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2ND SEMESTER 2012 2013

NORHANA S. KANAKAN
NAME

SIGNATURE

BSED -2
PROGRAM AND YEAR

PHILOSOPHY OF MAN
COURSE

MIDTERM EXAMINATION

JANUARY 25, 2013


DATE

MRS. FLORDELIZA JALANDONI


INSTRUCTOR

Man is a unique individual. It is an embodied spirit. He is union of a sentient body and a rational soul. He is not just a body, neither just a spirit. What happens to the body happens also to the spirit. Likewise what happen to the spirit affects the body.

Man according to Eastern Philosopher Hinduism According to them, man is essentially a soul that uses its body and mind as instruments to gain experience. They maintain that mans individuality and identity are built on the same plan, and that Brahman is the soul of man. Brahman is believed to be the absolute. Buddhism According to them, man is a heap of the following aggregates, namely, Nama means mind and Rupa means matter body. Man is nothing but the composition of mind and matter. Mind and matter are ever-changing. They are guided by the theory of universal flux. They are neither permanent nor eternal. Christianity According to them, man is a precious being redeemed by the passion and death of Jesus Christ. It uphold that man has a body which decays and a soul which is immortal. Confucianism According to them, man is fundamentally good inclined towards goodness. Perfection of goodness can be found in sages and saints. They have their Golden Rule: Do not do unto others what you do not want others do unto you. Taoism According to them, all thing originated from Tao (nature), comported to Tao and from man returns. The entire universe and everything in it flows with a mysterious, unknowable force called the Tao.

Man according to Greek Philosopher Thales According to him, the world originated from water. He considered that everything is made by water, including man. He never pondered that water continued to be the substance of the world. Anaximander According to him, the source of everything must come from the powerful one. He did not determine if where the man came from. Socrates According to him, man is always a free maker of ideas. It composes of matter and reason. Matter is a human body and reason is referred to Universal reason. Boethius According to him, man composed of substance with reason is considered as a power and a questioning nature. Aristotles Postulate According to him, soul is the principle of life, that which imbues the matter and makes it live. If things were alive, they must have souls. There are three kinds of soul: Vegetative soul - force found in vegetation and plants. Sentient soul force found in animals. Rational soul force possessed by human being capable of feeling, sensing, thinking and reasoning. Rene Descartes View According to him, man has two substances, soul and body. It essentially a thinking thing, not thinking animals, or a rational animal. Thoughts classified into: Believing or doubting Hoping or wanting Loving and deciding

1. Discuss Materialism and its different Philosopher with their philosophy. Materialism is said to be that everything is this world is made up only in matter and energy or is ultimately dependent upon matter for its existence. In other words, matter is the only substance and reality is identical with the actually occurring states of energy and matter. Most form of materialistic tends to reject the existence of spirit or anything non-physical. Everything objective extended, active, and hence everything material, is regarded by materialism. Thales of mellitus Do not to solve all lifes problems at once- learn to dread each day as it comes. This philosophy tells about that you dont owe the entire problem in the world. Try to take your time. Solve your problem one at a time, step-by-step. You just need to reserve strength for tomorrow. Anaximander of Mellitus Through finding something beautiful, think something else unbeautiful. Besides finding one man fit, judge another unfit. This philosophy tells about that sometimes, you can only find mistakes if you done already doing well or its too late to realize that youre mistaken because you are just thinking only for your own sake. Try to be considerable in some sense. Heraclitus of Ephesus Everything in nature is in continuous flux. All God creation is continuously changing. Develop and increase generation by generation. Sun Tzu All war is based on deception. Of course, all war begins in fraud. For instance, you are going to deceive yourself in making a decision then thats the time that you starting fell hatred in own self. Thats why I believed that all war is based on deception.

Democritus of Abdera The wrong doer is more unfortunate that man wronged. Of course, the wrong doer was the most unfortunate rather than the wrong man because the wrong man didnt know what he done but the doer aware already of what is wrong but he preferred to continue doing. Anaximenes of Miletus But, since the varying of tones give music to a voice, what is the was of what shall be. If you go within the flow of the nature, you can find what is really fitted to you. Like in singing a song, if you go with the flow of the music even if you are not totally a singer, you can get the tone of the song. Leucippus Plan for difficulty when it is still easy, do the great when it is still small. In order for you to be prepared in everything that comes in your life, you must not focus only in the easiest part of your life. Be ready for everything. Like ants, they keep on gathering food when sunny day, if incase that rainy days coming they already have a food to eat.

2. Discuss Naturalism and its different Philosopher with their philosophy. Naturalism is said to be that the only law that operate in the universe is the laws of nature and that nothing exists beyond the natural universe. Natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of natural universe. It said to be that nature is completely unknowable. Goethe, Johann Wolfgangvon Everything is simpler than you think and at the same time more complex than you imagine. This philosophy tells about everything that you want to do is very simple when you are just thinking of it but when you apply or do it, it is not so easy. Like for example, you are planning to build a beautiful house until you are imagining that you can finished it perfectly in a certain period of time. But in reality, before you can build a house, there are so many things that you must need to consider first (i.e. money, materials to be use and labor etc.) Cuvier, Georges It is beneficial to see a great person This philosophy tells about the success of everyone. Yes, it is beneficial to see a great person because if you are in a group of this kind of person, they can encourage you on how to be like them. Great person is like a mirror, everyone can reflect on it. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Etienne Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and sternness. This philosophy tells about on how important these five values in what we called leadership. To lead is not an easy task. Everyone will respect and follow you. So, leader must need to be strict and serious in his work.

Darwin, Charles Robert A scientific man ought to have no wishes, no affections, - a mere heart of stone. Everyone who has a profession which is related to this kind of man is needed to have a heart that is hard like a stone because if you going to do your job, there is no distraction that can controlled you. You need to do your work doubtless, focus, no wishes, and no affection. Marx, Karl Catch a man fish and you can sell it to him. Teach a man to fish, and you ruin a wonderful business opportunity. I think this philosophy want to tell that we must be aware in rescuing people because sometimes the one you accommodate with is the one that can be a reason for you to fall. Haeckel, Ernst If you know that what is right and just is not to be opposed, and you go back home to live modestly, minding your own business, then you will be free from fault. Haeckel philosophy gave me knowledge on how to live a peaceful and happy life without any problem. As long as wala kang natatapakan you are free from fault. You can live doubtless. Away from sin. You just mind your own business.

Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich If you work for a king, you will not accomplish anything. Yes, if you work for a king, you will not accomplish anything to yourself because you spent all of your time to serve only for the king.

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