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# Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 1

## DC motors are built the same way as generators

Armature of a motor connected to a dc power supply
When switch is closed a large current flows through the
armature winding due to its low resistance
Armature is within a magnetic field
A force is exerted on the windings
The force causes a torque on the shaft
The shaft rotates
Motor Operation
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 2
Rotating armature cuts
through the magnetic field
Voltage is induced in the
armature windings E = B l v
This induced voltage is
called counter-electromotive
force (cemf), its polarity acts
against source voltage E
S
Power is taken from the
electrical system
Counter EMF
60
u
=
Zn
E
O
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 3
The net voltage acting on the
armature circuit is: E
S
E
O
The resulting armature current I
is limited only by the armature
resistance: I = (E
S
E
O
) / R
At rest, the induced voltage is
zero: E
O,rest
= 0 V
Acceleration of the Motor
Starting Current is 20 to 30 times greater
The large current produces a large torque
I = E
S
/ R
As speed increases, the counter emf increases and
the voltage difference diminishes
Resulting in a reduced current
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 4
Armature of a permanent magnet dc generator has a
resistance of 1 ohm and generates 50V at a speed of 500
rpm. If the armature is connected to a 150V supply, find:
a) The starting current
b) The counter-emf when the motor runs at 1000 rpm. At 1460 rpm
c) The armature current at 1000 rpm. At 1460 rpm
a) At start-up E
O,rest
=0 V so starting current is:
I = E
S
/ R = 150V / 1 = 150A
b) Generator voltage at 500 rpm is 50 V, so counter-emf of the motor
at 1000 rpm will be 100V and at 1460 rpm will be 146V
c) Armature current at 1000 rpm is
I = (E
S
E
O
) / R = (150 100)/1 = 50A
Armature current at 1460 rpm is
I = (E
S
E
O
) / R = (150 146)/1 = 4A
Example
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 5
Power and torque characteristics can be determined
over various shaft speeds
Counter emf: E
O
= Znu/60
Power supplied: P
in
= P
a
= E
S
I
Voltage drop (IR losses): E
S
= E
O
+ I R
Separating power and losses
P
a
= E
S
I = (E
O
+ I R)I = E
O
I + I
2
R
The mechanical power : P
m
= P = E
O
I
The developed torque:
Machine Power and Torque
28 . 6

60 55 . 9
so
60
since
55 . 9
I Z
T I
Zn nT
Zn
E I E
nT
P P
O O m
u
=

(
u
=
u
= = = =
Home Work Page 99 Example 5-2
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 6
We know that
E
O
= Znu/60
The voltage drop across the armature
resistance is always small compared to the
supply voltage
E
O
is approximately equal to E
S
E
O
= Znu/60
n = 60E
O
/Zu 60E
S
/Zu
Speed of Rotation
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 7
E
S
can be varied by connecting motor armature to a separately
excited variable voltage dc generator G
Field excitation of the motor is kept constant, but the generator
excitation current I
X
varies from zero to maximum or reverse
which in turn vary the E
S
and motor speed
This method is known as Ward-Leonard system and is found in
steel mills, high rise elevators and paper mills etc.
E
S
is adjusted slightly higher than E
O
, the armature will absorb
power because I flows into the positive terminal
Let us reduce E
S
, now E
O
current I reverses as a result motor
torque reverses and dc motor suddenly becomes generator
Armature speed control
Lecture 16 Electro Mechanical System 8
Speed is controlled by varying
the armature voltage E
S
Motor speed changes
proportionally to the armature
voltage
The armature voltage is
controlled by an external
variable power supply
The field winding is
separately excited by a
constant voltage source
Armature Speed Control
u
~
Z
E
n
S
60