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University of the Philippines COLLEGE OF LAW

OUTLINE IN OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS Second Semester, AY 2010-2011 Prof. E. G. Ursua Course Requirements: Class Participation 20% (including attendance) Oral Exam 30% Final Exam 50% Introduction: Social Contract Theory, by Celeste Friend, The Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/, 13 November 2010

OBLIGATIONS General Provisions


I.

Concept
A. Definition Arts. 1156 B. Elements C. Distinction between natural and civil obligations Art. 1423

II.

Sources of Obligations Art. 1157 A. Law Art. 1158 B. Contracts Arts. 1159, 1305 C. Quasi-Contracts Arts. 1160, 2142, 2144, 2154, 2164 to 2175 D. Acts or omissions punishable by law Art. 1161; Arts. 100, 104, RPC E. Quasi-Delicts Arts. 1162, 2176, 2180; Arts. 218, 219, FC Arts. 3, 104, RPC Barredo v. Garcia, 73 Phil. 607 (1942) Mendoza v, Arrieta, 91 SCRA 113 (1975) PSBA v. CA, 205 SCRA 729 (1992) Amadora v. CA, 160 SCRA 315 (1988) Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 (1966) Pelayo v. Lauron, G.R. No. 4089, 12 Jan. 1909 Virata v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 46179, 31 Jan. 1978

Great Asian Sales v. CA, G.R. No. 105774, 25 April 2002 LG Foods v. Agraviador, G.R. No. 158995, 26 Sept. 2006 ABS-CBN v. OMB, G.R. No. 133347, 15 Oct. 2008 People v. Ritter, G.R. No. 88582, 5 March 1991 Nature and Effects of Obligations
I. A.

Kinds of prestation Obligations to give


1.

Obligation to give a specific thing a. To deliver the thing itself (Art. 1244) b. To preserve the thing (Arts. 1163, 1173, 1174, 1165, 1306, 1755) c. To deliver the accessions and accessories (Arts. 1166, 445, 457, 459) d. To deliver the fruits (Arts. 1164, 441-444) e. To answer for damages in case of non-performance or breach (Arts. 1169-1173) Obligation to give a generic thing a. To deliver a thing of the quality specified (Art. 1246) b. To answer for damages in case of non-performance or breach (Arts. 1169-1173)

2.

B. Obligations to do a. To perform as promised (Art. 1244) b. To shoulder the cost if someone else does it/in case of

contravention (Art. 1167) c. To undo what has been poorly done (Art. 1167) d. To answer for damages in case of non-performance or breach (Arts. 1169-1173)

C.

Obligations not to do a. Not to do as promised b. To shoulder the expense to undo what should not have been done (Art. 1168) c. To answer for damages in case of non-performance or breach (Arts. 1169-1173)

II. Breach of Obligation A.

Concept
1.

Distinction between substantial and slight breach

Song Fo v. Hawaiian Phils., 47 Phil 821 (1928) Velarde, et al. v. CA, 361 SCRA 56 (2001) Angeles, et al v. Calasanz, et al., G.R. No. 42283, 18 March 1985 Delta Motor Corp. v. Genuino, G.R. No. 55665, 8 February 1989 Vermen Realty v. CA, G.R. No. 101762, 6 July 1993
B.

Modes of Breach (Art. 1170)


1. Fraud (Art. 1171)

Woodhouse v. Halili, 93 Phil. 526 (1953) Geraldez v. CA, G.R. No. 108253, 23 Feb. 1994 Cathay Pacific v. Vasquez, G.R. No. 150843, 14 March 2003
2. Negligence (Arts. 1172, 1173)

Gutierrez v. Gutierrez, 56 Phil. 177 (1932) Vasquez v. Borja, 74 Phil. 560 (1944)
3. Delay (Art. 1169)

Cetus Development Corp. v. CA, SCRA 72 (1989) Aerospace Chemical Industries v. CA, G.R. No. 108129, 23 Sept. 1999 Santos Ventura Hocorma Foundation v. Santos, G.R. No. 153064, 4 Nov. 2004 Vasquez v. Ayala Corporation, G.R. No. 149734, 19 Nov. 2004 Abella v. Francisco, 55 Phil. 447 (1931) De La Cruz v. Legaspi, G.R. No. 8024, 29 Nov. 1955 Vda. De Villaruel v. Manila Motor Co., Inc. 104 Phil. 926 (1958) Central Bank v. CA, 139 SCRA 46 (1985)
4. Contravention of the tenor

Chavez v. Gonzales, 32 SCRA 547 (1970) Telefast v. Castro, 158 SCRA 445 (1988) Arrieta v. NARIC, 10 SCRA 79 (1964) Victoriano Magat v. Medialdea, 206 Phil. 341
III. Remedies in Case of Breach A.

Action for performance


1.

Action for specific performance (in obligation to give a specific thing) Art. 1165

2. Action for substituted performance (in obligation to give a generic thing)

or undoing of poor work (in obligation to do) Arts. 1165, 1167 Chavez v. Gonzales, supra Tanguilig v. CA, 266 SCRA 78 (1997)

3. Action for undoing (in obligation not to do) Art. 1168 B. Action for damages Art. 1170 C. Action for rescission Art. 1191, 1192

IV. Subsidiary Remedies


A. Accion Subrogatoria Art. 1177 B. Accion Pauliana Arts. 1177, 1381

Khe Hong Cheng v. CA, 335 SCRA 701 (2001) Maria Antonia Siguan v. Rosa Lim, et al., G.R. No. 134685, 19 Nov. 1999
C. Other Specific Remedies Arts. 1652, 1729, 1608, 1893

V. Effect of Fortuitous Event - Arts. 1174, 1165 par. 3, 552, 1942, 1979, 2001, 2147, 1717, 1724, 1268 Lasam v. Smith, 45 Phil. 657 Juan Nakpil & Sons v. CA, 144 SCRA 597 (1986) Republic v. Luzon Stevedoring Co., 21 SCRA 279 (1967) Dioquino v. Laureano, 33 SCRA 65 (1970) Austria v. CA, 39 SCRA 527 (1971) NPC v. CA, G.R. No. 47379, 161 SCRA 334 (1988) Yobido v. CA, 281 SCRA 1 (1997) Bacolod-Murcia Milling v. CA, G.R. No. 81100-01, 7 Feb. 1990 Philcomsat v. Globe Telecom, G.R. No. 147324, 25 May 2004 VI. Usurious transactions PD 858; PD 1685 Central Bank Circular 416 Monetary Board Circular 905 Art. 2209 Eastern Shipping Lines v. CA, 234 SCRA 781 (1994) Crismina Garments v. CA, 304 SCRA 356 (1999) Keng Hua Products v. CA, 286 SCRA 257 (1998) Security Bank v. RTC Makati, 263 SCRA 453 (1996)

Almeda v. CA, 256 SCRA 292 (1996) Angel Warehousing v. Cheldea, 23 SCRA 19 (1968) First Metro Investment v. Este. Del Sol, 15 Nov. 2001 VII. Fulfillment of Obligations See Chapter 4: Payment Art. 1176 VIII. Transmissibility of Rights Art. 1178 Kinds of Obligations
I.

Pure and Conditional Obligations A. Pure Obligations - Art. 1179 B. Conditional Obligations Art. 1881 Naga Telephone v. CA, G.R. No. 107112, 24 Feb. 1994 Polotan v. CA, G.R. No. 119379, 25 Sept. 1998 Gaite v. Fonacier, 2 SCRA 830 (1961) Gonzales v. Heirs of Thomas, 314 SCRA 585 (1999)
1.

Kinds of Conditions
a. As to the effect on the obligation Art. 1181

Gonzales v. Heirs of Thomas, supra 1188

(1) Suspensive (condition precedent) Arts. 1181, 1187,

Coronel v. CA, G.R. No. 103577, 7 Oct. 1996


(2) Resolutory (condition subsequent) Art. 1181

Parks v. Province of Tarlac, 49 Phil. 142 (1927) CPU v. CA, 246 SCRA 511 (1995) Quijada v. CA, G.R. No. 126444, 4 Dec. 1998
b.

By the cause of their happening Art. 1182


(1) Potestative (2) Casual (3) Mixed

Lim v. CA, G.R. No. 87047, 31 Oct. 1990

Naga Telephone Co., Inc. v. CA, supra Osmea v. Rama, 14 Phil. 99 (1909) Hermosa v. Longora, 93 Phil. 971 (1953) Taylor v. Uy Tieng Piao, 43 Phil. 873 (1922) Rustan Pulp and Paper Mills v. IAC, 214 SCRA 665 (1992) Romero v. CA, G.R. No. 107207, 23 Nov. 1995
c.

By the manner of the happening


(1) Positive (2) Negative

d.

By their validity or legality Arts. 1183, 873, 727, 1182


(1) Licit or illicit (2) Moral or immoral (3) Possible or impossible

Taylor v. Uy Tieng Pao, supra Trillana v. Quezon College, Inc., G.R. No. 5003, 27 Nov. 1953 Roman Catholic Arch. of Manila v. CA, 198 SCRA 300 (1991)
2.

Rules on the fulfilment of the condition


a. Time Arts. 1184, 1185 b. Prevention of fulfilment Art. 1186

Taylor v. Uy Tieng Pao, supra Herrera v. Leviste, G.R. No. 55744, 28 Feb. 1985
3.

Retroactivity of fulfilment of the condition Art. 1187 a. In obligations to give b. In obligations to do or not to do Loss, deterioration or improvement while the condition is pending a. Suspensive condition Arts. 1189, 579-580 b. Resolutory condition Art. 1190 Heirs of Timoteo Moreno v. Mactan-Cebu International Airport Authority, G.R. No. 156273, 15 Oct. 2003

4.

C. Rescission (Resolution) in Reciprocal Obligations - Art. 1191 cf. Art. 1380, 1484, 1485, 1592, 1533, 1534, 1592, 1593, 1234

Boysaw v. Interphil Promotions, 47 Phil. 821 (1925) U.P. v. De Los Angeles, 35 SCRA 365 (1970) De Erguiaga v. CA, 178 SCRA 1 (1989) Angeles v. Calasanz, 135 SCRA 323 (1985) Ong v. CA, 310 SCRA 1 (1999) Iringan v. CA, 366 SCRA 41 (2001) Visayan Saw Mill v. CA, G.R. No. 83851, 3 March 1993 Deiparine v. CA, G.R. No. 96643, 23 April 1993 Grace Park Engineering Co. Inc. v. Dimaporo, G.R. No. 27482, 10 Sept. 1981 Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos, G.R. No. 13505, 4 February 1919
II.

Obligations with a Period Arts. 1193-1198, 1189

Ponce de Leon v. Syjuco, 90 Phil. 311 (1951) Buce v. CA, 332 SCRA 151 (2000) Araneta v. Philippine Sugar Estate Devt. Co., 20 SCRA 330 (1967) CPU v. CA, supra Deudor v. JM Tuason, G.R. No. 13768, 30 May 1961
III. IV.

Alternative and Facultative Obligations Arts. 1199-1206 Joint and Solidary Obligations Arts. 1207-1222

Ramos v. Gibbon, G.R. No. 45418, 18 April 1939 Inchausti v. Yulo, G.R. No. 7721, 25 March 1914 Inciong v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 96405, 26 June 1996 RCBC v. CA, G.R. No. 85396, Oct. 1989 Lafarge Cement v. Continental Cement, G.R. No. 155173, 23 Nov. 2004 Jaucian v. Querol, G.R. No. 11307, 5 October 1918 Quiombing v. CA, G.R. No. 93219, 30 August 1990 Alipio v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 134100, 29 September 2000,
V. VI.

Divisible and Indivisible Obligations Arts. 1223-1225, 1233, 1248, 1720, 1420 Obligations with a Penal Clause Arts. 1226-1230

Makati Development Corp. v. Empire Insurance, 20 SCRA 557 (1967) Tan v. CA, 367 SCRA 571 (2001) Country Bankers Insurance v. CA, G.R. No. 85161, 9 Sept. 1991

Extinguishment of Obligations Art. 1231


I.

Voluntary
A.

By execution
(1)

Payment or performance Arts. 1232-1251


(a) Requisites of a valid payment (b) Application of payments Arts. 1252-1253,

1254 (c) Payment by cession

Arrieta v. NARIC, supra Kalalo v. Luz, 34 SCRA 377 (1970) St. Paul Fire v. Marine Insurance v. Mancondray, 70 SCRA 122 (1976) Papa v. A.V. Valencia, 284 SCRA 643 (1998) PAL v. CA, 181 SCRA 557 (1990) Reparations Commission v. Universal Deep See Fishing, 83 SCRA 764 (1978) Paculdo v. Regalado, 345 SCRA 134 (2000)
(2)

Tender of Payment and Consignation De Guzman v. CA, 137 SCRA 730 (1985) TLG International Continental Enterprising Inc. v. Flores, 47 SCRA 437 (1972) McLaughlin v. CA, 144 SCRA 693 (1986) Soco v. Militante, 123 SCRA 160 (1983) Sotto v. Mijares, 28 SCRA 17 (1969) Reinsenbeck v. CA, 209 SCRA 657 (1992)
Rural Bank of Caloocan v. CA, G.R. No. 32116, 21 April 1981 Licuanan v. Diaz, G.R. No. 59805, 21 July 1989 Chan v. CA, G.R. No. 109020, 3 March 1994

Meat Packing Corp. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 103068, 22 June 2001


B.

By substitution

(1) Compensation Arts. 1278-1290 Gan Tion v. CA, 28 SCRA 235 (1969) BPI v. Reyes, 255 SCRA 571 (1996) PNB v. Sapphire Shipping, 259 SCRA 174 (1996)

CKH Industrial Development v. CA, G.R. No. 111890, 7 May 1997 Mirasol v. CA, G.R. No. 128448, 1 Feb. 2001 Associated Bank v. Tan, G.R. No. 156940, 14 Dec. 2004 Villanueva v. Tantuico Jr., G.R. No. 53585, 15 Feb. 1990 Perez v. CA, G.R. No. 56101, 20 February 1984
Silahis Marketing Corp. v. IAC, G. R. No. 74027, 7 December 1989

BPI v. CA, G.R. No. 116792, 29 March 1996


(2)

Dation in payment (datio in solutum) Art. 1245 Development Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 118342, 5 January 1998 Filinvest Credit Corporation v. Philippine Acetylene, G.R. No. 50449, Jan. 1982

(3) (4)

Payment by cession Art. 1255 Novation Arts. 1291-1304 Millar v. CA, 38 SCRA 642 (1971) Dormitorio v. Fernandez, 72 SCRA 388 (1976) Magdalena Estate v. Rodriguez, 18 SCRA 967 (1966) Reyes v. Secretary of Justice, 264 SCRA 35 (1996)
Conchingyan v. RB Surety and Insurance, G.R. No. 47369, 30 June 1987 Broadway Centrum Condominium v. Tropical Hut, G.R. No. 79642, 5 July 1993

Molino v. Security Diners International, G.R. No. 136780, 16 Aug. 2001 Garcia v. Llamas, G.R. No. 154127, 8 Dec. 2003 California Bus Line v. State Investment, G.R. No. 147950, 11 Dec. 2003 Babst v. CA, G.R. No. 99398, 26 Jan. 2001 Licaros v. Gatmaitan, G.R. No. 142838, 9 August 2001 Astro Electronics Corp. v. Phil. Export, G.R. No. 136729, 23 Sept. 2003 C. By agreement between the parties At the time the obligation arises (resolutory condition, resolutory period) (2) Subsequent to the birth of the obligation (a) Mutual dissent or compromise
(1)

(b) Unilateral termination (c) Remission of the debt Arts. 1270-1274

YAM v. CA, G.R. No. 104726, 11 Feb. 1999 II. Involuntary


C.

On account of the party


(1) Confusior or merger of the credit and the debt Arts. 1275-1277 (2) Death of the party (in strictly personal obligations) (3) Change of civil status

D.

On account of the object (subject matter)


(1) Loss of the thing due Arts. 1262-1265, 1268, 1269, 1189, 1165 (2) Impossibility to perform the service due Arts. 1266-1267, 1269,

1262, par. 2

Occena v. CA, 73 SCRA 637 (1976) Naga Telephone Co. v. CA, 230 SCRA 351 (1994) PNCC v. CA, G.R. No. 116896, 5 May 1997 C. On account of laches (1) Extinctive prescription CONTRACTS Concept Art. 1305 Characteristics and Effect of Contracts
A.

Autonomy Arts. 1306, 1690, 1691, 448; Art. 87, FC; Arts. 1490-1491

Gabriel v. Monte de Piedad, 71 Phil. 497 (1941) Pakistan International Airlines v. Ople, 190 SCRA 90 (1990) Cui v. Arellano, 2 SCRA 205 (1961) Arroyo v. Berwin, 36 Phil. 386 (1917) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v. Mandanas, 17 SCRA 391 (1966) Bustamante v. Rosel, 319 SCRA 413 (1999)
B. Consensuality Art. 1315, 1316, 1317 C. Mutuality Arts. 1308, 1182, 1310, 1309

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GSIS v. Court of Appeals, 228 SCRA 183 (1993) Professional Academic Plans, Inc., et al. v. Crisostomo, G.R. No. 148599, 14 March 2005
D. Obligatoriness and Performance in Good Faith Arts. 1159, 1315, 1267 E. Relativity Arts. 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1651, 1652, 2150, 2151

Manila Railroad Co. v. La Compania Transatlantica, 83 Phil. 875 (1918) DKC Holdings Corp. v. CA, 329 SCRA 666 (2000) Florentino v. Encarnacion, 79 SCRA 192 (1977) Coquia v. Fieldmens Insurance Co., 26 SCRA 178 (1968) Constantino v. Espiritu, 39 SCRA 206 (1971) Young v. CA, 169 SCRA 213 (1989) Marmont Resort v. Guiang, 168 SCRA 373 (1988) Mandarin Villa v. CA, 257 538 (1996) Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos, supra So Ping Bun v. CA, 314 SCRA 751 (1999) Lagon v. CA, G.R. No. 119107, 18 March 2005 Essential Requisites of Contracts - Art. 1318
A. Consent Arts. 1319-1346

Rosenstock v. Burke, 46 Phil. 217 (1924) Malbarosa v. CA, G.R No. 125761, 30 April 2003 San Lorenzo Devt. Corp. v. CA, G.R. No. 124242, 21 Jan. 2005 MMDA v. Jancom, G.R. No. 147465, 30 Jan. 2002 Sanchez v. Rigos, 45 SCRA 368 (1972) Asiain v. Jalandoni, 45 Phil. 296 (1923) Heirs of William Sevilla v. Sevilla, 402 SCRA 501 (2003) Andres v. Manufacturers Hanover and Trust, G.R. No. 82670, 15 Sept. 1989 Spouses Theis v. CA, G.R. No. 126013, 12 Feb. 1997 Dumasug v. Modelo, 34 Phil. 252 (1916) Hemedes v. CA, 316 SCRA (1990) Lustan v. CA, G.R. No. 111924, 27 Jan. 1997 Katipunan v. Katipunan, G.R. No. 132415, 30 Jan. 2002 Leonardo v. CA, G.R. No. 125485, 13 Sept. 2004 Martinez v. Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, 15 Phil. 252 (1910) Lee v. CA, G.R. No. 90423, 6 Sept. 1991 Hill v. Veloso, 31 Phil. 161 (1915) Woodhouse v. Halili, supra Geraldez v. CA, 230 SCRA 320 (1994) Sierra v. CA, G.R. No. 90270, 24 July 1992 Tuason v. Marquez, 45 Phil. 381 (1923)

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Rural Bank of Sta. Maria v. CA, 314 SCRA 255 (1999) Azarraga v. Gay, 52 Phil. 599 (1928) Trinidad v. IAC, 204 SCRA 524 (1991) (a) Simulation of Contracts Rodriguez v. Rodriguez, 28 SCRA 229 (1914) Suntay v. CA, 251 SCRA 430 (1995) Pangadil v. CFI, G.R. No. 32437, 31 Aug. 1982 Umali v. CA, G.R. No. 89561, 13 Sept. 1990 Macapagal v. Remorin, G.R. No. 158380, 16 May 2005
B. Object Arts. 1347-1349, 1409, 751; Art. 84, Family Code; Arts. 1309, 1310,

1246

Blas v. Santos, 1 SCRA 899 (1961) J.L.T. Agro v. Balansag, G.R. No. 141882, 11 March 2005
C. Cause Arts. 1350-1355, 1409, 1479, 1405 (1), 1411, 1412, 1414, 1415, 1416

Liguez v. CA, 102 Phil. 577 (1957) Carantes v. CA, 76 SCRA 514 (1977) Sps. Buenaventura v. CA, 416 SCRA 263 (2003) Form of Contracts Arts. 1356-1358, 748, 749, 1874, 2134, 1771, 1773, 1403 Resuena v. CA, G.R. No. 128338, 28 March 2005 Reformation of Instruments Arts. 1359-1369 Garcia v. Bisaya, 97 Phil. 609 (1955) Bentir v. Leande, 330 SCRA 591 (2000) Quiros v. Arjona, G.R. No. 158901, 9 March 2004 Atilano v. Atilano, 28 SCRA 2232 (1969) Carantes v. CA, supra Sarming v. Dy, 383 SCRA 131 (2002) Interpretation of Contracts Arts. 1370-1379 Borromeo v. CA, 47 SCRA 65 (1972) Kasilag v. Rodriguez, 69 Phil. 217 (1939) Santi v. CA, 227 SCRA 541 (1993) Rapanut v. CA, 246 SCRA 323 (1995) Oil and Natural Gas Commission v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114323, 23 July 1998 Spouses Rigor v. Consolidated Orix Leasing and Finance Corp., G.R. No.

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136423, 20 August 2002 Chua v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119255, 9 April 2003 RCBC v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 133107, 15 March 1999 Gacos v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 85962-63, 3 August 1992 Defective Contracts Rescissible Contracts Arts. 1380-1389, 1539, 1556, 1560, 1567, 1526,1534, 1542, 1659, 1189, 1203, 1355, 1231 Universal Food v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 29155, 13 May 1970 Pryce Corporation v. PAGCOR, G.R. No. 157480, 6 May 2005 Sps. Cannu v. Sps. Galang, G.R. No. 139523, 26 May 2005 Rivera v. Del Rosario, G.R. No. 144934, 15 January 2004 Equatorial Realty Development Corp. v. Mayfair Theatre, G.R. No. 133879, 21 Nov. 2001 The Union Insurance Society of Canton v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 100319, 8 August 1996 Siguan v. Lim, 318 SCRA 725 (1999) Oria v. Memicking, 21 Phil. 243 (1912) China Banking Corp. v. CA, G.R. No. 129644, 7 March 2000 MR Holdings Ltd. v. Carlos, G.R. No. 138104, 11 April 2002 Voidable Contracts Arts. 1390-1402, cf. 1403 (3), 1239, 1355, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330-1344 Mercado v. Espiritu, G.R. No. 11872, 1 Dec. 1917 Braganza v. De Villa Abrille, G.R. No. 12471, 13 April 1959
Singsong v. Isabela Sawmill, G.R. No. L-27343 February 28, 1979

Samahan ng Magsasaka sa San Josep v. Valisno, G.R. No. 158314, 3 June 2004
Malabanan v. Gaw Ching, G.R. No. 74938-39, 17 January 1990

Arra Development Corp. v. Guarantee Development Corp., G.R. No. 142310, 20 Sept. 2004 Katipunan v. Katipunan, G.R. No. 132415, 30 Jan. 2002 Ines v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114051, 14 Aug. 1995 Unenforceable Contracts Arts. 1403 -1408, 1317, 1868, cf. 1898 Ortega v. Leonardo, G.R. No. 11311, 28 May 1958 Babao v. Perez, G.R. No. 8334, 28 Dec. 1957 Cabague v. Auxilio, G.R. No. 5028, 26 Nov. 1952 Asia Production v. Pao, G.R. No. 51058, 27 January 1992
Western Mindanao Lumber Co. v. Medalle, G.R. No. L-23213, 28 October 1977

Limketkai Sons v. CA, G.R. No. 118509, 1 December 1995 Litonjua v. Fernandez, G.R. No. 148116, 14 April 2004
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Carbonnel v. Poncio, G.R. No. 11231, 12 May 1958 Void or Inexistent Contracts Arts. 1409-1422, 1306
Tongoy v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-45645, 28 June 1983

Cui v. Arellano, G.R. No. 15127, 30 May 1961 Saura v. Sindico, G.R. No. 13403, 23 March 1960 Yu Bun v. Ong, G.R. No. 144735, 18 Oct. 2001 Menchavez v. Teves, G.R. No. 153201, 26 Jan. 2005 Angel v. Mondales, G.R. No. 145031, 22 Jan. 2004 Liguez v. CA, supra Relloza v. Gaw Cheen Hum, 93 Phil. 827 (1953) Philippine Banking Corp. v. Lui She, 21 SCRA 52 (1967) Frenzel v. Catito, G.R. No. 143958, 11 July 2003 Acabal v. Acabal, G.R. No. 148376, 31 March 2005 NATURAL OBLIGATIONS Arts. 1423-1430 Villaroel v. Estrada, 71 Phil. 140 (1940) Fisher v. Robb, 69 Phil. 101 (1939) Uniwide v. Titan-Ikeda Construction, G.R. No. 126619, 20 Dec. 2006 ESTOPPEL Arts. 1431-1439 Kalalo v. Luz, 34 SCRA 337 (1970) Manila Lodge No. 761 v. CA, 73 SCRA 168 (1976) Miguel v. Catalino, 26 SCRA 234 (1969) Mendoza v. Reyes, G.R. No. 31618, 17 August 1983 Annotation, 32 SCRA 542 TRUSTS Arts. 1440-1457 Salao v. Salao, 70 SCRA 168 (1976) Fabian v. Fabian, 22 SCRA 231 (1968) Bueno v. Reyes, 27 SCRA 1179 (1969) Tamayo v. Callejo, 46 SCRA 27 (1972) Heirs of Sanjorjo v. Quijano, G.R. No. 140457, 19 Jan. 2005 Aznar Brothers v. Aying, G.R. No. 144773, 16 May 2005 PNB v. CA, G.R. No. 97995, 21 January 1993 Canezo v. Rojas, G.R. No. 148788, 23 Nov. 2007

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