUPPORT 2
39.000
19.500
1467.2
1764.8
1494.1
1765.0
6491.2
Beam Ends
19.800
1464.9
1767.0
1492.0
1767.0
6491.0
Far End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Note : * = Please Type " -1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Far End and Type " 1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Near End.
Distance of the section from

Suppport

Midpsan

Cable Mark

Incre/decre.

9 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

1(b) Prestressing Force Loss due to Draw-in Wedges


(i)

Job No. :

37478

(VSL Prestressing System)

Distance affected by Draw-in Wedges from Live End


A

Total

22.039

22.547

23.099

23.703

Cable Mark

Distance affected by Draw-in Wedges from Live End,

w = (draw-in * Es * As * n /dp)1/2
w < Lcable

w (m)

Loss of Force @ Live Ends Due to Wedges Draw-in

pdraw-inLoss = 2 * w * dp

pdraw-inLoss (kN)

336.22

328.65

320.79

312.62

1298.28

As a percentage of pj1

% of pj1

19.0

18.6

18.2

17.7

18.37

% of PUTS

9.5

9.3

9.1

8.8

9.18

As a percentage of PUTS

(ii)

(iii)

Draw-in Wedges Losses Along Beam Length


Distance From

pdraw-inLoss (kN)

Suppport

Cable Mark

Total, Pdraw-inLoss

Lx (m)

(kN)

(% of Pj1)

(% of PUTS)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

331.64
257.27
182.90
108.53
34.16
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
40.04
111.10
182.16
253.22
324.28

316.62
248.92
181.22
113.52
45.82
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
51.48
115.77
180.07
244.37
308.66

648.27
506.19
364.12
222.05
171.49
226.87
362.23
497.58
632.94

9.17
7.16
5.15
3.14
2.43
3.21
5.12
7.04
8.96

4.59
3.58
2.58
1.57
1.21
1.60
2.56
3.52
4.48

For -ve Force Gradient,


Lx < w
pdraw-inLoss = 2 * dp * (w - Lx)

For +ve Force Gradient,


(Lcable - Lx) < w,
pdraw-inLoss = 2 * dp * ( w - (Lcable - Lx))

Lx >= w

(Lcable - Lx)>=w,

pdraw-inLoss = 0

pdraw-inLoss = 0

Cable Force Along Beam Length After Friction & Wedges Draw-in Losses
Cable Mark

Distance From
Suppport

Lx (m)
0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

1433.1
1470.3
1507.4
1544.6
1581.8
1578.8
1541.6
1504.4
1467.2

1480.6
1516.1
1551.6
1587.2
1582.7
1547.1
1511.6
1476.1
1440.5

1448.3
1482.1
1516.0
1549.8
1583.7
1595.7
1561.8
1528.0
1494.1

1507.8
1540.0
1572.1
1604.3
1585.0
1552.8
1520.7
1488.5
1456.4

Allowable

Total

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

5869.77
6008.49
6147.20
6285.91
6333.11
6274.38
6135.67
5996.95
5858.24

41.52
42.50
43.49
44.47
44.80
44.39
43.40
42.42
41.44

< 70% OK!


< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!

10 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

1(c) Elastic Shortening Losses (BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.2)
Immediately after transfer, the change in strain in the prestressing steel dep caused by elastic shortening of the concrete
is equal to the strain in the concrete at the steel level, ecp. The loss of prestress in the steel, dfLoss is therefore :
dfLoss

0.5(Es/Ec1)*ftendon for post-tensioned beam

(ref. BS5400:Part4:Cl. 6.7.2.3)

N.B. ftendon is calculated for prestress and dead load stresses in the concrete adjacent to the tendons.
ES is modulus of elasticity of the prestressing tendon
Ec1 is modulus of elasticity of the precast concrete at Stage1
(i)

Moment & Concrete Stress Due To Selfweight of Precast Beam


M
(kNm)

ft

fb

(m)

Lx

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

e'
(mm)

(N/mm2)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

0.000
3.176
5.445
6.807
7.260
6.807
5.445
3.176
0.000

0.000
-3.835
-6.574
-8.218
-8.766
-8.218
-6.574
-3.835
0.000

1317.8
863.8
539.5
344.9
280.0
344.9
539.5
863.8
1317.8

0.000
-0.985
-3.523
-5.780
-6.654
-5.780
-3.523
-0.985
0.000

Moment, M = w(Lx/2)(Leff -L x)
ft = M/Zt
fb = -M/Zb
(ii)

ftendon

H = Total Height of Precast Beam.


e' = Distance from centroid of tendon to soffit.
ftendon = fb + [(-fb+ft)x(e'/H)]

Concrete Stress Due To Prestressing Force After Friction & Wedges Draw-in Losses
Lx

e = yb - e'

Pi

ft

fb

ftendon

(m)

(mm)

(kN)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

5869.77
6008.49
6147.20
6285.91
6333.11
6274.38
6135.67
5996.95
5858.24

8.421
3.628
0.063
-2.174
-2.942
-2.170
0.063
3.621
8.405

4.734
10.873
15.529
18.582
19.629
18.548
15.500
10.852
4.725

7.021
7.928
11.603
15.213
16.655
15.185
11.581
7.913
7.007

e' = distance from centroid of tendon to soffit of Precast Beam


e = distance from centroid of tendon to neutral axis of Precast Beam
Ap = Cross Section Area of Precast Beam
Pi = Total Initial Prestress Forces after Friction and Wedge Draw-in Losses
ft = Pi/Ap - Pie/Zt
(iii)

fb = Pi/Ap + Pie/Zb

ftendon = fb + [(-fb+ft)x(e'/H)]

Calculation of Prestress Loss Due To Elastic Shortening of Concrete Along Beam Length
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

Stress at Tendon Level (ftendon)

Loss of Prestress = 0.5*ftendon(Es/Ec1)

Selfweight

Prestress

Total (Stage 1)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(% of Pj1)

(% of PUTS)

0.000
-0.985
-3.523
-5.780
-6.654
-5.780
-3.523
-0.985
0.000

7.021
7.928
11.603
15.213
16.655
15.185
11.581
7.913
7.007

7.021
6.943
8.080
9.434
10.001
9.406
8.058
6.928
7.007

24.447
24.177
28.135
32.850
34.824
32.753
28.059
24.124
24.399

185.795
183.745
213.827
249.661
264.666
248.922
213.251
183.342
185.430

2.629
2.600
3.025
3.532
3.745
3.522
3.017
2.594
2.624

1.31
1.30
1.51
1.77
1.87
1.76
1.51
1.30
1.31

11 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

1(d) Summary of Immediate Losses (Friction Loss, Draw-in Loss And Elastic Shortening Loss)
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

% of Immediate Loss from PUTS

Immediate Losses
Friction Loss

Draw-in Loss

Elastic Loss

Total

Friction Loss

Draw-in Loss

Elastic Loss

Total

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

550.0
553.3
556.7
560.0
563.4
566.8
570.1
573.5
576.8

648.27
506.19
364.12
222.05
171.49
226.87
362.23
497.58
632.94

185.795
183.745
213.827
249.661
264.666
248.922
213.251
183.342
185.430

1384.0
1243.3
1134.6
1031.7
999.6
1042.5
1145.6
1254.4
1395.2

3.89
3.91
3.94
3.96
3.99
4.01
4.03
4.06
4.08

4.59
3.58
2.58
1.57
1.21
1.60
2.56
3.52
4.48

1.31
1.30
1.51
1.77
1.87
1.76
1.51
1.30
1.31

9.79
8.79
8.03
7.30
7.07
7.38
8.10
8.87
9.87

1(e) Summary of Cable Force After Immediate Losses and Allowable Prestressing Force Checks In Cables
Lx

Jacking Force

Total

Cable Force After

Allowable

(m)

Pj1

Immediate Loss

Immediate Loss

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

(% of Pj1)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0

19.58
17.59
16.05
14.60
14.14
14.75
16.21
17.75
19.74

5684.0
5824.7
5933.4
6036.3
6068.4
6025.5
5922.4
5813.6
5672.8

40.21
41.21
41.97
42.70
42.93
42.62
41.90
41.13
40.13

< 70% OK!

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

< 70% OK!


< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!

NOTE : Maximum Initial Prestressing Force for Post-Tensioning Tendon Immediately after anchoring = 70% of P UTS.
(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.1)

1(f)

Summary of Concrete Stress After Immediate Losses And Allowable Stress Checks in Concrete at Transfer
Allowable Tensile Stress @ Stage 1 Transfer
Allowable Compressive Stress @ Stage 1 Transfer
Lx

-1.00
15.00

(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : CL. 6.3.2.4b)


(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : Table 23)

Concrete Stresses

Cable Force After

Moment Due to
Beam Selfweight

ft

fb

ftendon

(mm)

Immediate Loss
(kN)

(kNm)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

5684.0
5824.7
5933.4
6036.3
6068.4
6025.5
5922.4
5813.6
5672.8

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

8.155
6.693
5.506
4.719
4.442
4.723
5.506
6.687
8.139

4.584
6.706
8.414
9.626
10.043
9.594
8.387
6.686
4.575

6.798
6.701
7.676
8.830
9.305
8.804
7.656
6.686
6.785

(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

=
=

Allowable
Checks
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

12 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

(2)

Job No. :

37478

Deferred Losses Before Stage 2 Stressing

2(a) Relaxation of Steel

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

The Loss of force in the tendon allowed for in the design should be the maximum relaxation after 1000 h duration, for a jacking force
equal to that imposed at transfer.
No reduction in the value of relaxation loss should be made for a tendon when a load equal to or greater that the relevant jacking force
has applied for time proir to anchoring of tendon.
(i)
(ii)

=
=

2.5
0.0

n (nos)
pj1 (kN)

A
19
1767.0

B
19
1767.0

C
19
1767.0

D
19
1767.0

TOTAL
76
7068

prelaxLoss (kN)

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

% of pj1

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

% of PUTS

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

At 1000 hours, Relaxation of Steel of Cable


Assumed Percentage Occurred During Stage 1 Transfer
Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

Jacking Force
Total Relaxation Loss in Force
Relaxation Loss as percentage of pj1
Relaxation Loss as percentage of PUTS

2(b) Shrinkage of Concrete Losses


(i)

% of Jacking Force
% of final

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

From BS 5400:Part 4:1990:Table 29,


Shrinkage per unit length
Humid exposure
Normal exposure
(90% r.h)
(70% r.h)

System
Post-tensioning : transfer at
between 7 days and 14 days
after concreting

es

(ii)

Shrinkage Strain used in the Design,

es =

200.0E-6

(iii)

Assumed Percentage Occurred,


during Stage 1 Transfer.

%=

33

fshrink.Loss =
=
=

es
200.0E-6
12.999

70 x 10-6

per unit length

% of final

(iii)

Shrinkage Strain Loss as Stress,


(During Stage 1 Transfer)

(iv)

Shrinkage of Concrete Losses in all Cables (During Stage 1 Transfer), p shrink.Loss


Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

200 x 10-6

x
x
N/mm2 per strand

Es
195000

x (% During Stage 1 Transfer)


x
0.3333

A
19

B
19

C
19

D
19

TOTAL
76

Total Shrinkage Loss in Force


As Loss in percentage of pi1

pshrink.Loss (kN)

24.69753

24.69753

24.69753

24.698

98.790

% of pj1

1.40

1.40

1.40

1.40

1.40

As Loss in percentage of PUTS

% of PUTS

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70

13 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

2(c) Creep of Concrete Losses

Job No. :

37478

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990: Cl. 6.7.2.5)

- The loss of prestress in the tendons due to creep of the concrete should be calculated on the assumption that creep is proportional to
stress in the concrete for stress of up to one-third of the cube strength at transfer.
- For Post-tensioning System :
If the required cube strength at transfer is greater than 40.0 N/mm2, the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 per N/mm2.
For lower values of the cube strength at transfer (fci), the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 x (40.0/fci) per N/mm2.
Where the maximum stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds one-third of the cube strength, the value of the
creep should be increased with the factor as below:

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Increased factor

(Max stress @ Transfer - fci/3)*0.25


(fci/2- fci/3)

(iv)

Calculation of Stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendon after elastic deformation losses
-

Creep Strain
Assumed Concrete Creep Loss During Stage 1 Transfer
Modulus of Elasticity of Strand
Increased factor
One -third (1/3) of Concrete cube Strength at Stage 1, fci1

ec =
%=
Es =
=
fci1/3 =

Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons level, f tendon

Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

After
After Steel
Immediate Loss Relaxation Loss
(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

6.798
6.701
7.676
8.830
9.305
8.804
7.656
6.686
6.785

6.798
6.701
7.676
8.830
9.305
8.804
7.656
6.686
6.785

Maximum
Stress

4.80E-05
33.33
195.0
1.000
10.00

per N/mm2
% of final
kN/mm2
N/mm2 .

Creep Loss
(During Stage 1 Transfer/ Before Stage 2 Stressing)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(% of Pj1)

(% of PUTS)

9.305

21.209
20.904
23.947
27.546
29.028
27.464
23.883
20.858
21.167

161.187
158.871
182.001
209.347
220.614
208.728
181.510
158.522
160.871

2.28
2.25
2.57
2.96
3.12
2.95
2.57
2.24
2.28

1.14
1.12
1.29
1.48
1.56
1.48
1.28
1.12
1.14

Where,
(i) Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons at transfer after Steel Relaxation Losses
= Stress at Tendon level after Immediate Losses - The Steel Relaxation Loss at Stage 1 transfer
(ii) Creep Loss = Stress at tendon level * Creep Strain (ec) * Es * Increased Factor * % occured @ Stage 1 Transfer

14 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

2(d) Summary of Deferred Losses (Steel Relaxation Loss, Concrete Shrinkage Loss and Creep of Concrete Loss)
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

% of Deferred Loss from PUTS

Deferred Losses
Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79
98.79

161.187
158.871
182.001
209.347
220.614
208.728
181.510
158.522
160.871

260.0
257.7
280.8
308.1
319.4
307.5
280.3
257.3
259.7

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70

1.14
1.12
1.29
1.48
1.56
1.48
1.28
1.12
1.14

1.84
1.82
1.99
2.18
2.26
2.18
1.98
1.82
1.84

2(e) Summary of Cable Force After Immediate & Deferred Losses and Allowable Prestressing Force Checks
Lx

Jacking Force

(m)

Pj1

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

Total

Total

Cable Force After

Total Stage 1

Immediate Loss Deferred Loss

(kN)

(% of Pj1)

(% of Pj1)

Losses
(% of Pj1)

7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0
7068.0

19.58
17.59
16.05
14.60
14.14
14.75
16.21
17.75
19.74

3.68
3.65
3.97
4.36
4.52
4.35
3.97
3.64
3.67

23.26
21.24
20.03
18.96
18.66
19.10
20.17
21.39
23.41

Allowable

Immediate & Deferred Losses

(% of PUTS)

Immediate Loss

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

5684.0
5824.7
5933.4
6036.3
6068.4
6025.5
5922.4
5813.6
5672.8

5424.0
5567.1
5652.6
5728.1
5749.0
5717.9
5642.1
5556.3
5413.1

38.37
39.38
39.99
40.52
40.67
40.45
39.91
39.31
38.29

< 70% OK!


< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!

NOTE : Maximum Initial Prestressing Force for Post-Tensioning Tendon Immediately after anchoring = 70% of P UTS
(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.1)

2(f)

Summary of Concrete Stress After Immediate & Deferred Losses And Allowable Stress Checks in Concrete
at Transfer (Not Required to Check - Can Be Ommited)
Allowable Tensile Stress @ Stage 1 Transfer
Allowable Compressive Stress @ Stage 1 Transfer
Lx

(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : CL. 6.3.2.4b)


(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : Table 23)

Concrete Stresses

Cable Force After

Moment Due to
Beam Selfweight

ft

fb

ftendon

(mm)

All Loss
(kN)

(kNm)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

5424.0
5567.1
5652.6
5728.1
5749.0
5717.9
5642.1
5556.3
5413.1

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

7.782
6.538
5.504
4.826
4.590
4.829
5.503
6.531
7.766

4.374
6.239
7.705
8.715
9.053
8.685
7.679
6.220
4.366

6.487
6.361
7.146
8.084
8.465
8.059
7.126
6.346
6.474

(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-1.00 N/mm2
15.00 N/mm2

=
=

Allowable
Checks
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

- END OF STAGE 1 CALCULATIONS -

15 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

Stage 2 Post Tensioning


Prestress Losses
(3)

Immediate Losses

3(a) Friction Loss


(i)

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.3)

Force Gradient

A
0.2839

B
0.2383

C
0.1923

D
0.1462

0.1875
0.8291

0.1783
0.8367

0.1691
0.8444

0.1599
0.8522

Total Loss of Prestr. Force due to Friction Losses


pfrict.Loss (kN)
pfrict.Loss = (1 - e-(mq+KLcable))*pj2
As a percentage of pj2
% of pj2

441.0

421.4

401.5

381.3

1645.11

17.1

16.3

15.6

14.8

15.94

As a percentage of PUTS

12.5

11.9

11.4

10.8

11.64

2138.8

2158.4

2178.4

2198.6

8674.17

60.5

61.1

61.6

62.2

61.36

11.136

10.641

10.138

9.628

41.543

Cable Mark

qsum
mqsum + KLcable
e-(mq + KLcable)

% of PUTS

Cable Force @ Dead End after Frict. Losses


pd = pj2 - pfrict.Loss
pd (kN)
As a percentage of PUTS

% of PUTS

Loss of Pres. Force per unit length/Force Gradient


dp = (pfrict.Loss/Lcable)
dp (kN/m)

(ii)

Total

Cable Force Along Beam Length After Friction Losses


A
B
C
D
-1 *
1 *
-1 *
1 *
Lx (m)
X0 (m)
dp (kN/m)
-11.136
10.641
-10.138
9.628
Near End
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Beam Ends
19.800
2579.8
2158.4
2579.8
2198.6
SUPPORT 1
0.000
19.500
2576.5
2161.6
2576.8
2201.4
4.875
14.625
2522.2
2213.5
2527.4
2248.4
9.750
9.750
2467.9
2265.4
2477.9
2295.3
14.625
4.875
2413.6
2317.3
2428.5
2342.2
MIDSPAN
19.500
0.000
2359.3
2369.1
2379.1
2389.2
24.375
4.875
2305.0
2421.0
2329.7
2436.1
29.250
9.750
2250.7
2472.9
2280.2
2483.1
34.125
14.625
2196.4
2524.8
2230.8
2530.0
SUPPORT 2
39.000
19.500
2142.2
2576.6
2181.4
2576.9
Beam Ends
19.800
2138.8
2579.8
2178.4
2579.8
Far End
Dead End
Live End
Dead End
Live End
Note : * = " -1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Far End and " 1 " for Dead End of Cable is in the Near End.
Distance of the Section from

Suppport

Midpsan

Cable Mark

Incre/decre.

Total

9516.6
9516.3
9511.4
9506.5
9501.6
9496.7
9491.8
9486.9
9482.0
9477.1
9476.8

16 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

3(b) Prestressing Force Loss due to Draw-in Wedges


(i)

Job No. :

37478

(VSL Prestressing System)

Distance affected by Draw-in Wedges from Live End


A

Total

18.240

18.660

19.117

19.617

Cable Mark

Distance affected by Draw-in Wedges from Live End,

w = (draw-in * Es * As * n /dp)1/2
w < Lcable

w (m)

Loss of Force @ Live Ends Due to Wedges Draw-in

pdraw-inLoss = 2 * w * dp

pdraw-inLoss (kN)

406.25

397.11

387.61

377.74

1568.72

As a percentage of pj2

% of pj2

15.7

15.4

15.0

14.6

15.20

% of PUTS

11.5

11.2

11.0

10.7

11.10

As a percentage of PUTS

(ii)

(iii)

Draw-in Wedges Losses Along Beam Length


Distance From

pdraw-inLoss (kN)

Suppport

Cable Mark

Total, Pdraw-inLoss

Lx (m)

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(% of PUTS)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

399.57
290.99
182.41
73.83
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
79.48
183.23
286.98
390.73

381.53
282.69
183.84
85.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
90.34
184.22
278.09
371.96

781.10
573.68
366.25
158.83
0.00
169.83
367.45
565.07
762.69

7.57
5.56
3.55
1.54
0.00
1.65
3.56
5.48
7.39

5.53
4.06
2.59
1.12
0.00
1.20
2.60
4.00
5.40

For -ve Force Gradient,


Lx < w
pdraw-inLoss = 2 * dp * (w - Lx)

For +ve Force Gradient,


(Lcable - Lx) < w,
pdraw-inLoss = 2 * dp * ( w - (Lcable - Lx))

Lx >= w

(Lcable - Lx)>= w,

pdraw-inLoss = 0

pdraw-inLoss = 0

Cable Force Along Beam Length After Friction & Wedges Draw-in Losses
Cable Mark

Distance From
Suppport

Lx (m)
0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

2176.9
2231.2
2285.5
2339.8
2359.3
2305.0
2250.7
2196.4
2142.2

2161.6
2213.5
2265.4
2317.3
2369.1
2341.5
2289.6
2237.8
2185.9

2195.2
2244.7
2294.1
2343.5
2379.1
2329.7
2280.2
2230.8
2181.4

2201.4
2248.4
2295.3
2342.2
2389.2
2345.8
2298.8
2251.9
2205.0

Allowable

Total

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

8735.23
8937.76
9140.28
9342.80
9496.73
9322.00
9119.48
8916.95
8714.43

61.79
63.23
64.66
66.09
67.18
65.95
64.51
63.08
61.65

< 70% OK!


< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!

17 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

3(c) Elastic Shortening Losses (BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.2)
Immediately after transfer, the change in strain in the prestressing steel dep caused by elastic shortening of the concrete
is equal to the strain in the concrete at the steel level, ecp. The loss of prestress in the steel, dfLoss is therefore :
dfLoss

0.5(Es/Ec2)*ftendon for post-tensioned beam

(ref. BS 5400:Part 4:Cl. 6.7.2.3)

N.B. ftendon is calculated for prestress and dead load stresses in the concrete adjacent to the tendons.
ES is modulus of elasticity of the prestressing tendon
Ec2 is modulus of elasticity of the precast concrete at Stage 2 Service
(i)

Moment & Concrete Stress Due To Selfweight of Precast Beam


M
(kNm)

ft

fb

(m)

Lx

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

e'
(mm)

(N/mm2)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

0.000
3.176
5.445
6.807
7.260
6.807
5.445
3.176
0.000

0.000
-3.835
-6.574
-8.218
-8.766
-8.218
-6.574
-3.835
0.000

1317.8
863.8
539.5
344.9
280.0
344.9
539.5
863.8
1317.8

0.000
-0.985
-3.523
-5.780
-6.654
-5.780
-3.523
-0.985
0.000

Moment, M = w(Lx/2)(Leff -L x)
ft = M/Zt
fb = -M/Zb
(ii)

ftendon

H = Total Height of Precast Beam.


e' = Distance from centroid of tendon to soffit.
ftendon = fb + [(-fb+ft)x(e'/H)]

Concrete Stress Due To Prestressing Force After Friction & Wedges Draw-in Losses
Lx

e = yb - e'

Pi

ft

fb

ftendon

(m)

(mm)

(kN)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

8735.23
8937.76
9140.28
9342.80
9496.73
9322.00
9119.48
8916.95
8714.43

12.532
5.397
0.094
-3.231
-4.411
-3.223
0.094
5.384
12.502

7.045
16.174
23.090
27.618
29.434
27.557
23.037
16.136
7.028

10.448
11.793
17.252
22.612
24.975
22.561
17.213
11.766
10.423

e' = distance from centroid of tendon to soffit


e = distance from centroid of tendon to neutral axis of Precast
Ap = Cross Section Area of Precast Beam
Pi = Total Initial Prestress Forces after Friction and Wedge Draw-in Losses
ft = Pi/Ap - Pie/Zt
(iii)

fb = Pi/Ap + Pie/Zb

ftendon = fb + [(-fb+ft)x(e'/H)]

Calculation of Prestress Loss Due To Elastic Shortening of Concrete Along Beam Length
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

Stress at Tendon Level (ftendon)

Net Stress at tendon

Loss of Prestress = 0.5*ftendon(Es/Ec2)

Selfweight

Prestress

Total (Stage 2) (Stage 2 - Stage 1)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(% of PUTS)

0.000
-0.985
-3.523
-5.780
-6.654
-5.780
-3.523
-0.985
0.000

10.448
11.793
17.252
22.612
24.975
22.561
17.213
11.766
10.423

10.448
10.808
13.729
16.832
18.321
16.782
13.690
10.781
10.423

3.427
3.865
5.649
7.398
8.320
7.376
5.632
3.853
3.416

9.828
11.084
16.201
21.216
23.858
21.152
16.150
11.049
9.796

74.694
84.237
123.124
161.242
181.321
160.753
122.743
83.971
74.453

0.724
0.816
1.193
1.563
1.757
1.558
1.189
0.814
0.721

0.53
0.60
0.87
1.14
1.28
1.14
0.87
0.59
0.53

18 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

3(d) Summary of Immediate Losses (Friction Loss, Draw-in Loss And Elastic Shortening Loss)
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

% of Immediate Loss from PUTS

Immediate Losses
Friction Loss

Draw-in Loss

Elastic Loss

Total

Friction Loss

Draw-in Loss

Elastic Loss

Total

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

802.9
807.8
812.7
817.7
822.6
827.5
832.4
837.3
842.2

781.10
573.68
366.25
158.83
0.00
169.83
367.45
565.07
762.69

74.694
84.237
123.124
161.242
181.321
160.753
122.743
83.971
74.453

1658.7
1465.8
1302.1
1137.7
1003.9
1158.0
1322.5
1486.3
1679.3

5.68
5.71
5.75
5.78
5.82
5.85
5.89
5.92
5.96

5.53
4.06
2.59
1.12
0.00
1.20
2.60
4.00
5.40

0.53
0.60
0.87
1.14
1.28
1.14
0.87
0.59
0.53

11.73
10.37
9.21
8.05
7.10
8.19
9.36
10.51
11.88

3(e) Summary of Cable Force After Immediate Losses and Allowable Prestressing Force Checks In Cables
Lx

Jacking Force

Total

Cable Force After

Allowable

(m)

Pj2

Immediate Loss

Immediate Loss

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3

16.07
14.20
12.62
11.03
9.73
11.22
12.82
14.40
16.27

8660.5
8853.5
9017.2
9181.6
9315.4
9161.2
8996.7
8833.0
8640.0

61.27
62.63
63.79
64.95
65.90
64.81
63.64
62.49
61.12

< 70% OK!

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

< 70% OK!


< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!
< 70% OK!

NOTE : Maximum Initial Prestressing Force for Post-Tensioning Tendon Immediately after anchoring = 70% of P UTS
(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.1)

3(f)

Summary of Concrete Stress After Immediate Losses And Allowable Stress Checks in Concrete at Transfer
Allowable Tensile Stress @ Stage 2 Transfer
Allowable Compressive Stress @ Stage 2 Transfer
Lx

-1.00
20.00

(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : CL. 6.3.2.4b)


(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : Table 23)

Concrete Stresses

Cable Force After

Moment Due to

Immediate Loss

Beam Selfweight

ft

fb

ftendon

(mm)

(kN)

(kNm)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

8660.5
8853.5
9017.2
9181.6
9315.4
9161.2
8996.7
8833.0
8640.0

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

12.425
8.522
5.538
3.632
2.934
3.639
5.538
8.510
12.396

6.985
12.187
16.205
18.924
20.107
18.864
16.153
12.149
6.968

10.359
10.697
13.497
16.442
17.844
16.393
13.458
10.670
10.334

(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

=
=

Allowable
Checks
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
NOT OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

19 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

(4)

Job No. :

37478

Deferred Losses During Stage 2 Stressing

4(a) Relaxation of Steel

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

The Loss of force in the tendon allowed for in the design should be the maximum relaxation after 1000 h duration, for a jacking force
equal to that imposed at transfer.
No reduction in the value of relaxation loss should be made for a tendon when a load equal to or greater that the relevant jacking force
has applied for time proir to anchoring of tendon.
(i)

At 1000 hours, Relaxation of Steel of Cable

2.5

n (nos)
pj2 (kN)

A
19
2579.8

B
19
2579.8

C
19
2579.8

D
19
2579.8

TOTAL
76
10319.28

Total Final Relaxation Loss in Force

prelaxLoss (kN)

64.50

64.50

64.50

64.50

257.98

Relaxation Loss as percentage of pj2

% of pj2

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

% of PUTS

1.83

1.83

1.83

1.83

1.83

Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

Jacking Force

Relaxation Loss as percentage of PUTS

4(b) Shrinkage of Concrete Losses


(i)

% of Jacking Force

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

From BS 5400:Part 4:1990:Table 29,


Shrinkage per unit length
Humid exposure
Normal exposure
(90% r.h)
(70% r.h)

System
Post-tensioning : transfer at
between 7 days and 14 days
after concreting

es

(ii)

Shrinkage Strain used in the Design,

es =

200.0E-6

(iii)

Shrinkage Strain Loss as Stress,


(Final Loss)

fshrink.Loss =
=
=

es
200.0E-6
39.000

(iv)

Shrinkage of Concrete Final Losses in all Cables, pshrink.Loss


Cable Mark
Nos. Of Strands

70 x 10-6

200 x 10-6

x
x
N/mm2 per strand

Es
195000

A
19

B
19

C
19

D
19

TOTAL
76

Total Shrinkage Loss in Force


As Loss in percentage of pi2

pshrink.Loss (kN)

74.1

74.1

74.1

74.100

296.400

% of pj2

2.87

2.87

2.87

2.87

2.87

As Loss in percentage of PUTS

% of PUTS

2.10

2.10

2.10

2.10

2.10

20 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

4(c) Creep of Concrete Losses

Job No. :

37478

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990: Cl. 6.7.2.5)

- The loss of prestress in the tendons due to creep of the concrete should be calculated on the assumption that creep is proportional to
stress in the concrete for stress of up to one-third of the cube strength at transfer.
- For Post-tensioning System :
If the required cube strength at transfer is greater than 40.0 N/mm2, the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 per N/mm2.
For lower values of the cube strength at transfer (fci), the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 x (40.0/fci) per N/mm2.
Where the maximum stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds one-third of the cube strength, the value of the
creep should be increased with the factor as below:

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Increased factor

(Max stress @ Transfer - fci/3)*0.25


(fci/2- fci/3)

(iv)

Calculation of Stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendon after elastic deformation losses
- Creep Strain
-

Modulus of Elasticity of Strand


Increased factor
One -third (1/3) of Concrete cube Strength at Stage 2
Assumed Steel Relaxation Loss During Stage 2 Transfer

Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

ec =
Es =
=
fci2/3 =
%=

195
1.022
16.67
100.00

per N/mm2
kN/mm2
N/mm2 .
% of final

From Stage 1 Stressing

From Stage 2 Stressing

Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons level, f tendon

Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons level, f tendon

After

After Steel

Immediate Loss

(N/mm2)
6.798
6.701
7.676
8.830
9.305
8.804
7.656
6.686
6.785

6.798
6.701
7.676
8.830
9.305
8.804
7.656
6.686
6.785

For Creep Loss Calculation

After Steel Relaxation Loss

Relaxation Loss

Stress

ftendon(Stage2)-ftendon(Stage1)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

17.398

3.301
3.729
5.483
7.201
8.093
7.180
5.466
3.717
3.291

After

After Steel

Relaxation Loss

Stress

Immediate Loss

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

9.305

10.359
10.697
13.497
16.442
17.844
16.393
13.458
10.670
10.334

10.100
10.430
13.159
16.031
17.398
15.983
13.122
10.403
10.076

Creep Loss During Stage 2


(Final Loss)

During Stage 2

During Stage 2

Maximum

Maximum

For Creep Loss Calculation

Lx
(m)

3.60E-05

Remaining
Creep Loss

After Steel Relaxation Loss

fromStage1

ftendon(Stage2)-ftendon(Stage1)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

3.301
3.729
5.483
7.201
8.093
7.180
5.466
3.717
3.291

23.683
26.752
39.336
51.662
58.057
51.506
39.215
26.667
23.606

179.987
203.312
298.955
392.631
441.235
391.442
298.033
202.673
179.408

1.74
1.97
2.90
3.80
4.28
3.79
2.89
1.96
1.74

1.27
1.44
2.11
2.78
3.12
2.77
2.11
1.43
1.27

322.423
317.789
364.056
418.757
441.295
417.518
363.075
317.092
321.789

Where, (Only for 2 stages Stressing)


(i) Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons at transfer after Steel Relaxation Loss
= Stress at Tendon level after Immediate Losses - the Steel Relaxation Losses at Stage 2 Transfer
(ii) Total Creep Loss At Stage 2 ( due to additional prestressing in Stage 2 compared to Stage 1)
= (Stress at tendon level during Stage 2 - Stress at tendon level During Stage 1) * Creep Strain (ec) * Es * Increased Factor

21 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

4(d) Summary of Deferred Losses During Stage 2 Transfer


(Steel Relaxation Loss, Concrete Shrinkage Loss and Creep of Concrete Loss)
Assumed Percentage of Losses : (i) Relaxation
(ii) Shrinkage
(iii) Creep (S1)
(iv) Creep (S2)
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

=
=
=
=

100.00
66.67
66.67
100.00

% of final
% of final
% of Stage 1 final Creep Loss
% of Stage 2 final Creep Loss
% of Deferred Loss from PUTS

Deferred Losses During Stage 2 Transfer


Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0

197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61

502.410
521.101
663.010
811.389
882.530
808.961
661.108
519.765
501.198

958.0
976.7
1118.6
1267.0
1338.1
1264.6
1116.7
975.4
956.8

1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83

1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

3.55
3.69
4.69
5.74
6.24
5.72
4.68
3.68
3.55

6.78
6.91
7.91
8.96
9.47
8.95
7.90
6.90
6.77

4(e) Summary of Cable Force After Immediate & Deferred Losses and Allowable Prestressing Force Checks In
Cables During Stage 2 Transfer
Lx

Jacking Force

(m)

Pj2

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

Total

Total

Cable Force After

Total Stage 2

Immediate Loss Deferred Loss

Transfer Losses

Immediate Loss

Allowable

Immediate & Deferred Losses

(% of PUTS)

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(% of Pj2)

(% of Pj2)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3

16.07
14.20
12.62
11.03
9.73
11.22
12.82
14.40
16.27

9.28
9.46
10.84
12.28
12.97
12.25
10.82
9.45
9.27

25.36
23.67
23.46
23.30
22.70
23.48
23.64
23.85
25.55

8660.5
8853.5
9017.2
9181.6
9315.4
9161.2
8996.7
8833.0
8640.0

7702.5
7876.8
7898.6
7914.6
7977.3
7896.7
7880.0
7857.6
7683.2

54.49
55.72
55.88
55.99
56.43
55.86
55.74
55.59
54.35

<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!

NOTE: Maximum Initial Prestressing Force for Post-Tensioning Tendon Immediately after anchoring = 70% of P UTS
(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.1)

4(f)

Summary of Concrete Stress After Immediate & Deferred Losses And Allowable Stress Checks in Concrete
During Stage 2 Transfer
Allowable Tensile Stress @ Stage 2 Transfer
Allowable Compressive Stress @ Stage 2 Transfer
Lx

(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : CL. 6.3.2.4b)


(BS 5400 :Part 4 :1990 : Table 23)

Concrete Stresses

Cable Force After

Moment Due to
Beam Selfweight

ft

fb

ftendon

(mm)

All Loss
(kN)

(kNm)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

-155.5
298.5
622.8
817.4
882.3
817.4
622.8
298.5
-155.5

7702.5
7876.8
7898.6
7914.6
7977.3
7896.7
7880.0
7857.6
7683.2

0.00
1735.79
2975.65
3719.56
3967.53
3719.56
2975.65
1735.79
0.00

11.051
7.932
5.527
4.070
3.555
4.076
5.527
7.921
11.023

6.212
10.419
13.379
15.178
15.959
15.126
13.332
10.384
6.196

9.213
9.408
11.385
13.376
14.325
13.332
11.351
9.383
9.190

(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-1.00 N/mm2
20.00 N/mm2

=
=

Allowable
Checks
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

22 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

4(g) Summary of Deferred Losses During Stage 2 Service


(Steel Relaxation Loss, Concrete Shrinkage Loss and Creep of Concrete Loss)
Assumed Percentage of Losses : (i) Relaxation
(ii) Shrinkage
(iii) Creep (S1)
(iv) Creep (S2)
Lx
(m)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

=
=
=
=

100.00
66.67
66.67
100.00

% of final
% of final
% of Stage 1 Creep Loss (Remaining from Stage 1 Stressing)
% of Stage 2 final Creep Loss
% of Deferred Loss from PUTS

Deferred Losses During Stage 2 Service


Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

Relaxation Loss

Shrinkage Loss

Creep Loss

Total

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

(% of PUTS)

258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0
258.0

197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61
197.61

502.410
521.101
663.010
811.389
882.530
808.961
661.108
519.765
501.198

958.0
976.7
1118.6
1267.0
1338.1
1264.6
1116.7
975.4
956.8

1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83

1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

3.55
3.69
4.69
5.74
6.24
5.72
4.68
3.68
3.55

6.78
6.91
7.91
8.96
9.47
8.95
7.90
6.90
6.77

4(h) Summary of Cable Force After Immediate & Deferred Losses and Allowable Prestressing Force Checks In
Cables During Stage 2 Service
Cable Force After

Lx

Jacking Force

Total

Total

Total Stage 2

(m)

Pj2

Immediate Loss

Deferred Loss

Service Losses

Immediate Loss

(kN)

(% of Pj2)

(% of Pj2)

(% of Pj2)

(kN)

(kN)

(% of PUTS)

Checks

10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3
10319.3

16.07
14.20
12.62
11.03
9.73
11.22
12.82
14.40
16.27

9.28
9.46
10.84
12.28
12.97
12.25
10.82
9.45
9.27

25.36
23.67
23.46
23.30
22.70
23.48
23.64
23.85
25.55

8660.5
8853.5
9017.2
9181.6
9315.4
9161.2
8996.7
8833.0
8640.0

7702.5
7876.8
7898.6
7914.6
7977.3
7896.7
7880.0
7857.6
7683.2

54.49
55.72
55.88
55.99
56.43
55.86
55.74
55.59
54.35

<70%, OK!

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

Allowable

Immediate & Deferred Losses

(% of PUTS)

<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!
<70%, OK!

NOTE : Maximum Initial Prestressing Force for Post-Tensioning Tendon Immediately after anchoring = 70% of P UTS
(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.1)

- END OF STAGE 2 LOSSES CALCULATIONS -

23 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE BETWEEN PRECAST BEAM AND IN-SITU SLAB


(IN ACCORDANCE WITH RESEARCH REPORT NO. 15 : NOVEMBER 1963 - AN INVESTIGATIONOF THE BEHAVIOUR OF
THE COMPOSITE CONCRETE BEAMS FROM C&CA )
(BS 5400:Part4:1990 Cl.7.4.3.4)
Before the two concretes could be jointed together, external forces and moments would have to be applied to the beam to
straighten it. Firstly the moment is to be applied:
Mb = F2EcIpxx

Ec = Young's modulus of the precast beam concrete


Ipxx = Second moment of area of the precast beam
F2 = Rotation of the beam = 1/H (sbb - sbt)

where ,

sbb = free total strain movement of the bottom fibres


sbt = free total strain movement of the top fibres
H = Total depth of precast beam
A pair of tensile forces is now applied to the ends of the slab at its centroid; these forces (F) are of such magnitude that the
elongation of the slabs equals the differential shrinkage, i.e.
F = dEin-situA1

d = Differential shrinkage coefficient


Ein-situ= Modulus of elasticity of the in-situ concrete
A1= Area of the in-situ flange/slab

where,

Assume deck slab is cast one month after precast beams, so then 50 % of the shrinkage has taken place.
Hence,
d = 0.5 * Differential shrinkage coefficient
The two concrete can now be jointed together and equal and opposite forces and moments applied to cancel F and M b.
Since the two concrete are now acting as a composite section, the compressive cancelling forces -F will be accompained by
a moment,
Mc =

Fe1

e1 = Diatance between the centroid of insitu flange


to centroid of composite section

where,

The net value of the cancelling moment is therefore,


Mc ' =

Mc - Mb

= Fe1 - Mb

The resulting stresses in the cross-section due to these external and cancelling forces can now be dertermined, these are, (see Figure 1)
f 1 = ( F/A1' - F/Ac - Mc' y1/Icxx)(Einsitu/Ec) * (k)

(Top of Insitu Slab)

f 2 = ( F/A1' - F/Ac - Mc' y2/Icxx)(Einsitu/Ec) * (k)

(Bottom of Insitu Slab)

f 3 = ( -F/Ac - Mc' y2/Icxx -Mb yt/Ipxx) * (k)

(Top of Precast Beam)

f 4 = ( -F/Ac + Mc' y4/Icxx + Mb yb/Ipxx) * (k)

(Bottom of Precast Beam)


original length at time of
casting insitu flange

sf
f1

centroid of flange

e1

-F

y1
y2
yt

centroid of
composite

f3
f2
sbt

section

centroid of
precast beam
yb

Mc' = Fe-Mb

y4

Mb

sbb
where,
A1 = area of in situ concrete
A2 = area of precast concrete section

f4

y2 = distance from centroid of the composite beam to top fibre of precast beam
y4 = distance from centroid of the composite beam to soffit fo precast beam

Ac = area of composite concrete section


A1' = transformed area of in situ concrete = (Modular ratio) * A 1
yt = distance from centroid of the precast beam to top of precast beam
yb = distance from centroid of the precast beam to soffit of precast beam

Icxx = moment of inertia/second moment of area of composite section


k = creep reduction coefficient
Ein-situ= Modulus of elasticity of the in-situ concrete
Ec = Young's modulus of the precast beam concrete

y1 = distance from centroid of the composite beam to top fibre of in-situ flange

FIGURE 1 - Theoretical Approach to Differential Shrinkage

24 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS

Job No. :

37478

CALCULATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE BETWEEN PRECAST BEAM


AND IN-SITU SLAB
(1)

Design Parameter :

(a)

Modular Ratio

(b)

Area of Insitu Slab

m=
A1 =

(c)

Transformed Area of Insitu Slab

A 1' =

(d)

Area of Precast Section

A2 =

(e)

Area of Composite Section

Ac =

(f)

Moment of Inertia of Precast

Ipxx =

(g)

Moment of Inertia of Composite

Icxx =

(h)

Total Depth of Precast Beam

H=

(I)

Thickness of Insitu Slab

(j)

Centroid of Precast to Top fibre

t=
yt =

(k)

Centroid of Precast to Bottom fibre


Centroid of Composite Beam to :
Top of Insitu Slab

yb =

(m)

Top of Precast Beam

y2 =

(n)

Bottom of Precast Beam

y4 =

(o)

Centroid of Top Slab

e1 =

(p)
(q)

Differential Shrinkage Coefficient


Creep Reduction Coefficient

d =
k=

(r)

Modulus of Elasticity of the precast

@transfer

Eci2 =

(s)

Modulus of Elasticity of the precast

@service

Ecu =

(t)

Modulus of Elasticity of the Insitu

(2)

Calculation of The Section Differential Shrinkage Between Precast Beam And Insitu Slab

(a)

Previous Calculated Final stresses due to selfweight and prestressing (after short term losses) :

(l)

(Einsitu/Ecu)

y1 =

0.824
351000
289059
869500
1158559

mm2
mm2
mm2
mm2

5.2608E+11 mm4
7.6205E+11 mm4

2125
180
963
1162

mm

885.72
705.72
1419.28
795.72

mm

mm
mm
mm

mm
mm
mm
50.0 % has occured during slab Const...)"

1.00E-04

0.43 (BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990: Cl.7.4.3.4)


34 kN/mm2
34 kN/mm2
28 kN/mm2

Ein-situ=

st

Prestress Force

Selfwt. Moment

Lx

@ Stage 2 Transfer

(m)

Pfinal (kN)

(kNm)

DL

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

7702.54
7876.83
7898.55
7914.58
7977.28
7896.69
7880.03
7857.63
7683.19

0.000
1735.794
2975.646
3719.558
3967.529
3719.558
2975.646
1735.794
0.000

0.000
3.176
5.445
6.807
7.260
6.807
5.445
3.176
0.000

Prestress Force

Selfwt. Moment

Lx

@ Stage 2 Transfer

(m)

Pfinal (kN)

(kNm)

DL

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

7702.54
7876.83
7898.55
7914.58
7977.28
7896.69
7880.03
7857.63
7683.19

0.000
1735.794
2975.646
3719.558
3967.529
3719.558
2975.646
1735.794
0.000

0.000
-3.176
-5.445
-6.807
-7.260
-6.807
-5.445
-3.176
0.000

(N/mm2)
Pfinal / A
Pfinal (e)/Zt
8.859
9.059
9.084
9.102
9.175
9.082
9.063
9.037
8.836

2.646
2.242
-4.315
-9.021
-11.933
-12.750
-11.787
-8.956
-4.197

Total
11.504
14.477
10.214
6.888
4.502
3.139
2.721
3.257
4.639

sb
(N/mm2)
Pfinal / A
Pfinal (e)/Zb
8.859
9.059
9.084
9.102
9.175
9.082
9.063
9.037
8.836

-2.646
-2.242
4.315
9.021
11.933
12.750
11.787
8.956
4.197

Total
6.213
3.641
7.954
11.317
13.847
15.025
15.405
14.816
13.034

25 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS
(b)

Job No. :

37478

Now calculate the (sbb - sbt), Mb, Mc, Mc' as following : Assuming % of the Creep has occured in the precast beam (short term losses)
when the in-situ slab is cast
=
50.00
% of

3.60E-05

per N/mm2

ec =
creep strain
1.80E-05
per N/mm2
increased creep factor =
1.022
F=
dEin-situA1 =
kN
9.83E+02
(sbb - sbt) = (creep strain when casting of insitu slab)*(increased creep factor)(s b - st)

Then,
and

F2 = Rotation of the beam = 1/H (sbb - sbt)


Mb = F2Eci2Ipxx
Mc = Fe1
Mc ' = Mc - Mb

Lx
(m)

(sbb - sbt)

F2

Mb
(Nmm)

Mc
(Nmm)

Mc '
(Nmm)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-9.73E-05
-1.99E-04
-4.16E-05
8.15E-05
1.72E-04
2.19E-04
2.33E-04
2.13E-04
1.54E-04

-4.58E-08
-9.38E-08
-1.96E-08
3.83E-08
8.09E-08
1.03E-07
1.10E-07
1.00E-07
7.27E-08

-8.193E+08
-1.678E+09
-3.501E+08
6.857E+08
1.447E+09
1.840E+09
1.964E+09
1.790E+09
1.300E+09

7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08
7.82E+08

1.60E+09
2.46E+09
1.13E+09
9.64E+07
-6.65E+08
-1.06E+09
-1.18E+09
-1.01E+09
-5.18E+08

(c)

Resulting Stresses Due To Differential Shrinkage Between Precast Beam and Insitu Slab

(i)

Determination of stresses at Top of Insitu Slab , f 1

Lx

F/A1'

F/Ac

Mc' y1/Icxx

(m) * (k)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

(ii)

f1
(N/mm2)

(m)
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400

0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848

1.861
2.859
1.316
0.112
-0.773
-1.230
-1.374
-1.171
-0.602

0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354

Mc' y2/Icxx

(m) * (k)

0.245
-0.109
0.438
0.864
1.177
1.339
1.390
1.318
1.117

Determination of stresses at Bottom of Insitu Slab , f 2

Lx

F/A1'

F/Ac

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

f2
(N/mm2)

(m)
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400
3.400

0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848

1.483
2.278
1.048
0.089
-0.616
-0.980
-1.095
-0.933
-0.479

0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.354

0.378
0.097
0.532
0.872
1.122
1.251
1.291
1.234
1.073

26 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Post-Tensioning - Calculation of Post-tensioned Prestress Losses and Differential Shrinkage @ SLS
(iii)

Lx

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

F/Ac

Mc' y2/Icxx

Mb yt/Ipxx

f3

(k)

(N/mm2)
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848

1.483
2.278
1.048
0.089
-0.616
-0.980
-1.095
-0.933
-0.479

-1.499
-3.070
-0.641
1.255
2.648
3.368
3.594
3.275
2.378

0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430

Mb yb/Ipxx

(k)

-0.358
-0.024
-0.540
-0.943
-1.239
-1.391
-1.440
-1.372
-1.181

Determination of stresses at Bottom of Precast Beam , f 4

Lx

F/Ac

Mc' y4/Icxx

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

f4
(N/mm2)

(m)

(3)

37478

Determination of stresses at Top of Precast Beam , f 3

(m)

(iv)

Job No. :

0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848
0.848

2.982
4.581
2.108
0.179
-1.238
-1.971
-2.201
-1.877
-0.964

-1.810
-3.707
-0.773
1.515
3.197
4.066
4.339
3.954
2.872

0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430
0.430

0.139
0.011
0.209
0.364
0.477
0.536
0.554
0.529
0.455

f1 =

Stresses @ Top of Insitu Slab

f2 =

Stresses @ Bottom of Insitu Slab

f3 =

Stresses @ Top of Precast Beam

f4 =

Stresses @ Bottom of Precast Beam

Summary Of The Resulting Stresses After Losses and Differential Shrinkage

Lx

f1

f2

f3

f4

(m)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

0.000
4.875
9.750
14.625
19.500
24.375
29.250
34.125
39.000

-0.245
0.109
-0.438
-0.864
-1.177
-1.339
-1.390
-1.318
-1.117

-0.378
-0.097
-0.532
-0.872
-1.122
-1.251
-1.291
-1.234
-1.073

0.358
0.024
0.540
0.943
1.239
1.391
1.440
1.372
1.181

-0.139
-0.011
-0.209
-0.364
-0.477
-0.536
-0.554
-0.529
-0.455

Note :

f1 =

( F/A1' - F/Ac - Mc' y1/Icxx)(Einsitu/Ec) * (k)

f2 =

( F/A1' - F/Ac - Mc' y2/Icxx)(Einsitu/Ec) * (k)

f3 =

( -F/Ac - Mc' y2/Icxx -Mb yt/Ipxx) * (k)

f4 =

( -F/Ac + Mc' y4/Icxx + Mb yb/Ipxx) * (k)

In the above table the sign convention has been amended to give tension as -ve
for consistance with other calculations.
End of Calculation Of Differential Shrinkage

27 of 21
KKHONG (OCT 1998)

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

37478

Prestress Checking at Deflected Sections At Serviceability Limit State For


Precast Prestressed Post-Tensioned Beam Design
Project
Detail
File name

:
:
:

Designed
Checked

PROJECT TITLE
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

:
:

Date :
Date :

KKL
LTC

##########
##########

DESIGN DATA
Prestressing System Post-tensioned
Tensile stress permitted, but no visible cracking

Precast Beam Section

Post -Tensioned

S40T1 BEAM

; Class
Crack =

2
0

member
mm

Precast Beam

(1) SECTION PROPERTIES OF PRECAST BEAM :


(i)
(ii)
(iii)

TOTAL HEIGHT OF THE PRECAST SECTION


AREA OF PRECAST BEAM
HEIGHT OF CENTROID ABOVE BOTTOM FIBRE

H =
A =
yb =

(iv)

SECTION MUDULI : TOP FIBRE OF PRECAST

Zt =

(v)
(vi)

BOTTOM FIBRE OF PRECAST


SELFWEIGHT OF PRECAST BEAM

Zb =
w =

2125 mm
0.869500 m2
1162.3 mm
0.54646 m3
0.45262 m3
20.868 kN/m

(2) SECTION MODULI OF COMPOSITE SECTION :


Zt,c =

(i)

TOP FIBRE OF COMPOSITE SECTION

(ii)

TOP FIBRE OF PRECAST SECTION

Zt,p =

(iii)

BOTTOM FIBRE OF TOP SLAB

Zb,s =

(iv)

BOTTOM FIBRE OF PRECAST SECTION

Zb,p =

(3) DEAD WT OF INSITU CONCRETE

winsitu =

0.86037 m3
1.07982 m3
1.07982 m3
0.53693 m3

(ii)

Presstress Concrete :

39 m Eff. Span
HB45 -SLS2

CLASS
CRACK WIDTH (mm)

@ TRANSFER

fci2 =

@ 28 DAYS

fcu =

50 N/mm2
50 N/mm2

fc =

30 N/mm2

Insitu Concrete :

8.900 kN/m

(4) CONCRETE STRENGTH:


(i)

S40T1 BEAM

0.00

(5) ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES FOR PRECAST BEAM:


(ref. BS5400:Part4:1990:Cl. 6.3.2)

FOR PRESTRESSING CONCRETE


ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES @ TRANSFER :
MEMBER

TENSION

COMPRESSION

N/mm2

N/mm2

CLASS 1

-1.000

20.000

CLASS 2

-1.000

20.000

CLASS 3

-1.000

20.000

ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES @ SERVICE/WORKING:


MEMBER

TENSION

CLASS 1
CLASS 2
CLASS 3

COMPRESSION

N/mm2

N/mm2

0.000

20.000

-2.546

20.000

CRACK WIDTH fcu = 40 N/mm2 fcu = >=50 N/mm2

0.10

-2.87

-3.36

0.15

-3.15

-3.71

0.25

-3.85

-4.41

20.000

(a)

ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES @ TRANSFER FOR PRECAST BEAM:

(i)
(ii)

TENSILE STRESS WITH SELF WT


COMPRESSIVE STRESS

(b)

ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES UNDER SERVICE/WORKING LOADS FOR PRECAST BEAM :

(i)
(ii)

TENSILE STRESS
COMPRESSIVE STRESS

(BS5400:P4:90:CL. 6.3.2.4 b(1))


(BS5400:P4:1990:CL.6.3.2.2 b)

(BS5400:P4:1990:CL.6.3.2.4a)
(BS5400:P4:1990:CL6.3.2.2a)

-1.00 N/mm2
20.00 N/mm2

-2.55 N/mm2
20.00 N/mm2

(6) ALLOWABLE CONCRETE STRESSES FOR INSITU SLAB:


(i)
(ii)

TENSILE STRESS
COMPRESSIVE STRESS

(BS5400:P4:1990:CL.7.4.3.3)
(BS5400:P4:1990:CL.7.4.3.2)

(7) EFFECTIVE SPAN OF PRECAST BEAM


(8) MODULAR RATIO

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

(Einsitu/Ecu)

Leff =
m =

-3.60 N/mm2
15.00 N/mm2
39.000 m
0.824

28

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

37478

STRESS CHECKS AT MID-SPAN AND VARIES SECTIONS ALONG THE BEAM


19.50 m

(0) AT MIDSPAN, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

100.00

19

220.00

19

340.00

19

460.00

76.000

280.00

TOTAL :

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
882.30 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

9.73 %
22.70 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS

186.00 kN
135.78 kN

EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND

122.57 kN

EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

104.96 kN

TOP OF
INSITU

BOTT OF
INSITU

TOP OF
PRECAST

BOTT OF
PRECAST

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

-4.33
28.87
7.26
-8.77
2.93
20.11
EXCEEDED ALLOWABLE PRESTRESSING STRESSES AT TRANSFER, TRY AGAIN
FINAL PRESTRESS
-3.71
24.72
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
10.36
-12.50
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
2
-1.00
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
HB45 -SLS2
6.82
5.43
6.60
-13.270 (MIDSPAN)
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
-1.177
-1.122
1.239
-0.477
TOTAL @ WORKING
7.64
4.31
14.49
-2.53

(1) AT SUPPORT 1, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

803.20

19

1146.28

19

1489.36

19

1832.45

76.000

1317.82

TOTAL :

0.00 m

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
-155.52 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

16.07 %
25.36 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER
FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
HB45 -SLS2
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

186.00
135.78
113.95
101.35

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

TOP OF
PRECAST
12.43
0.00
12.43

-1
2.13
-0.245
0.88

1.70
-0.378
1.32

11.05
0.00
2.06
0.358
13.47

kN
kN
kN
kN

BOTT OF
PRECAST
6.98
0.00
6.98
6.21
0.00
1.00
-4.140 (SUPPORT 1)
-0.139
2.93

29

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

(2) 2nd SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

4.88 m

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

495.55

19

741.03

19

986.52

19

1232.00

76.000

863.77

TOTAL :

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
298.53 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

14.20 %
23.67 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

186.00
135.78
116.49
103.64

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

2.51
0.109
2.62

2.00
-0.097
1.90

HB45 -SLS2

(3) 3rd SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

TOP OF
PRECAST
5.35
3.18
8.52
4.76
4.53
2.43
0.024
11.74

14.25
-5.47
-4.880 (SECTION 1)
-0.011
3.89

9.75 m

19

275.80

19

451.57

19

627.34

19

803.11

76.000

539.46

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
622.84 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

12.62 %
23.46 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND
TOP OF
INSITU
-

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

BOTT OF
PRECAST
16.02
-3.83
12.19

HT. ABOVE

FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

kN
kN
kN
kN

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

TOTAL :

37478

HB45 -SLS2

5.23
-0.438
4.79

186.00
135.78
118.65
103.93

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

4.16
-0.532
3.63

TOP OF
PRECAST
0.09
5.45
5.54
0.08
7.77
5.06
0.540
13.45

kN
kN
kN
kN

BOTT OF
PRECAST
22.78
-6.57
16.20
19.95
-9.38
-10.170 (SECTION 2)
-0.209
0.20

30

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

(4) 4th SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

14.63 m

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

143.95

19

277.89

19

411.84

19

545.78

76.000

344.86

TOTAL :

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
817.44 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

11.03 %
23.30 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

186.00
135.78
120.81
104.14

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

6.46
-0.864
5.59

5.14
-0.872
4.27

HB45 -SLS2

Mark

NOS.

-2.74
9.71
6.25
0.943
14.16

BOTT OF
PRECAST
27.14
-8.22
18.92
23.40
-11.72
-12.560 (SECTION 3)
-0.364
-1.25

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

100.00

19

220.00

19

340.00

19

460.00

76.000

280.00

TOTAL :

TOP OF
PRECAST
-3.17
6.81
3.63

kN
kN
kN
kN

19.50 m

(5) AT MID-SPAN, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable

37478

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
882.30 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

9.73 %
22.70 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND
TOP OF
INSITU

BOTT OF
INSITU

186.00
135.78
122.57
104.96
TOP OF
PRECAST

kN
kN
kN
kN

BOTT OF
PRECAST

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

-4.33
28.87
7.26
-8.77
2.93
20.11
EXCEEDED ALLOWABLE PRESTRESSING STRESSES AT TRANSFER, TRY AGAIN
FINAL PRESTRESS
-3.71
24.72
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
10.36
-12.50
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
2
-1.00
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
HB45 -SLS2
6.82
5.43
6.60
-13.270 (MIDSPAN)
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
-1.177
-1.122
1.239
-0.477
TOTAL @ WORKING
7.64
4.31
14.49
-2.53

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

31

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

(6) 6th SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

24.38 m

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

143.95

19

277.89

19

411.84

19

545.78

76.000

344.86

TOTAL :

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
817.44 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

11.22 %
23.48 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

186.00
135.78
120.54
103.90

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

6.40
-1.339
5.06

5.10
-1.251
3.85

HB45 -SLS2

(7) 7th SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

TOP OF
PRECAST
-3.17
6.81
3.64
-2.73
9.71
6.20
1.391
14.57

23.34
-11.72
-12.460 (SECTION 5)
-0.536
-1.38

29.25 m

19

275.80

19

451.57

19

627.34

19

803.11

76.000

539.46

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
622.84 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

12.82 %
23.64 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

BOTT OF
PRECAST
27.08
-8.22
18.86

HT. ABOVE

FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

kN
kN
kN
kN

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

TOTAL :

37478

HB45 -SLS2

186.00
135.78
118.38
103.68

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

5.51
-1.390
4.12

4.39
-1.291
3.10

TOP OF
PRECAST
0.09
5.45
5.54
0.08
7.77
5.34
1.440
14.62

kN
kN
kN
kN

BOTT OF
PRECAST
22.73
-6.57
16.15
19.91
-9.38
-10.730 (SECTION 6)
-0.554
-0.76

32

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN. BHD. (14142-M)


Consulting Engineers
Prestress Checking at Serviceability Limit State For Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

(8) 8th SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

34.13 m

HT. ABOVE

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

19

495.55

19

741.03

19

986.52

19

1232.00

76.000

863.77

TOTAL :

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
298.53 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

14.40 %
23.85 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND
TOP OF
INSITU
-

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER
FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

HB45 -SLS2

186.00
135.78
116.22
103.39

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

2.88
-1.318
1.56

2.30
-1.234
1.06

(9) At SUPPORT 2 SECTION, DISTANCE FROM SUPPORT 1


Cable
Mark

NOS.

TOP OF
PRECAST
5.33
3.18
8.51
4.74
4.53
2.79
1.372
13.44

BOTT OF
PRECAST
15.98
-3.83
12.15
14.22
-5.47
-5.610 (SECTION 7)
-0.529
2.61

39.00 m

HT. ABOVE

19

803.20

19

1146.28

19

1489.36

19

1832.45

76.000

1317.82

N.B.

e = distance between centroid of precast beam


to centroid of tendon
e =
-155.52 mm

INITIAL PRESTRESS LOSSES @ TRANSFER


FINAL TOTAL PRESTRESS LOSSES

16.27 %
25.55 %

ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH PER STRAND


73
% OF U.T.S. INITIAL PRESTRESS
EFFECTIVE FORCE @ TRANSFER PER STRAND
EFFECTIVE FINAL FORCE PER STRAND

TRANSFER PRESTRESS
SELF WT
TOTAL @ TRANSFER
FINAL PRESTRESS
SELF WT + DEAD INSITU
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
SUPER. DEAD + LIVE
HB45 -SLS2
DIFF. SHRINKAGE
TOTAL @ WORKING

KKHONG (NOV 1998)

kN
kN
kN
kN

OF STRANDS SOFFIT (mm)

TOTAL :

37478

186.00
135.78
113.68
101.09

TOP OF
INSITU
-

BOTT OF
INSITU
-

TOP OF
PRECAST
12.40
0.00
12.40

-1
-0.37
-1.117
-2.49

-0.29
-1.073
-1.37

11.02
0.00
-0.36
1.181
11.85

kN
kN
kN
kN

BOTT OF
PRECAST
6.97
0.00
6.97
6.20
0.00
1.00
0.720 (SUPPORT 2)
-0.455
7.46

33

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING (14142-M)


Consulting Engineer
Ultimate Moment Capacity Checks for Post-Tensioned Beam

Job No. :

37478

ULTIMATE MOMENT CAPACITY CHECKS AT MIDSPAN & OTHER SECTIONS


FOR PRECAST POST-TENSIONED BEAM USING STRAIN COMPATIBILITY METHOD
(BS5400:PART4:1990:CL.6.3.3.1)

Project :
Detail :
File name :

PROJECT TITLE
40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

(A) Checking Section :

4/8 SPAN ;

(19.500 M FROM SUPP.)

Designed:
Checked:

KKL
LTC

39.00

S40T1 BEAM

(B) Design Ultimate Moment :

16307.98 kNm

(C) Require Ultimate Moment Capacity At Mid Span

18754.18 kNm

(D) Depth of Neutral Axis from Top Fibre (N.A)

Date :
Date :

19-Mar-2013
19-Mar-2013

m Effective Span

S40T1 BEAM

490.53 mm

39.00 m Eff. Span

(E) Calculation of Ultimate Moment Capacity


(1) Concrete Section
fcu =

50.00 N/mm2

(ii) Characteristic Strength of In-situ Concrete at Service

fcu =

30.00 N/mm2

(iii) Material Safety Factor for Concrete

gm=

1.50

(iv) Assumed Concrete Maximum Compressive Strain

eu=

0.0035

(i)

Characteristic Strength of Precast Concrete at Service

4/8 SPAN

Table 1 : Ultimate Moment Capacity From Concrete Section


Concrete
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

In-situ slab
In-situ slab
Top Flange
Top Flange
Top Flange
Top Flange
Top Flange
Top Flange
Top Flange
Web

Section Dimension

Measure Depth To

Concrete

Compressive

Moment

Top Fibre

Bot. Fibre

Section
fcu

Centroid

Height

Section
Area

Centroid

Width

Sect. fr. Top

Sect. to N.A

Strain

Force

about N.A

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm2)

(N/mm2)

(mm)

(mm)

(kN)

(kNm)

0
1950
1920
660
220
0
0
0
220
0

0.00
180.00
120.00
70.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
120.53
0.00

0
0
180
300
370
370
370
370
370
491

0
180
300
370
370
370
370
370
491
491

0
351000
230400
46200
0
0
0
0
26517
0

30
30
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0
90
240
335
370
370
370
370
415
491

490.5
400.5
250.5
155.5
120.5
120.5
120.5
120.5
75.3
0.0

0.00350
0.00286
0.00179
0.00111
0.00086
0.00086
0.00086
0.00086
0.00054
0.00000

0.00
4703.40
5145.60
985.32
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
365.70
0.00

0.0
1883.9
1289.1
153.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
27.5
0.0

490.53
O.K!
654117
11200
Note : (I) Parabolic centroid = 3/8 w from start of parabolic curve, where w = depth of parabolic curve on the Stress the diagram
(II) Total depth of the section in parabolic curve (mm) =
197.44 for fcu =
50.0
N/mm2
(measure from Neutral Axis)
(mm) =
152.93 for fcu =
30.0
N/mm2
(2) Prestressing Tendons
(i) Tendon Diameter
(ii) Nominal Cross Section Area of Tendon

f =
As =

(ii) Ultimate Characteristic Strength (UTS)

PUTS =

(iii) Modulus of Elasticity of Tendon

Es =

(iv) Characteristic Strength of Tendon

fpu =

12.9 mm

gm =
% =

(v) Material Safety Factor for Concrete

100.0 mm2
186 kN

(vi) Percentage of Jacking Force


(vii) Final Prestress Losses
2

195000 N/mm
1860 N/mm2

Lossfinal =

(viii) Total Effective Jacking Force per Strand


(ix)

Total Final Prestress Force per Strand after all losses

3354

1.15
75 %
25 %

Peff =

139.5 kN

Pfinal =

104.625 kN

Table 2 : Ultimate Moment Capacity From Prestressing Tendons

1
2
3
4
5

Prestress

Number

Total Cross

Depth from

Tendon Layer

of Tendon

Section Area

Tob Fiber

From Bot. Fibre

(nos)

(mm2)

(mm)

Layer 1

18
18
17
17
0

1800
1800
1700
1700
0

2205
2085
1965
1845
0

Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 4
Layer 5

Prestressing Tendon Strain, e


Strain

0.01223
0.01138
0.01052
0.00966
0.00000

Prestrain

0.00537
0.00537
0.00537
0.00537
0.00000

Total Strain

0.01760
0.01674
0.01589
0.01503
0.00000

Tension

Tension

Moment About

Stress

Force

N.A Axis

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(kNm)

2911.30
2911.30
2749.57
2749.57
0.00

4991.34
4641.99
4054.15
3724.20
0.00

1617.39
1617.39
1617.39
1617.39
0.00

70
7000
Note :
(i)
Strain = eu/x*(Depth of Tendon from Top Fibre - N.A Depth from Top Fibre )
(iii) Moment of Tendon Above the N.A shall be negative and Below the N.A shall be positive.
(3) Reinforcement Bars
(i) Characteristic Strength of Steel Reinforcement

fy =

(ii) Modulus of Elasticity of Steel Reinforcement

Es =

460 N/mm2
200000 N/mm2

11321.74
(ii)

17411.69
Prestrain = Pfinal /As/Es

(iii)

Material Safety Factor for Steel Reinforcement

(iv)

Maximum Compressive Strain

gm =
=

1.15
0.002

Table 2 : Ultimate Moment Capacity From Steel Reinforcement

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Steel

Steel

Depth from

Strain

Reinforcement

Reinfor.

Top Fibre

Layer

Area

from. Top

(mm2)

(mm)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 4
Layer 5
Layer 6
Layer 7
Layer 8
Layer 9
Layer 10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

Stress

Force

Moment About

Compressive

Tension

Compressive

Tension

N.A. Axis

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

(kN)

(kN)

(kNm)

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Note : (i) Force in the steel Reinforcement Above N.A shall be Compressive Force and Below N.A shall be Tension Force.
(F) Summary of Forces and Stresses
Force

Concrete Section
Prestressing Tendon
Reinforcement

Moment Abt.

Compressive

Tension

N.A. Axis

(kN)

(kN)

(kNm)

11200
0

11322
0

3354
17412
0

Total
11200
11322
20765
Difference
-121.7
Remarks:
(I) PERMISSIBLE TOLERANCE FOR FORCES EQUIVALENT
=
(II) PLEASE INCREACE NEUTRAL AXIS DEPTH.........
(III) DESIGN ULTIMATE MOMENT
=
(IV) ULTIMATE MOMENT CAPACITY/DESIGN ULTIMATE MOMENT
=
HENCE,
CHANGE NEUTRAL AXIS PLEASE.......AND TRY AGAIN.....!!!

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

10

kN

16307.98 kNm

Page 34

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN BHD


Consulting Engineers

(14142-M)

JOB NO. :

Shear Design for Post-Tensioned Beam

PROJECT
DETAILS
FILENAME

: PROJECT TITLE
: 40x40x40x40x37.5M SPAN; 0 DEG SKEW; 11.000 M C/W WIDTH
: W:\SCB Spreadsheet\Post-Tensioned-Design.xls

Designed :
Checked :

Design Of Precast Post-Tensioned Beam At Ultimate Limit State - Shear Reinforcement Design
Design Data :
(1) Precast Beam Section Properties
Total Height of Precast Section
Cross Section Area of Precast Section

(iii)

Precast Section Centroid above Bottom Fibre

(iv)

Second Moment Of Area of Precast Section

(v)

Section Modulus of Precast Section : @ Top Fibre

(vi)

@ Bottom Fibre

(vii)

@ Composite Beam Centroid

(viii) Rib/Web Breadth of Precast Section @ Beam Ends (Supports)


(ix)
(x)

@ Middle of Beams
Concrete Strength @ 28 days of Precast Section

39 m Effective Span
H =
Ap =
yb =
Ipre =
Zt =
Zb =
Zcentroid =

2125 mm
0.869500 m2
1162.30 mm

fpt = Stress due to prestress only at tensile fibre (bottom fibre)


gfL = 0.87 (see BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL 4.2.3)

4.5262E-01 m3
2.0472E+00 m3

bend =

660 mm

bmiddle =

220 mm

fcu2 =

Definations, Symbols and Notes

5.2608E-01 m4
5.4646E-01 m3

e = Eccentricity from centroid of tendon to centroid of precast beam


Mcr = Cracking Moment at Section considered
Vcr-i = Ultimate Cracking Shear Capacity (Equation 29 BS5400)
1/2

0.037bdt(fcu) + (Mcr/M)(V)

50 N/mm2

(i)

Total Height of Composite Section

Hc =

2305 mm

(ii)

Cross Section Area of Composite Section

Ac =

(iii)

Composite Section Centroid above Bottom Fibre

1.1503 m2
1419.28 mm

(iv)

Second moment of area of the transformed Composite Section

(v)

Modular Ratio

yb,c =
Icomposite =
m =

considered due to ultimate load

yb,c = Distance of tensile fibre to centroid composite beam

7.6205E-01 m4
0.824

fcp = Comp. stress due to prestress at the composite centroid axis (+ve)

(3) Prestress Strand Properties

gfL = 0.87 (see BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL 4.2.3)

(i)

Strand Description

Ipre =

(ii)

Nominal Cross Section Area per Strand,

Y =

yb,c - yb =

(iii)

Ultimate Tensile Strength per Strand

Zcentroid =

Ipre /Y =

(v)

70

:
As =
PUTS =

% of U.T.S. per Strand

Peff =

Cable Length/Beam Length

Lcable/beam =

100.00 mm2
186.00 kN
130.20 kN

0.25698 m
2.0472 m3

= 0.67bHc(ft2+fcpft)1/2 (Equation 28 BS5400:PART4:1990)


dt = Eff. depth of Centroid of tendons to Extreme Compression Fibre

39.60 m

= Hc-(yb-e)

Characteristic Strength of Links Rebars

(ii)

Shear Reinforcement diameter provided

fv =

(iii)

Total Leg x-Section Area per Links

Asv =

(iv)

Characteristic Strength of Strands (max 460)

fyv =

fstrand =

(v)

Characteristic Strength of Longitudinal Steel Reinforcement provided

fyL =

(vi)

Longitudinal Steel Reinforcement diameter provided (max 12 mm)

fL =

(vii) @ Support : R.C. Shear Resistance

vc = (0.27/gm)*(100As(pre)/benddt)1/3*(fcu)1/3

vc =

(viii) Depth Factor

s = greater of (500/dt)1/4 or 0.7

s =

460 N/mm2
12 mm

460 N/mm
12 mm

Sc =

(ii)

Ult. long. stress in the sect. for shear plane under considered (Table 31:BS 5400:P4)

v1 =

(iii)

Constant depending on the conc. bonding across the shear plane (Table 31:BS 5400:P4)

k1 =

(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Length of Shear plane under consideration


Embedment of The Insitu Slab
Minimum thickness of the insitu top slab
Concrete strength of insitu top slab @ 28 days

Sc = First moment of area, about the neutral axis of the transformed


composite section, of the insitu concrete to one side of the interface

Ae = area of fully anchoraged reinforcement per unit length crossing the


shear plane under consideration

0.7776 N/mm2
0.8436
Note :

First moment of area, about the neutral axis of the transformed


Composite sect., of the concrete to one side of the interface

(vii) Insitu slab Width

V1 = Horizontal Interface Shear Force

226 mm2
460 N/mm2

(5) Data To Calculate Longitudinal Shear

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

0.52608 m4

Vco = Ultimate shear resistance of a section uncracked in flexure

(4) Link Rebars Properties


(i)

(i)

1/2

but not less than 0.1bd(fcu)

b = Breadth of member/breadth of rib/web,bw


dt = Eff. depth of Centroid of tendons to Extreme Compression Fibre
V & M = The shear force and bending moment (both taken as +ve) at section

(2) Composite Section Properties

(iv)

Date : 19-Mar-2013
Date : 19-Mar-2013

S40T1 BEAM

(BS 5400 : PART 4 : 1990 ; CL. 5.3.3 , CL. 6.3.4 & CL. 7.4.2.3)

(i)
(ii)

KKL
LTC

37478

(1) Max. Spacing of the links : Spacing of the links along the beam should not exceeded
3

0.23001 m
0.45 N/mm2
0.09

(Surface Type 2)

Ls =
=
tslab =

660 mm
0 mm
180 mm

lf =

1950 mm

fc =

30 N/mm

0.75dt, nor four times the web thickness for flanged beams. When V' exceeds 1.8 Vc,
the max. spacing should be reduced to 0.5 dt. The lateral spacing of the individual
legs of the links provided at a cross section should not exceed 0.75dt.(V'=V-Vprtestress)
(2) For longitudinal shear reinforcements : a minimum area of fully anchored reinf. of
0.15% of the area of the contact should cross this surface; the spacing of this reinf.
should not exceed the lesser of ;
(i) 4 times of minimum thickness of the in situ concrete flange ;

(ii) 600 mm.

Page 35

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN BHD


Consulting Engineers

(14142-M)

Shear Design for Post-Tensioned Beam

JOB NO. :

37478

CALCULATE SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR VERTICAL FLEXURAL SHEAR & LONGITUDINAL SHEAR
Section
Distance From Support
Distance From MidSpan

Support 1

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Mid Span

Section 5

Section 6

Section 7

Support 2

Lx

(m)

0.000

4.875

9.750

14.625

19.500

24.375

29.250

34.125

39.000

Xo

(m)

19.500

14.625

9.750

4.875

0.000

4.875

9.750

14.625

19.500

(kN)
(kNm)
(kN)
(kNm)

2141.19
-1706.57
1894.07
8143.62

1756.25
4085.30
1137.49
6223.01

1245.94
10359.91
949.36
12278.97

956.81
11591.45
623.95
13160.82

466.06
15803.19
198.04
16307.98

724.42
13846.44
462.88
13336.81

1227.24
12712.25
1180.91
12866.69

1474.54
6870.63
1526.16
7019.35

1799.88
374.72
1746.11
544.32

(1) Summary Of The


Ultimate Design
Shear Forces and
Moment Bending

Max V : Vmax
Vmax
M
Max M : V
MMmax
max

(2) Prestressing Strands

Information

e
Loss
Pfinal
(3) Vertical Component Shear e'
Force From Deflected
Ye - Ym
Tendons, Vprestress
qo
Vprestress
(4) Allowable Maximum
Ultimate Applied
Shear Stress Checks
(BS 5400:Part 4:1990:CL.5.3.3.1)

dt

Cracked in Flexure

Mcr

- For Class 1 and Class 2 member

(5b) Assume Sections

(From Grillage Analysis)


(From Grillage Analysis)

= Effective No. of Strands

(Nos)

76

76

76

76

76

76

76

76

76

= Eccentricity @ Centroid of Precast Beam = yb-e'


= Total % of Prestress Losses at Service
= Effective prestress Force = (n*Peff(1-%Loss))

(mm)
(%)
(kN)
(mm)
(mm)

298.53
23.67
7553.120
863.77
1070
4.5644
480.857

622.84
23.46
7573.954
539.46
1070
3.0465
322.023

817.44
23.30
7589.322
344.86
1070
1.5243
161.509

882.30
22.70
7649.451
280.00
1070
0.0000
0.000

817.44
23.48
7572.172
344.86
1070
1.5243
161.144

622.84
23.64
7556.196
539.46
1070
3.0465
321.268

298.53
23.85
7534.710
863.77
1070
4.5644
479.685

-155.52
25.55
7367.441
1317.82
1070
6.0759
623.847

= gm * Pfinal * Sin(qo), where gm = 0.8 (L.A. Clark)

(o)
(kN)

-155.52
25.36
7385.994
1317.82
1070
6.0759
625.418

= Effective depth of Tendons = Hc-(yb-e)

(mm)

987.18

1441.23

1765.54

1960.14

2025.00

1960.14

1765.54

1441.23

987.18

2.33
5.30

4.02
5.30

2.38
5.30

1.84
5.30

1.05
5.30

1.31
5.30

2.33
5.30

3.30
5.30

1.81
5.30

= Combined Cables Centroid from Botttom Fibre of Beam

==Drape = (1350 - 280) = 1070 mm


2

= Combined Deflection Angle = Atan((Ye - Ym)*(2X0/(Lbeam/2) ))

= gfL*(Pfinal/Ap + Pfinal*e/Zb), where gfL = 0.87


= [0.37(fcu)1/2 + fpt] * Icomposite/yb,c
= (H-yb+e)
1/2

within allowable

within allowable within allowable within allowable

within allowable

within allowable within allowable within allowable within allowable

(N/mm )
(kNm)

11.89

16.65

19.52

20.63

19.47

16.61

11.86

7789.63

10342.35

11884.64

12479.74

11860.96

10321.40

7774.07

(mm)

1261

1586

1780

1845

1780

1586

1261

Vcr(min)

= min. required by code 0.1bdt(fcu)

(kN)

224

275

305

315

305

275

224

Vcr1

= 0.037bdt(fcu)1/2+ (Mcr/M)(Vmax)

(kN)

3432

1345

1094

485

733

1098

1751

Vcr2

1/2

(kN)

1507

901

676

268

524

1049

1773

7.878

6.599

5.574

4.957

4.786

4.946

5.560

6.583

7.859

fcp

UnCracked in Flexure

ft

(BS 5400 : Part 4:1990 : CL 6.3.4.2)

Vco

(5c) Calculations of (V - Vc)

(From Grillage Analysis)

= Max Applied Ult.Shear Stress = [Vmaxor V-Vprestress]/bdt


v
(N/mm2)
Checks = Allowable Shear Stress = 0.75fcu1/2 or 5.8 N/mm2
(N/mm2)
Checks = Applied Ultimate Shear Stress Check :
Compliance

(5) Design Of Flexure Shears :


(5a) Assume Sections
fpt

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990:CL 6..3.4.3)

(From Grillage Analysis)

= 0.037bdt(fcu) + (Mcr/Mmax)(V)
= gfL*(Pfinal/Ap - Pfinal*e/Zcentroid) taken as positive
= 0.24(fcu)

1/2

taken as positive

= 0.67bHc(ft2+fcpft)1/2
(Vmax - Max(Vcr1,Vcr(min)) - Vprestress)

(N/mm )
2

(N/mm )
(kN)

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

4109

1275

1193

1142

1127

1141

1192

1274

4105
-

(kN)

-2156

-422

-299

-19

-170

-192

-757

and determination of

(V - Max(Vcr2,Vcr(min) - Vprestress)

(kN)

-850

-274

-214

-117

-223

-189

-727

(V - Vc) Max

(Vmax - Vco -Vprestress)

(kN)

-2593

-270

-346

-661

-578

-286

-279

-2929

(V - Vco -Vprestress)
(V - Vc - Vprestress) Max
(V - Vc - Vprestress) Max (Double Check)

(kN)
(kN)
(kN)
(mm)
(mm)

-2840
-2593
-2593
3.4145
66

-618
1
1
0.2208
1024

-566
-270
-270
0.2199
1029

-679
-214
-214
0.2199
1029

-929
-19
-19
0.2199
1029

-839
-170
-170
0.2199
1029

-333
-189
-189
0.2199
1029

-227
-227
-227
0.2199
1029

-2982
-2929
-2929
2.5546
89

nos
(mm2)
nos
(mm2)
(mm2)
(mm2)
Compliance

0
0
17
1923
1923
1894

0
0
15
1696
1696
1593

0
0
11
1244
1244
1154

0
0
9
1018
1018
994

0
0
6
679
679
582

0
0
7
792
792
704

0
0
11
1244
1244
1132

0
0
12
1357
1357
1307

0
0
14
1583
1583
1469

(5d) Flexure Shear


Reinforcement Design

Asv/Sv(Min) = V+0.4bdt-(Vc+Vprestress)/(0.87fyvdt) or 0.4b/(0.87f yv)

Sv(min)

Calculated

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990:CL 6.3.4.4)

(5e) Minimum Area of EXCESS


Long. Bars/Strand Checks

AsLong(pre) : (i) Bonded Prestressing Strands EXCESS in resist bending


Total Effective area of the above Prestressing Tendons

( Note : The AsLong shall be the area AsLong(Bar): (ii) No. of Longitudinal reinforcement EXCESS in resist bending
of strands/rebars which are NOT

Total Effective area of the above Longitudinal Bars

Used in the bending/ others designs.)AsLongTotal = AsLong(pre) + AsLong(Bar)


(In Tension Zone Only)

AsLong(Min) = V /(2*0.87*fyL)

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990:CL 6..3.4.4)

Checks = Minimum AsLong Checks

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied 'As' is Complied

Page 36

SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN BHD


Consulting Engineers

(14142-M)

Shear Design for Post-Tensioned Beam

JOB NO. :

37478

CALCULATE SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR VERTICAL FLEXURAL SHEAR & LONGITUDINAL SHEAR (Continue)
Section
Distance From Support
Distance From MidSpan
(6) Design Of Longitudinal Shears :
(6a) Longditudinal Shear
V1
Reinforcement Design

(BS 5400 : Part 4:1990 : CL 7.4.2.3)

(7) Shear Reinforcement


Design
(BS 5400:Part 4:1990:CL 6..3.4.4)

Support 1

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Mid Span

Section 5

Section 6

Section 7

Support 2

Lx

(m)

0.000

4.875

9.750

14.625

19.500

24.375

29.250

34.125

39.000

Xo

(m)

19.500

14.625

9.750

4.875

0.000

4.875

9.750

14.625

19.500

= Max(V,Vmax)*Sc/Icomposite

k1*fc*Ls

(kN/m)

646

530

376

289

141

219

370

461

543

(kN/m)

1782

1782

1782

1782

1782

1782

1782

1782

1782

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

Checks = Checking of allowable V1


Compliance
Checks
= the larger of (V1 - v1Ls)/(0.7fyv) and (0.15/100)*(Ls*1000)
Ae
(mm2/m)
Sv
Calculated = Asv*1000/Ae
(mm)

The Longitudinal Shear force (V1) are not exceeded the allowable value specified in Code (BS 5400:Part 4:1990:C.L. 7.4.2.3).

1085

990

990

990

990

990

990

990

990

209

228

228

228

228

228

228

228

228

Minimum of Sv Calculated (From Item (5d) & (6a)) &


Required by The Code.

(mm)

66

228

228

228

228

228

228

228

89

No of Links required per m length = (1000/Sv) + 1

(nos)

16.1

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

12.3

Average No. of Links provided per m

(nos)

17

13

-------- END OF SHEAR DESIGN ---------

KKHONG (DEC 1998)

Page 37

Post-Tensioning Losses :
(1)

Immediate Losses

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Friction Loss Along Prestressing Tendon


Friction Loss In The Anchorage
Losses Due to Wedges Draw-in
Elastic Shortening of Concrete

(2)

Deferred Losses

(a)
(b)
(c)

Relaxation Loss of Prestressing Tendon


Shrinkage Loss of Concrete
Creep Loss in Concrete

(1)

Immediate Losses

(1)(a) Friction Loss Along Prestressing Tendon


Losses due to frinction in a cable can be calculated to a relatively high degree of accuracy
by Coulomb's formula:
P(x) = Pj * e-(mq + Kx)
where,
P(x)
Pj
e
m
q
K

=
=
=
=
=
=

Post-tensioning force at a distance x from the stressing anchorage (Live end)


Post-tensioning force at the stressing anchorage
Base of Napierian logarithms
Coefficient of friction
Sum of angular deviations (in radian) of tendon in all planes over the distance x
Wobble factor (inaccuracies in placing per unit length

(1)(b) Friction Loss In The Anchorage


Not Consider in the design

(1)(c) Losses Due to Wedges Draw-in


By assuming a linear loss of prestressing force due to frincion, loss of prestressing force of
tendon per meter length/ Force Gradient,
dp = (1 - e-(mq + Kx) )Pj /Lcable
where,
dp = Loss of prestressing force in tendon per meter length/ Force Gradient
Loss of prestressing force in tendon
Lcable = Total Cable length

(1 - e-(mq + Kx) )Pj =

and the diatance affected by the draw-in of wedges,


w = (Draw-in * Es * As * n)1/2

where,
Draw-in = Draw-in of Wedges in mm
Es = Modulus of Elasticity og post-tensioning cable in kN/m2
As = Cable cross Section Area in mm2
n = Total number of prestressing cables
w = Distance affected by the draw-in of wedges (< Lcable)

Forces Along Prestressing Cable After Friction and Wedges Draw-in Losses
(i)

For w < Lcable /2


Px

Loss of force due to draw-in of wedges

Pj
Dp
Pj-Dp

PL
w

Live
End
Anchorage

Dead
End
Anchorage

x
Length of Tendon Lcable

(ii)

For w >= Lcable /2


Px

Loss of force due to draw-in of wedges

Pj
Dp

PL
Pj-Dp

Live
End
Anchorage

Dead
End
Anchorage

x
Length of Tendon Lcable

(1)(d) Elastic Shortening Losses (BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : CL. 6.7.2)
Immediately after transfer, the change in strain in the prestressing steel dep caused by elastic shortening
of the concrete is equal to the strain in the concrete at the steel level, ecp. The loss of prestress in the steel,
dfLoss is therefore :
dfLoss

0.5(Es/Ec)*ftendon

for post-tensioned beam


(ref. BS5400:Part4:Cl. 6.7.2.3)

Where,
ftendon is calculated for prestress and dead load stresses in the concrete adjacent to the tendons.
ES is modulus of elasticity of the prestressing tendon
Ec is modulus of elasticity of the precast concrete at transfer

(2)

Deferred Losses

2(a)

Relaxation of Steel

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

The Loss of force in the tendon allowed for in the design should be the maximum relaxation
after 1000 h duration, for a jacking force equal to that imposed at transfer.
No reduction in the value of relaxation loss should be made for a tendon when a load equal to
or greater that the relevant jacking force has applied for time proir to anchoring of tendon.
Relaxation Loss as Stress,
Jacking Force per strand

Steel

frelax.Loss = Relaxation (%)

Strand Cross Section Area

Assumed % Occured

At 1000h

2(b)

Shrinkage of Concrete Losses

(i)

From BS 5400:Part 4:1990:Table 29,

(BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 : C.L. 6.7.2.2)

Shrinkage per unit length


Humid exposure
Normal exposure
(90% r.h)
(70% r.h)

System
Post-tensioning : transfer at
between 7 days and 14 days
after concreting

es

2(c)

es

Creep of Concrete Losses

200 x 10-6

es = per unit length

- Shrinkage Strain used in the Design,


- Shrinkage Strain Loss as Stress,
fshrink.Loss =

70 x 10-6

Es

Assumed % Occured

(BS 5400:Part 4:1990: Cl. 6.7.2.5)

- The loss of prestress in the tendons due to creep of the concrete should be calculated on the assumption
that creep is proportional to stress in the concrete for stress of up to one-third of the cube strength at transfer.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

For Post-tensioning System :


If the required cube strength at transfer is greater than 40.0 N/mm2, the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 per N/mm2.
For lower values of the cube strength at transfer (fci), the creep per unit length should be taken as 3.60 x 10-5 x (40.0/fci) per N/mm2.
Where the maximum stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds one-third of the cube strength, the value of the
creep should be increased with the factor as below:

Increased factor

+ (Max stress @ Transfer - fci/3)*0.25


(fci/2- fci/3)

(iv) Calculation of Stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendon after elastic deformation losses
- Creep Strain
- Modulus of Elasticity of Strand

ec = per N/mm2
Es = kN/mm2

(I) Total Creep Loss At Stage 1


= (Stress at tendon level during Stage 1) * Creep Strain (ec) * Es * Increased Factor * Assumed % Occured
= (sStage1) * ec * Es * Increased Factor * Assumed % occured
(II) Total Creep Loss At Stage 2 ( due to additional prestressing in Stage 2 compared to Stage 1)
= (sStage2 - sStage1) * ec * Es * Increased Factor * Assumed % occured
where,
Stress in the concrete adjacent to tendons at transfer after Steel Relaxation Loss
= Stress at Tendon level after Immediate Losses - the Steel Relaxation Losses at Stage 2 Transfer