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Building Design & Construction

BE-1101

B.Sc. (Hons) in Quantity Surveying


&

B.Sc. (Hons) in Facilities Management


Level 1 Semester 1 Project Work I

Wijekoon K.A.D.N.C. Dissanayake D.M.A. Lakmal D.M.K. Dissanayake E.P. Surenthr N. Fernando P.G. Poshananthy S. Meegahakotuwa M.G.A.L.I.B.

092451E 092412L 092656L 092622F 092447X 092626V 092671D 092710A

Date of Assignment: 21st of October 2009 Date of Submission: 11th of November 2009

Academic Year 2009/2010

Department of Building Economics Faculty of Architecture University of Moratuwa

Acknowledgment

We would like to acknowledge and extend our gratitude to the Building Design and Construction lecturers Archt. Lalith De Silva and Ms. Saranga Weerawardhana enlightening us by giving a wise knowledge about the subject and related areas. Also the Project work lecturer Ms. H. Chandani, who made this project work a success by giving her helping hand in all the time we race our problems. Equally, we thank the librarian and the staff of the computer lab who helped us with finding resources to make this project more meaningful. More gratefully we like to appreciate the support given by our own batch mates, friends and family members. Last but not least our gratitude comes to all our group members, who always stood behind and helped to make a better outcome.

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Preface to Brick Bonding and Patterns ........................................................... 2 3.0 Brickwork Terminology.................................................................................. 3 4.0 Construction Concept...................................................................................... 4 5.0 Brick Bonding Patterns ................................................................................... 5
5.1 Stretcher Bond .................................................................................................................. 5 5.2 The Procedure for Building a Stretcher Bond Brick Wall ............................................... 7 5.3 English Bond .................................................................................................................... 8 5.4 The Procedure for Building an English Bond Brick Wall ............................................... 9 5.5 Flemish Bond ................................................................................................................. 10 5.5.1 5.5.2 Double Flemish .................................................................................................. 10 Single Flemish ................................................................................................... 10

6.0 Other Common Bond Patterns ...................................................................... 12 7.0 Pier Brick Bonds ........................................................................................... 16
7.1 Half-Brick Wall with Pier .............................................................................................. 16 7.2 Projecting Bricks ............................................................................................................ 16

8.0 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 17 9.0 References ..................................................................................................... 18

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

1.0 Introduction
When the building construction starts blooming; man invented different types of materials which were helpful for the long run of the industry. One of these inventions was bricks. Bricks began to give birth to new methods of building construction. Specially in wall construction. The brick was named in different ways according to the elevation. In the very first stage in wall construction bricks were use in small numbers, but after the industrial revolution it became a major material used in wall construction. Also in this priority was given to strength and durability in the beginning, afterwards with the high usage of bricks and blocks; bonding patterns of these gave the opportunity to many employees in bonding designs. Therefore, except for strength and durability, appearance added into wall construction. There are several bonding patterns in brick work. Mainly we will be focusing here on some major patterns such as, Stretcher bond, English bond, and Flemish bond. Under these bonding patterns, several sub patterns have been introduced to the industry. Some of these bonding patterns have similar appearance except for some small changes. However, all these patterns have been created according to the way of bricks were place on the wall. Accordingly, construction methods of these patterns give us a clear idea about the differences in each pattern. Further, bonding methods were not only used for the appearance but also to spread the impact load which wall has to bear. Due to these reasons different types of bonding patterns have been introduced to the wall construction with the development of the industry.

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

2.0 Preface to Brick Bonding and Patterns


When the necessity of dwellings arrived, early human were in search for places which could give shelter and security. Then they required the dwellings to be built as their wishes. Through various materials such as timber, wattle and daub they identify bricks. Masonry also spontaneously begins with this. In earliest times stacking stones or pieces of caked mud taken from dried puddles were used as bricks. But they were different in sizes and weights, so did not give any quality for a wall. Mortar was originally the mud. They preferred bricks when stones are unavailable and the bricks were made from local clay and silts. In 4000 BC, people of Mesopotamia erected buildings of sun dried bricks. Fires occurred against mud brick walls brought a knowledge of burnt bricks which advanced later creations. There after stones and bricks governed the constructions for many centuries. The invention of lime mortar gradually replaced mud and cluster of abilities emerged with bricks as providing various shapes and patterns made bricks the common material. During the Industrial Revolution machines were created to produce bricks with similar in size and in weights according to various uses. These bricks with cement enabled the construction of masonry buildings of greater strengths and durability. Apart from that many bond types, patterns came to use adding different appearances, strengths and lifetimes. Some are yet in use and many new types are arriving. In the late 19th century, masonry began to loose its primacy among the materials of construction invented such as reinforced concrete, steel and etc. Wide use of them began to replace brick and masonry.

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

3.0 Brickwork Terminology

Bond
Bond means the arrangement of bricks overlapping one another as to;

1) Distribute the load through the mass of the brickwork. 2) Tie mass together so as no individual brick is easily displace. 3) Provide uniform and pleasant arrangement appears on the face of the wall.

Course and Wythe

A course is a horizontal layer of bricks A Wythe is a vertical layer of bricks

Stretcher and Header


A stretcher is a brick laid parallel to the wall

A header is a brick laid so as to bond two wythes together

Soldier

A soldier is a brick laid on its end with its face parallel to the wall

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Rowlock

A rowlock is a brick laid on its face with its end visible in the wall face

Bond Patterns

It is the design observed on the wall through stretchers and headers after laying bricks in various orders or the distinctive difference in the appearance of the face.

4.0 Construction Concept


To ensure maximum strength and adequate distribution of load, bond must be arranged across the width of the wall as longitudinally greater than one half a brick in thickness. a. Weak Construction b. Strong Construction

Wall bonded across the thickness only

Wall bonded across the thickness and longitudinally

It can be seen that brick wall bonded across its width only, carries the load directly below. It is not a good enough method to transfer loads downward. The other figure clearly indicates a load being carried by a brick wall which is bonded longitudinally as well as across its thickness, offering greater distribution of load and maximum strength.

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

5.0 Brick Bonding Patterns


There are many named varieties of bonds in use recent time. But few centuries ago, bricks were not consistent in size or weight and therefore the overlapping did not imply a regular pattern. This arrangement is called haphazard bonding. Bricks of reasonably consistent dimensions can be laid regular bonding arrangements and thus the pattern of headers and stretches employed gives rise to different bonds. There are number of configurations which are based on three major arrangements. 1. Stretcher bond 2. English bond 3. Flemish bond

5.1 Stretcher Bond


Stretcher bond or stretching is widely used in modern buildings, predominantly in cavity wall construction. This is also called as running bond too. End to end laid bricks in courses with the stretchers showing in the face of the work. Each brick laps over two bricks in the course below.

Stretcher Bond

For simplicity, this bond is generally built with bricks overlapping by half their length. Due to this it sometimes refer to as bonds. Except this some other patterns could be obtained by doing variations to placement of the bricks on below course. Because they require a greater attention in laying in addition to special cutting at corners and ends, they are not common to see. One-brick-thick walls which needed to be fair-faced on both sides are often built as two stretcher bonded leaves. This is called a collar-jointed wall with the leaves fixed together by flat stainless steel ties that are laid at the same frequency as ties in a cavity wall. Other than this, welded stainless steel wire, ladder-pattern reinforcement built in across the wall in every third or forth bed joint is convenient for straight work.
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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Flat shear ties

Collar-jointed brick wall

In recent times stretcher bond has predominated, mainly because of the speed with which it can be laid in wall construction. This is one of the sturdiest and the easiest pattern to install. But it gives a least interesting in appearance.

Stretcher with Snap Headers


This arrangement is an easy way to improve the appearance of half-brick walling. Pieces of bricks as headers are laid in between two complete bricks in a course and each even course member has this characteristic in a brickwork.

Snap header

Stretcher with Snap Headers

Raking Stretcher Bond


This is formed by overlapping of a third or a quarter of the brick length on the below brick. The overall finish produces an attractive diagonal deflection than normal stretcher bond.

Raked bricks

Raking Stretcher/ bond

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

5.2 The Procedure for Building a Stretcher Bond Brick Wall

The construction begins with laying of leads which establish the wall planes and heights.

The bricks between leads are laid t a line using a string stretched taut between line blocks at ends.

When the entire wall is laid to the top level of the Leads, a second set of leads is laid and this process repeats many times as necessary.

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

5.3 English Bond


English bond is considered as the strongest bond among the other bond types. It is said that this particular type of bond is one of the oldest bonds in use. This also called as the Old English Bond too. This contains of one course of stretchers and one course of headers alternatively throughout the wall and with the headers centered over and under the vertical joints of the stretchers. Therefore the wall is one brick thick.

Queen closer

English Bond

English Garden Wall Bond


This is more economical in facing bricks than a true English bond because the frequency of header course can vary as it comes once after three stretcher courses.

English Garden Wall Bond

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

English Cross or Dutch Bond


English cross bond is very much similar to old English bond as it consist alternate stretcher and header courses. The joints of the stretchers center on the stretchers two courses above and below; headers center on headers. This type of bond is used where strength and beauty are required.

5.4 The Procedure for Building an English Bond Brick Wall


When choosing bricks for an English bond wall construction, we have to understand that the bricks must have at least 3/8 inch of mortar to join them to their neighbors. They must also be leveled with the vertical joints scattered. The pattern begins by laying a row of stretchers. This should begin at the corner and the pattern is laid without mortar, leaving 3/8 inch between the bricks. After the pattern is formed bricks are laid with mortar. A row of headers is added to the top of this layer. The pattern continues with each row alternating. Then the joints are centered on the stretchers to the middle of the headers. It is important to keep the direction and spacing of the brick stretchers when laying the English bond by using two quarter bricks to maintain the appropriate spacing for the joints.

English/ Old English Bond

Department of Building Economics

Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

5.5 Flemish Bond


This is a simple pattern which can give a more attractive appearance than English bond. There are two types.

5.5.1 Double Flemish


This consists of alternative headers and stretchers as shown. The term double indicates that the Flemish arrangement appears on both sides. This is weaker than English bond due to the number of bats and stretchers.

Elevation of a Double Flemish Bond

5.5.2 Single Flemish


In here, bricks are arrangement as Flemish bond on the face and English bond as backing. This is applicable to walls one and one half bricks in thickness. It is generally used where more expensive bricks are specified for facing.

Plan of 18 wall

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Flemish Garden Wall Bond


A fair area of wall is needed to show the pattern and perpends need to be kept true. That is because this bond distinguishes from original Flemish bond by using headers and stretchers in different colours randomly in the wall.

Flemish garden wall bond

Flemish Cross Bond


This pattern is much same as the Flemish Garden wall bond, but with two additional headers in place of a stretcher at intervals. This also needs a large wall area to show well.

Flemish Cross Bond

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

6.0 Other Common Bond Patterns


Header Bond
As it spells, this bond consists of headers in each and every course presenting the end of the brick to the face of the wall. Though the transverse strength is good, longitudinally it is not good. Most commonly this bond is used for walls curved in plan, where the curve is not sharp enough to require the bricks being cut since this enables the curve to be more easily created than any other bond. It is advisable to use purpose made or tapered bricks when the curve is small. If common bricks are used tapered joints have to be used and therefore wide perpends are emerged. Tapered Bricks Tapered joints and common bricks

Header Bond

a. Small Radius

b. Large Radius

American Bond/ Common Bond


This is a variation of the stretcher bond with a header course in every 5th, 6th or 7th course. Another special feature is the header courses are centered on each other. This ties the wall to the backing masonry material. When it is the 5th, sometimes it is called the Scottish Bond.

American Bond

Header course in 6th course

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Stack Bond
In stack bond all courses are stretchers and all joins are inline. Preliminary use of this is the aesthetic appearance. But this has relatively a lower structural value.

In lined bricks in Stack Bond

Vertical Stack Bond


The main use of this bond is infilling panels. Therefore it is not a good bond for strength.

Soldier courses

Monk Bond
Monk bond has two stretchers to one header in each course with headers staggered. The construction is somewhat complicated but gives an interesting appearance.

Monk Bond

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Quetta Bond
This is a particular type of a bond because it uses vertical voids for reinforcement. Generally they are filled with mortar. The reinforcement is usually connected to foundations, roof and floors.

Quetta Bond

Reinforcements

Rat-Trap Bond/ Chinese Bond


This is economical to construct and has an unusual appearance with headers and stretchers laid on edge. Comparing to flat laid brickworks this is not much strong and does not ensure resistance to rain.

Rat-Trap Bond

Header Brick on Edge


This unusual bond gives a very strong horizontal emphasis.

Header Brick on Edge


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Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Herringbone Bond
The bricks are laid at 45 degrees in a zigzag pattern. This is often used as infill to timber frame buildings.

Herringbone Bond

Basket Bond
Bricks are laid in squares of three at 90 degrees to each other square.

Basket Pattern

Raking Bonds
In this typical type Herringbone and diagonal bonds are effectively used within an exposed framed construction or contained within restraining brick courses.

Diagonally arranged bricks

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Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

Drunk Brick/ Hollywood Bond.


This figure shows a radical Drunk brick bond.

Bricks have no order

7.0 Pier Brick Bonds


7.1 Half-Brick Wall with Pier
This method results in a straight joint but bridges with reinforcement. It is difficult to obtain a good appearance.

Pier

7.2 Projecting Bricks


Elevation of the brickwork is almost Flemish except projected headers from here and there. Frequency and size of projections need relating to size of wall and distance from which it is seen.

Projecting Bricks

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

8.0 Conclusion
After introducing bricks and blocks to the building construction industry, it was able to bring up major development in wall construction. Even before the industrial revolution bricks were use for construction purposes. We can find a variety of brick work patterns or designs, which are creative and pleasing to the eye. These patterns or designs are called bonds. Some bonds are very simple and others are complex. The way of the brick has overlap individually is important because it divides and distributes any load imposed on the wall. While keeping the main purposes of using bricks for wall construction (strength and durability), the pattern of the bricks bond was able to give a better appearance to the wall. Therefore, bonding pattern was concerned when building a wall. There are three basic bonding patterns which have been identified according to the different construction methods they used to place bricks on a wall. Under these three designs several other patterns has been introduced in the modern age. Referring to the Building with masonry and other websites which has been noted bellow, we were able to gain much knowledge about these basic patterns and how it has developed up to the new methods. Moreover, through group discussion and sharing our knowledge we were able to gain some additional knowledge under the bonding patterns of in wall construction. Not only the knowledge, but also we had an opportunity to improve our communication skills and ability of working as a group. With the cooperation of all the group members we were able to have good background knowledge about building construction field. Further, by presenting this project we have not only achieved knowledge on bonding patterns but much more about the construction field and how do deal with one another when working as a group.

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Building Design and Construction I

Construction of Brick Walls: Bond Patterns

9.0 References
Web Sites
1. www.gobrick.com 2. www.home.earthlink.net 3. www.danadmary.com 4. www.oldvirginiabrick.com 5. www.cmhpf.org 6. www.bossconstruction.com

Books
Hammond A., 1950, Practical Bricklaying, 5th ed, The Technical Press LTD: London. The Brick Development Association, 1974, Bricks, Their Properties and use, The construction Press Ltd: England Edward A. & Joseph I., 1985, Fundamentals of Building Construction, 4th ed, John Wiley & Sons Inco: USA Varghese P.C., 2007, Building Construction, PHI Learning PVT Ltd : India Seeley I.H., 1919, Building Technology, 4th Edition

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