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Portable Cable-Sweeping and Spectrum Analysis for Defense/Aerospace Applications

March 9th 2004


Aart Konynenberg, Marketing Manager Sireesha Mallipeddi, Product Marketing Engineer

Slide 1

Agenda
Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 2

Frequency Spectrum-Radar & ECM Bands Site Master products frequency range
Spectrum Master products frequency range

Slide 3

Aircraft Electromagnetic spectrum


Site Master products frequency range Spectrum Master products frequency range

Spectrum Master products frequency range Site Master products frequency range

Slide 4

Transmission line system failures


Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure Cable problems modes Connector problems Cable/antenna system checks Antenna problems FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 5

Cable Problems
Installation problems
Poor grounding Excessive bends Crimping, Crushing and Deforming

Routine Maintenance
Damaged/Dented Ground Shield Kinks in the cable Broken center conductor Excessive Moisture like snow, rain Sea water Corrosion Cable discontinuity Bullet holes in the cable

Weather

Battle damage

Slide 6

Connector problems
Mis-installation
Poor center pin contact Low quality connectors Poor weather proofing Loose connectors Water ingress Corroded connectors Extreme temperatures plane landing/cruising Broken connectors Vibration caused by weapon firing

Weather

Battle damage
-

Slide 7

Antenna Problems
Mis-installation
Shipping damage Out of Specification Storm damage Extreme temperatures Bullet holes Vibration caused by weapon firing

Routine Maintenance Battle damage

Slide 8

Cable/antenna system checks


Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks Cable/antenna problems FDR Technology Site Master SWR Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Return Loss Cable Loss Spectrum Master Distance-to-fault Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 9

Cable/Antenna problems
Excessive Reflections
Poor impedance matching results in signal reflections
mismatch

Reflection

mismatch Reflection

Reflection

Measure VSWR and Return Loss

Slide 10

VSWR Measurement
The ratio of maximum to minimum is VSWR
Signal Voltage From Source = Vi

Impedance Not Matched, Not 50 Ohms

Reflected Signal Voltage = Vr

Slide 11

Return Loss Measurement


Ratio of reflected signal to the incident signal
Signal Power From Source = Pi

Pi
Pr
Reflected Power is Proportional to Impedance Mismatch

Impedance Not Matched, Not 50 Ohms

Reflection Coefficient =

= Pr / Pi

Slide 12

Cable/Antenna problems
Excessive Insertion loss
RF energy lost as heat and energy as the signal passes through the transmission line

Insertion Loss

Measure Cable Loss

Slide 13

Cable Loss Measurement


Cable loss measures the insertion loss in the cable and antenna system
Cable Loss

dB

- cable loss is automatically calculated and displayed - Can be displayed in dB/ft or dB/meter

1
0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 -4.5 -5.0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Frequency (25.0 - 4000.0 MHz) 3500 4000

Resolution: 259 Date: 02/27/2004 Model: S332D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 11:28:19 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Avg.CableLoss: 1.266dB

Slide 14

FDR Technology
Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR FDR Technology TDR Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes TDR vs FDR FDR Advantages Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 15

Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR)


FDR is a transmission line fault isolation technique which precisely identifies signal path degradation for transmission lines FDR Measurement Theory
- Sends a swept frequency input to the transmission line/antenna - An inverse FFT is performed on the reflected signals transforming the information into the time domain - Then distance is calculated from this information knowing the cable velocity

Slide 16

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)


Traditional Technique
- Uses DC pulses - Cannot detect small performance changes in the RF frequencies - Can detect only opens or shorts in the conductors

Slide 17

TDR vs FDR
FDR
Sources Spectral Density

TDR
Less than 2% of TDR source energy is in the RF bands

DC Pulse versus Frequency Sweep


TDR
0 -10

f1

f2
KINK
M1: -27.58 dB @ 14.24 ft M2: -50.75 dB @ 23.01 ft

FDR Anritsu S331D Distance-to-fault

-20 dB
Limit : -30.0

-30

-40 -50
M1 M2

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 Distance (0.0 - 25.0 Feet) 20.0 22.5 25.0

Resolution: 517 Date: 02/20/2004 Model: S331D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 10:54:50 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

Slide 18

Distance-To-Fault
Uses Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and inverse Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) Measures return loss of the cabling system versus distance
- Precise location of potential sources of failure are easily identified - Repair persons can go right to the point of failure without having to guess where it is or what component caused the problem
dB

Distance-to-fault
OPEN
0 -10
M1: -2.76 dB @ 15.89 Feet

-20
Limit : -27.0

-30 -40

-50
M1

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 Distance (0.0 - 20.0 Feet) 15.0 17.5 20.0

Resolution: 259 Date: 02/10/2004 Model: MT8212A

FlexCAL:ON(COAX) Time: 17:29:51 Serial #: 00000007

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

Slide 19

TDR vs FDR - Loose connector


FDR Anritsu S331D
Distance-to-fault
FAULT1
0
M1: -38.49 dB @ .08 ft M2: -46.02 dB @ 8.53 ft M3: -44.44 dB @ 17.21 ft

-10

BlueLoose connector Green DTF measurement

-20 dB
Limit : -30.0

-30

FAULT1

-40

FAULT2

-50
M1 M2 M3

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 Distance (0.0 - 20.0 Feet) 15.0 17.5 20.0

Resolution: 517 Date: 02/17/2004 Model: S331D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 12:25:27 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

TDR

TDR- Loose Connector

Slide 20

Moisture at the center connector


FDR Anritsu S331D
Distance-to-fault
CC1
0
M1: -39.17 dB @ .08 ft M2: -46.74 dB @ 8.57 ft M3: -41.11 dB @ 17.21 ft

-10

GreenOriginal
Limit : -30.0

-20

-30
CC1

CC2

-40

Blue Fault at connection


M2 M3

dB
CC3

-50
M1

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 Distance (0.0 - 20.0 Feet) 15.0 17.5 20.0

Resolution: 517 Date: 02/17/2004 Model: S331D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 14:12:02 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

Red Moisture at center connection

TDR- Load at the end

Fault at the center connection

Moisture at the center connector

Short

Slide 21

Moisture at the end connector


FDR Anritsu S331D
Distance-to-fault
EC1
0
M1: -39.17 dB @ .08 ft M2: -45.51 dB @ 8.57 ft M3: -39.58 dB @ 17.21 ft

Blue Connector fault Green End connector dipped in water

-10

-20
Limit : -30.0

dB

-30
EC1

EC2

-40

EC3

-50
M1 M2 M3

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 Distance (0.0 - 20.0 Feet) 15.0 17.5 20.0

Red Moisture at end connector

Resolution: 517 Date: 02/17/2004 Model: S331D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 14:26:25 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

TDR- End connector fault

End connector dipped in water

Moisture at end connector

Short

Short

Slide 22

Kink in the cable


FDR Anritsu S331D
Distance-to-fault
KINK
0 -10
M1: -27.58 dB @ 14.24 ft M2: -50.75 dB @ 23.01 ft

TDR Kink

-20
Limit : -30.0

dB

-30 -40

-50
M1 M2

-60 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 Distance (0.0 - 25.0 Feet) 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0

Resolution: 517 Date: 02/20/2004 Model: S331D

CAL:ON(COAX) Time: 10:54:50 Serial #: 00350066

CW: OFF Ins.Loss:0.030dB/ft Prop.Vel:0.880

Slide 23

FDR Advantages
FDR can locate small performance changes at RF frequencies Can locate RF faults, not just open or short in the transmission line Can measure in the presence of RF interference from near by transmitters Eliminates Fix after Failure problem

Slide 24

Site Master
Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Products & Features Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 25

Site Master Product Structure


Site Master
Product Structure

RF Site Master
One-Port w/ Internal SPA Capability S114C
2 MHz 1600MHz 100 kHz 1600 MHz

Wave Site Master


Two-Port
Tower Mounted Amplifier

One-Port

One-Port

S113C
2 MHz 1600 MHz

S251C
625 MHz 2500 MHz

S810C
3.3 10.5 GHz

S331D
25 MHz 4000 MHz

S332D
25 MHz 4000 MHz 100 kHz 3000 MHz

S820C
3.3 20 GHz

Slide 26

Site Master Key Features


Seven different models to cover 2 MHz to 20 GHz frequency range. Superior Distance To Fault measurement based on FDR technology to locate faults Automatically calculates the cable loss Allows accurate and repeatable measurements in noisy RF environment

Slide 27

Transmitter/Receiver Failure Modes


Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 28

Transmitter & Receiver Problems


Transmitter deployment and maintenance
- Insufficient output power - Frequency error - Modulation spectra out of band

Receiver deployment and maintenance


In band spurious Out of band spurious Frequency error Interference

Slide 29

Interference
Jamming signals Strong friendly signals from surrounding transmitters Inter-modulation products

Slide 30

Interference Intermodulation
Inter-modulation in a receiver input or in nearby environmental diodes can create interfering signals. Two in-band signals mix together. 3rd order inter-modulation products are the most troublesome With frequencies X and Y
- 2Y-X and 2X-Y can easily fall within your receivers pass-band - Can cause interference that may be continuous or intermittent

Slide 31

Systems Live in a Complicated RF Environment


Many, many signals throughout the RF and low microwave spectrum.
Anritsu MS2711D Spectrum Master
Silicon Valley Spectrum
Ref Level :

-50 -55 -60 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100
-0.00 249.94 499.89 749.84 999.78 1249.72 1499.67 1749.61 1999.56 2249.50 2499.45

-50.0

dBm

dB / Div :

5.0 dB

dBm

CF: 1250.27 MHz RBW: 1 MHz Date: 10/07/2003 Model: MS2711D Model: MS2711D

Frequency (0.54 - 2500.0 MHz) SPAN: 2499.46 MHz VBW: 300 kHz Time: 10:09:31 Serial #: 1397701056 Serial #: 1397701056

Attenuation: 1 dB Detection: Pos. Peak

Slide 32

Carrier to Interference Ratio


Application - Determining the magnitude of interference

This is a two-step measurement:


- First, the carrier power is measured - Then, with the transmitter turned off, the remaining signals are measured

Automatically calculates the ratio of the values

Slide 33

Channel Power
Application - Validate transmitter performance to comply with specifications

Select the applicable signal standard & channel Automatically measures Total Power in the specified channel bandwidth

Slide 34

Adjacent Channel Power


Application - Determine if your own transmitter is causing interference

Select the applicable signal standard & channel Adjacent channels are automatically set Automatically measures Power in the main and adjacent channels
Note: Non-linearity in the output can cause spectral regrowth

This particular signal is clean

Slide 35

Spectrum Master
Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Products & Features Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 36

Spectrum Master (100kHz 3GHz)


Key features -135 dBm noise floor + 43 dBm maximum safe input power Built-in AM/FM/SSB Demodulator One Button measurements
- Field Strength, Channel power, Adjacent channel power ratio, Occupied bandwidth, Interference Analysis, Carrier-To-Interference ratio

Slide 37

Transmission Measurement
Key features Optional in MS2711D and S332D Measure gain or loss of two port devices like: - filters, cables, attenuators and amplifiers Built-in 25 MHz to 3 GHz signal source Dynamic range 80 dB
Ref Level :

Spectrum Analyzer
FILTER
M1: -99.09 dBm @ 1891.625 MHzM2: -81.50 dBm @ 2111.625 MHz M3: -1.04 dBm @ 1957.625 MHz

0.0 dBm

-10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90

dB / Div :

10.0 dB

dBm

M1

M3

M2

-100

1760

1815

1870

1925 1980 2035 2090 2145 Frequency (1750.0 - 2300.0 MHz)

2200

2255

2310

CF: 2025.0 MHz RBW: 1 MHz Date: 10/09/2003 Model: S332D

SPAN: 550.00 MHz VBW: 300 kHz Time: 14:33:14 Serial #: 03296303

Attenuation: 30 dB Detection: Sampling Mode

Slide 38

Frequency Extension
Key features Optional in MS2711D and S332D Extend frequency range
- External module - Powered by main instrument

Frequency Range 4.7 to 6 GHz Dynamic range 80 dB Sensitivity 100 dBm

Slide 39

Applications
Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Site Master Q&A

Slide 40

Spectrum Master - Application


MVSAT Application MVSAT (Mobile Very Small Aperture Terminal) is used to gather information in war zones MS2711D with Bias Tee is used during MVSAT setup for satellite acquisition MS2711D is used for troubleshooting during poor signal transmission

Slide 41

Site Master - US Army Application


SINCGARS radio system Army vehicles uses SINCGARS radio communication system, which has two antenna systems in every vehicle If there is a problem whole antenna system will be replaced After using Site Master 40% of antenna system replacements were cut back

Slide 42

Site Master Air Force Application


F16 Fighter plane Cables are analyzed using S331C. Some cables are up to 50 ft long which run from tail to line replace unit receiver in the cockpit.

Slide 43

Site Master Coast Guard Application


Coast Guard Fleet S331D and S820C used to sweep cables and waveguides of the ships

Slide 44

Site Master - Aerospace Application


Joint Strike Fighter program It is important to find exact fault location to cut composite skin to get to the fault Without exact fault location it will be at least 4 days to fix the problem Prime Contractor uses: Two Site Masters, S331C and S820C in one transit case for cable and waveguide analysis

Slide 45

Site Master - Aerospace Application


SWIFT 64 INMARSAT
C-40B airplane is a 737 BBJ, which supported the CENTCOM commander, General Abizaid, during Iraq war The airplane had been experiencing intermittent communications over the SWIFT 64 INMARSAT system Used Anritsu S332D to measure:
- return loss in SWIFT 64 INMARSAT RF cable system between the antenna and the terminal - made DTF measurements and cable loss measurements.

Testing with S332D verified that RF paths were OK, so the terminal was replaced Since then the airplane has flown missions without any noted problems

Slide 46

Site Master - Aerospace Application


AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) AWACS is distinguished by the addition of a large, rotating rotodome containing its radar antenna and identification friendor-foe (IFF) and data-link fightercontrol (TADIL-C) antennas S331B, S251C and S820A are used to test the antennas and cables

Slide 47

Site Master - Aerospace Application


Prime Contractor Aircraft Company Company builds wings and tails for military and commercial planes They sweep all cables of the manufactured wings and tails

Slide 48

Training & Technical Support


Introduction Frequency spectrum Transmission line system failure modes Cable/antenna system checks FDR Technology Site Master Transmitter/Receiver failure modes Spectrum Master Applications Training & Technical support Q&A

Slide 49

Training & Technical Support


Certified Line Sweep Training
www.us.anritsu.com/training

Site Master Users Group (SMIU)


www.us.anritsu.com/smiu

Technical support
- Anritsu Call Center 1-800-267-4878

Slide 50

Additional Information
For more information about Site Master and Spectrum Master please visit our website at http://www.us.anritsu.com/ Upcoming industry events featuring the Anritsu Master Solutions CeBit March 18th 24th 2004 CTIA - March 22nd 24th 2004
IWCE March 24th 26th 2004

Slide 51

Thanks for your attendance !


Do you have more questions for us? Please E-mail: netseminar@anritsu.com To find your local distributor call: 1(800) Anritsu (278-4878) or go to www.us.anritsu.com To purchase Anritsu products on GSA contract please contact www.testmart.com or www.navicpmart.com

Slide 52