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Codes and Standards for PV Systems and Equipment

Table of Contents
1. STANDARDS AND CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT ORGANIZATIONS................................... 2 1.1 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) .................................................................. 2 1.1.1 National Standards Systems Network (NSSN) ........................................................................ 2 1.2 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST)................................................ 2 1.3 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE)................................................. 3 1.3.1 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) ................................................................................ 3 1.3.2 IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) .......................................................... 3 1.3.3 IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 29 (SCC29) .......................................................... 4 1.4 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC) ............................................................. 5 1.5 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) .................................................... 6 2. FIRE, ELECTRICAL AND SAFETY CODES ................................................................................. 7 2.1 NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA)...................................................................... 7 2.1.1 National Electrical Code (NEC)............................................................................................. 8 2.2 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA)................................................. 8 3. UNDERWRITERS AND PRODUCT LISTING ORGANIZATIONS ............................................ 9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4. UNDERWRITERS LABORATORY (UL)............................................................................................... 9 ETL SEMKO................................................................................................................................ 10 FACTORY MUTUAL RESEARCH (FM GLOBAL) .............................................................................. 10 CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION (CSA)............................................................................... 10

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS STANDARDS.......................................................................... 11 4.1 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM)....................................................... 11 4.2 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION (NECA) ................................................... 13 4.2.1 National Electrical Installation Standards (NEIS) ............................................................... 13 4.3 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NEMA) ............................................. 13 4.4 BATTERY COUNCIL INTERNATIONAL (BCI)................................................................................... 13 4.5 ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA (IESNA)......................................... 14 4.6 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME) ......................................................... 14 4.7 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC. (ASHRAE) ............................................................................................................................................... 14

5.

BUILDING AND STRUCTURAL CODES ..................................................................................... 15 5.1 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (ASCE)....................................................................... 15 5.1.1 ASCEs Structural Engineering Institute (SEI)..................................................................... 15 5.2 INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) ........................................................................................ 16 5.3 BUILDING OFFICIALS AND CODE ADMINISTRATORS INTERNATIONAL INC. (BOCA)..................... 17 5.4 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OFFICIALS (ICBO) .................................................. 17 5.5 SOUTHERN BUILDING CODE CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL INC. (SBCCI)....................................... 17 5.6 THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ELECTRICAL INSPECTORS (IAEI) ..................................... 18 5.7 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL OFFICIALS (IAPMO)............... 18

6.

ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION ORGANIZATIONS.............................................. 18 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION (A2LA) ....................................... 18 POWERMARK CORPORATION (PMC) ............................................................................................ 19 GLOBAL APPROVAL PROGRAM FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV GAP).................................................. 19 INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER (ISP) .................................................................................. 19

Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment

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1. Standards and Conformity Assessment Organizations


1.1 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) (http://www.ansi.org/) is a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. The Institute's mission is to enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the U.S. quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity. ANSI is the official U.S. representative to the International Accreditation Forum (IAF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ANSI is also the U.S. member of the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC) and the Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT).

1.1.1 National Standards Systems Network (NSSN)

NSSN - A National Resource for Global Standards (http://www.nssn.org/) is becoming the World Wide Web's most comprehensive data network on developing and approved national, foreign, regional and international standards and regulatory documents. NSSN is a cooperative partnership between the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), U.S. private-sector standards organizations, government agencies, and international standards organizations, with the principal goal of providing technical data and information about important developments in a global standardization arena.

1.2

National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)

Founded in 1901, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) (http://www.nist.gov/) is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration. NIST's mission is to develop and promote measurements, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life.

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1.3

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) (http://www.ieee.org/) is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 350,000 individual members in 150 countries. Through its members, the IEEE is a leading authority in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics, among others. Through its technical publishing, conferences and consensus-based standards activities, the IEEE produces 30 percent of the world's published literature in electrical engineering, computers and control technology, holds annually more than 300 major conferences and has more than 800 active standards with 700 under development. IEEE standards are accessible from the IEEE Standards Association (http://standards.ieee.org/). For nontechnical questions, including pricing, availability and ordering contact IEEE Customer Service at 1-800678-IEEE (in U.S. and Canada), or 1-732-981-0060 (outside the U.S. and Canada).

1.3.1 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)

Published exclusively by IEEE, the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (http://standards.ieee.org/nesc/) sets the ground rules for the practical safeguarding of persons during the installation, operation or maintenance of electric supply and communications lines and associated equipment. The NESC is the standard for those working with utility systems and equipment.

1.3.2 IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21)


IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) (http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/) oversees the development of standards in the areas Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage, and coordinates efforts in these fields among the various IEEE Societies and other affected organizations to ensure that all standards are consistent and properly reflect the views of all applicable disciplines. IEEE SCC21 reviews all proposed IEEE standards in these fields before their submission to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for approval and coordinates submission to other organizations. IEEE SCC21 has developed numerous standards, guidelines and recommended practices for the functional and operational requirements of PV systems and equipment. The following lists current and new IEEE SCC21 standards projects applicable to photovoltaic systems and equipment. IEEE 928 - IEEE Recommended Criteria for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Power Systems IEEE 929 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems IEEE 937 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation and Maintenance of Lead-Acid Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems IEEE 1013 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems IEEE 1144 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment

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IEEE 1145 - IEEE Recommended Practice for the Installation and Maintenance of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems IEEE 1262 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Qualification of Photovoltaic (PV) Modules IEEE 1374 - IEEE Guide for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Power System Safety IEEE 1513 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Qualification of Concentrator Photovoltaic (PV) Receiver Sections and Modules

New standards projects in IEEE SCC21:

IEEE P1361 - Guide for Selection, Charging, Test and Evaluation of Lead-Acid Batteries Used in StandAlone Photovoltaic (PV) System. IEEE P1479 - Recommended Practice for the Evaluation of Photovoltaic Module Energy Production

IEEE P1526 - Recommended Practice for Testing the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems IEEE P1547 - Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power System IEEE P1561 - Guide for Sizing Hybrid Stand-Alone Energy Systems IEEE P1562 - Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

1.3.3 IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 29 (SCC29)


IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 29 (SCC29) (http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc29/) for Stationary Battery Standards oversees the development of standards and documents aimed at the battery user, with the goal of helping users achieve the best possible reliability and service life from their battery purchases. IEEE SCC29 documents cover selection, sizing, protection, installation, maintenance and testing of all battery types in stationary applications. Some of the SCC29 standards include: IEEE 450 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 484 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 1106 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation, Maintenance, Testing and Replacement of Vented Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 1187 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 1188 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing and Replacement of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 485 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 535 - IEEE Standard Qualification of Class 1E Lead Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment Page 4 of 19

IEEE 1115 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 1184 - IEEE Guide for the Selection and Sizing of Batteries for Uninterruptible Power Systems IEEE 1189 - IEEE Guide for Selection of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE 1375 IEEE Guide for the Protection of Stationary Battery Systems

1.4

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) (http://www.iec.ch/) is the international standards and conformity assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology. IEC Technical Committee TC-82: Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems (http://www.iec.ch/cgibin/procgi.pl/www/iecwww.p?wwwlang=e&wwwprog=dirdet.p&committee=TC&number=82) has a scope of preparing international standards for systems of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electrical energy and for all the elements in the entire photovoltaic energy system. Also included are the preparation of standards that specify the requirements for a total quality system, including the PV manufacturers quality system, the PV testing laboratory accreditation procedures and the PV product certification and labeling process. TC-82 workgroups include: WG 1: Glossary WG 2: Modules, non-concentrating WG 3: Systems WG 4: PV energy storage systems WG 5: Quality and certification WG 6: Balance-of-system components WG 7: Concentrator modules IEC standards related to photovoltaic systems and equipment published by TC-82 include:

IEC 60891 - Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to measured I-V characteristics of crystalline silicon photovoltaic devices
IEC 60904 - Photovoltaic devices Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics IEC 60904-2 Photovoltaic devices Part 2: Requirements for reference solar cells IEC 60904-3 Photovoltaic devices Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) solar devices with reference spectral irradiance data IEC 60904-5 Photovoltaic devices Part 5: Determination of the equivalent cell temperature (ECT) of photovoltaic (PV) devices by the open-circuit voltage method IEC 60904-6 Photovoltaic devices Part 6: Requirements for reference solar modules IEC 60904-7 Photovoltaic devices Part 7: Computation of spectral mismatch error introduced in the testing of a photovoltaic device IEC 60904-8 Photovoltaic devices Part 8: Measurement of spectral response of a photovoltaic (PV) device Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment Page 5 of 19

IEC 60904-9 Photovoltaic devices Part 9: Solar simulator performance requirements IEC 60904-10 Photovoltaic devices Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement IEC 61173 - Overvoltage protection for photovoltaic (PV) power generating systems - Guide IEC 61194 - Characteristic parameters of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems IEC 61215 - Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval IEC 61277 - Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power generating systems - General and guide IEC 61345 - UV test for photovoltaic (PV) modules IEC 61646 - Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval IEC 61683 - Photovoltaic systems - Power conditioners - Procedure for measuring efficiency IEC 61701 - Salt mist corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules IEC 61702 - Rating of direct coupled photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems IEC 61721 - Susceptibility of a photovoltaic (PV) module to accidental impact damage (resistance to impact test) IEC 61724 - Photovoltaic system performance monitoring - Guidelines for measurement, data exchange and analysis IEC 61725 - Analytical expression for daily solar profiles IEC 61727 - Photovoltaic (PV) systems - Characteristics of the utility interface IEC 61829 - Crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) array - On-site measurement of I-V characteristics IEC 61836 - Solar photovoltaic energy systems - Terms and symbols IEC/PAS 62111 - Specifications for the use of renewable energies in rural decentralized electrification

1.5

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (http://www.iso.ch/iso/) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 140 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards. ISO publishes numerous standards related to quality systems for testing, certifying and accrediting bodies. Some of the standards related to testing and certifying PV practitioners and equipment and to manufacturers of equipment include: Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment Page 6 of 19

ISO/IEC Guide 62 - General requirements for bodies operating assessment and certification/registration of quality systems ISO/IEC Guide 65 - General requirements for bodies operating product certification systems ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories ISO 9000 An international reference for quality requirements in business to business dealings ISO 14000 An international reference to help organizations to meet their environmental challenges.

2. Fire, Electrical and Safety Codes


2.1 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (http://www.nfpa.org/) is an international nonprofit membership organization founded in 1896, with more than 75,000 members representing nearly 100 nations, NFPA serves as the world's leading advocate of fire prevention and is an authoritative source on public safety. NFPA's 300 safety codes and standards influence every building, process, service, design, and installation in the United States, as well as many of those used in other countries. NFPA encourages the broadest possible participation in code development, which is driven by more than 6,000 volunteers from diverse professional backgrounds that serve on 230 technical code- and standarddevelopment committees. Throughout the entire process, interested parties are encouraged to provide NFPA technical committees with input. All NFPA members then have the opportunity to vote on proposed and revised codes and standards. Examples of NFPA-developed codes include: NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code - Provides the requirements necessary to establish a reasonable level of fire safety and property protection in new and existing buildings. NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code - The safety benchmark for fuel gas installations. NFPA 70, National Electrical Code - The world's most widely used and accepted code for electrical installations, and an essential requirement for most PV system installations. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code - Establishes minimum requirements for new and existing buildings to protect building occupants from fire, smoke, and toxic fumes. NFPA 5000, Building Code - NFPA technical committees are developing the first building code created through true consensus. When finalized in 2002, the code will be a cornerstone of the only full set of integrated codes for the built environment. NFPA has established partnerships with key code-development organizations for this effort, including the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Western Fire Chiefs Association.

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2.1.1 National Electrical Code (NEC)

NFPA70 - National Electrical Code (NEC) (http://www.nfpa.org/nec/) is the most widely adopted code in the world and is used in every state in the nation. First issued in 1807, the 2002 edition of the NEC marks the 49th edition, and includes more than 300 significant changes to the 1999 edition. The NEC provides "practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity." More specifically, it covers the installation of electric conductors and equipment in public and private buildings or other structures (including mobile homes, recreational vehicles, and floating buildings), industrial substations, and other premises (such as yards, carnivals, and parking lots). Article 690 of the NEC specifically addresses the design and installation of photovoltaic systems and equipment, and includes requirements for sizing and protection of circuits, disconnect means, wiring methods, grounding, marking and connections to other sources. For more information regarding photovoltaic systems and the National Electrical Code, please see the following: 1. Photovoltaic Power Systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested Practices (http://www.nmsu.edu/~tdi/pvandnec.htm) a publication of The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center, Sandia National Laboratories (http://www.sandia.gov/pv/) by John Wiles, Southwest Technology Development Institute (http://www.nmsu.edu/~tdi/pv.htm), New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM. "Code Corner" (http://www.nmsu.edu/~tdi/codecorner.htm) is a series of articles on PV systems and the NEC that have been published in Home Power Magazine (http://www.homepower.com/) by John Wiles, Southwest Technology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM. Published exclusively by IEEE, the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (http://standards.ieee.org/nesc/) sets the ground rules for the practical safeguarding of persons during the installation, operation or maintenance of electric supply and communications lines and associated equipment. The NESC is the standard for those working with utility systems and equipment.

2.

3.

2.2

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

A federal agency under the U.S. Department of Labor, the mission of the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) (http://www.osha.gov/) is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers. To accomplish this, federal and state governments must work in partnership with the more than 100 million working men and women and their six and a half million employers who are covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. OSHA and its state partners have approximately 2100 inspectors, plus complaint discrimination investigators, engineers, physicians, educators, standards writers, and other technical and support personnel spread over more than 200 offices throughout the country. This staff establishes protective standards, enforces those standards, and reaches out to employers and employees through technical assistance and consultation programs. Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment Page 8 of 19

3. Underwriters and Product Listing Organizations


3.1 Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

Underwriters Laboratories (UL) (http://www.ul.com/) is an independent, not-for-profit product safety testing and certification organization. For over one hundred years, UL has been the undisputed leader in product safety and certification. Each year, more than 16 billion UL Marks are applied to products worldwide, and UL is becoming one of the most recognized, reputable conformity assessment providers in the world. UL's Standards Department (http://ulstandardsinfonet.ul.com/) website contains information on UL Standards, including: ! ! ! ! Current Catalog of Standards Standards pricing information Standards bulletins Scopes of UL Standards

Among their many product evaluation activities, UL tests PV modules, and inverters and charge controllers used in PV systems. Two of the more important UL standards for PV systems equipment are: UL 1703 - Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels. These requirements cover flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels intended for installation on or integral with buildings, or to be freestanding (that is, not attached to buildings), in accordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70 and Model Building Codes. These requirements cover modules and panels intended for use in systems with a maximum system voltage of 1000 volts or less, and also cover components intended to provide electrical connection to and mounting facilities for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. These requirements do not cover equipment intended to accept the electrical output from the array, such as power conditioning units (inverters) and batteries; any tracking mechanism; concentrated cell assemblies, or combination photovoltaic-thermal modules or panels.

UL 1741 - Inverters, Converters, and Controllers for Use in Independent Power Systems. These requirements cover inverters, converters, charge controllers, and output controllers intended for use in stand-alone (not grid connected) or utility-interactive (grid-connected) power systems. Utility-interactive inverters and converters are intended to be installed in parallel with an electric supply system or an electric utility to supply common loads. These requirements cover AC modules that combine flat-plate photovoltaic modules and inverters to provide AC output power for stand-alone use or utility-interaction, and power systems which combine other alternative energy sources with inverters, converters, charge controllers and output controllers, in system specific combinations. These requirements also cover power systems that combine independent power sources with inverters, converters, charge controllers, and output controllers in system specific combinations. The products covered by these requirements are intended to be installed in accordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70.

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3.2

ETL SEMKO

ETL Semko (http://www.etlsemko.com/), a division of Intertek Testing Services is one of the world's largest conformity assessment testing providers, assisting manufacturers and businesses in the testing and certification products for the global marketplace. ETL SEMKO conducts certification testing of inverters used in PV systems to UL1741 standards.

3.3

Factory Mutual Research (FM Global)

FM Global (http://www.fmglobal.com/) is an insurance organization that develops cost-effective insurance and risk financing solutions. Industrial and commercial companies around the world rely on products and services that are Factory Mutual Research-Approved and listed to conform to the highest standards.

3.4

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) (http://www.csa.ca) is a not-for-profit membership-based association serving business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. CSA works in Canada and around the world to develop standards and test and certify products that address needs such as enhancing public safety and health, advancing the quality of life, helping to preserve the environment and facilitating trade.

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4. Equipment and Materials Standards


4.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) (http://www.astm.org) is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for producers, users, ultimate consumers, and those having a general interest (representatives of government and academia) to meet on common ground and write standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM Committee E44 on Solar, Geothermal and Other Alternative Energy Sources promotes knowledge, stimulation of research and the development of standard test methods, specifications, guides, practices and terminology concerned with the technology for conversion of solar and geothermal renewable energy to directly usable energy forms and the application of such technology for the public benefit. ASTM Subcommittee E44.09 deals specifically with Photovoltaic Electric Power Conversion. Published standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM E44.09 include: E772-87(2001) Standard Terminology Relating to Solar Energy Conversion E927-91(1997) Standard Specification for Solar Simulation for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Testing E948-95(2001) Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight E973M-96 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Spectral Mismatch Parameter Between a Photovoltaic Device and a Photovoltaic Reference Cell [Metric] E1021-95(2001) Standard Test Methods for Measuring Spectral Response of Photovoltaic Cells E1036M-96e2 Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells E1038-98 Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls E1039-99 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Silicon Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Primary Reference Cells Under Global Irradiation E1040-98 Standard Specification for Physical Characteristics of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells E1125-99 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum E1143-99 Standard Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter E1171-01 Standard Test Method for Photovoltaic Modules in Cyclic Temperature and Humidity Environments Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Systems and Equipment Page 11 of 19

E1328-99 Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion E1362-99 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells E1462-00 Standard Test Methods for Insulation Integrity and Ground Path Continuity of Photovoltaic Modules E1524-98 Standard Test Method for Saltwater Immersion and Corrosion Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments E1596-99 Standard Test Methods for Solar Radiation Weathering of Photovoltaic Modules E1597-99 Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments E1799-96 Standard Practice for Visual Inspections of Photovoltaic Modules E1802-01 Standard Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules E1830-01 Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules E2047-99 Standard Test Method for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Arrays ASTM Committee G03 on Weathering and Durability, Subcommittee G03-09 on Radiometry also produces certain standards related to calibration of solar radiation measurement devices. Published standards under the jurisdiction of G03.09 include: E816-95 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Pyrheliometers by Comparison to Reference Pyrheliometers E824-94 Standard Test Method for Transfer of Calibration From Reference to Field Radiometers E913-82(1999) Standard Method for Calibration of Reference Pyranometers With Axis Vertical by the Shading Method E941-83(1999) Standard Test Method for Calibration of Reference Pyranometers With Axis Tilted by the Shading Method G130-95 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Narrow- and Broad-Band Ultraviolet Radiometers Using a Spectroradiometer G138-96 Standard Test Method for Calibration of a Spectroradiometer Using a Standard Source of Irradiance G159-98 Standard Tables for References Solar Spectral Irradiance at Air Mass 1.5: Direct Normal and Hemispherical for a 37 Tilted Surface G167-00 Standard Test Method for Calibration of a Pyranometer Using a Pyrheliometer

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4.2

National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA)

Founded in 1901, the National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) (http://www.necanet.org/) is the leading representative of a segment of the construction market comprised of over 70,000 electrical contracting firms. NECA is dedicated to enhancing the industry through continuing education, labor relations, current information and promotional activities. It is the voice of the electrical contracting industry, working to promote higher standards, quality workmanship and training for a skilled workforce.

4.2.1 National Electrical Installation Standards (NEIS)

NECA's Codes and Standards group works to influence the content of regulatory codes, and develops and publishes National Electrical Installation Standards (NEIS), the first quality standards for electrical construction.

4.3

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) (http://www.nema.org/) is a leader in the development of standards for the electrical manufacturing industry, and develops and promotes positions on standards and government regulations. NEMA's mission is to promote the competitiveness of its member companies by providing quality services.

4.4

Battery Council International (BCI)

The Battery Council International (BCI) (http://www.batterycouncil.org/) establishes technical standards for battery manufacturing and actively promotes workable environmental, health, and safety standards for the industry. BCI actively promotes the recycling of spent lead-acid batteries and the use of recycled materials in the production of new batteries, and collects statistical data to provide the annual recycling rate of lead-acid batteries. BCI also develops model battery recycling legislation at both the state and federal levels in the U.S., as a way to efficiently recover valuable resources and keep recyclable materials out of the waste stream. The model has been adopted by legislatures in 37 states across the country.

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4.5

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA)

The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) (http://www.iesna.org/) is the recognized technical authority on illumination. For over ninety years its objective has been to communicate information on all aspects of good lighting practice to its members, to the lighting community, and to consumers through a variety of programs, publications, and services. The IESNA is a forum for the exchange of ideas and information and a vehicle for its members professional development and recognition. Through its technical committees, with hundreds of qualified members from the lighting and user communities, the IESNA correlates research, investigations, and discussions to guide lighting experts and laypersons via consensus based lighting recommendations. The Society publishes nearly 100 varied publications including recommended practices on a variety of applications, design guides, technical memoranda, and publications on energy management and lighting measurement. The Society, in addition, works cooperatively with related organizations on a variety of programs and in the production of jointly published documents and standards. In addition, the Society publishes Lighting Design + Application (LD+A) and the Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society (JIES).

4.6

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

Founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, today ASME International (http://www.asme.org/) is a nonprofit educational and technical organization serving a worldwide membership of 125,000. ASME International conducts one of the world's largest technical publishing operations, holds some 30 technical conferences and 200 professional development courses each year, and develops many industrial and manufacturing standards.

4.7

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) (http://www.ashrae.org) is an international organization of engineers involved with all facets of heating, refrigeration and air-conditioning and develops numerous standards for equipment, installations, and buildings, including certain solar energy systems used for water and space heating.

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5. Building and Structural Codes


5.1 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

Founded in 1852, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (http://www.asce.org) represents more than 123,000 members of the civil engineering profession worldwide, and is America's oldest national engineering society. With a primary goal of ensuring safer buildings, water systems and other civil engineering works, ASCE develops standards and codes that often are adopted by federal, state and local governments.

5.1.1 ASCEs Structural Engineering Institute (SEI)

ASCEs Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) was created October 1, 1996, when the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) combined its then Structures Division and Building Standards Council. SEI involves all facets of the structural engineering community including practicing engineers, research scientists, academicians, technologists, material suppliers, contractors, and owners. SEI is committed to advancing the structural engineering profession and rapidly responding to the emerging needs of the broad structural engineering community. ASCE's national standard for building loads Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-98, is routinely adopted by reference by model building codes and subsequently becomes part of many state and local building codes. ASCE 7-98 gives requirements for dead, live, soil, flood, wind, snow, rain, ice, and earthquake loads, and their combinations, suitable for inclusion in building codes and other documents. The major revision of this standard involves the section on wind loads. The structural load requirements provided by this standard are intended for use by architects, structural engineers, and those engaged in preparing and administering local building codes.

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5.2

International Code Council (ICC)

The International Code Council (ICC) (http://www.intlcode.org/) was established in 1994 as a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing a single set of comprehensive and coordinated national model construction codes. The founders of the ICC are Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (SBCCI). In January 2003, these three organizations will merge into one entity under ICC. Since the early part of the last century, these nonprofit organizations developed the three separate sets of model codes used throughout the United States. Although regional code development has been effective and responsive to our countrys needs, the time came for a single set of codes. The nations three model code groups responded by creating the International Code Council and by developing codes without regional limitations the International Codes. The ICC has developed and made available an impressive inventory of International Codes, including: International Building Code International Energy Conservation Code International Fire Code International Fuel Gas Code International Mechanical Code International Plumbing Code International Private Sewage Disposal Code International Property Maintenance Code International Residential Code International Zoning Code ICC Electrical Code Administrative Provisions

The organizations that comprise the International Code council offer technical, educational and informational products and services in support of the International Codes, with more than 250 highly qualified staff members at 16 offices throughout the United States and in Latin America. Some of the products and services readily available to code users include: Code application assistance Educational programs Certification programs Technical handbooks and workbooks Plan reviews Automated products Monthly magazines and newsletters Publication of proposed code changes Training and Informational videos

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5.3

Building Officials and Code Administrators International Inc. (BOCA)

Founded in 1915, Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA) (http://bocai.org), is a nonprofit member- ship association, comprised of more than 16,000 members who span the building community, from code enforcement officials to materials manufacturers. Dedicated to preserving the public health, safety and welfare in the built environment through the effective, efficient use and enforcement of Model Codes, BOCA is the original professional association representing the full spectrum of code enforcement disciplines and construction industry interests.

5.4

International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO)

The International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) (http://www.icbo.org) has developed building and construction codes for more than 75 years. In addition to codes, ICBO offers a broad variety of certification programs and seminars helping to ensure the public's safety.

5.5

Southern Building Code Congress International Inc. (SBCCI)

The Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) (http://www.sbcci.org/) provides technical, educational, and administrative support to governmental departments and agencies engaged in building codes administration and enforcement, as well as others in the building design and construction industry. SBCCI's primary mission since 1940 has been to develop and maintain a set of model building codes for use by local jurisdictions and state laws governing construction.

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5.6

The International Association of Electrical Inspectors (IAEI)

The International Association of Electrical Inspectors (IAEI) (http://www.iaei.com/) is a not-for-profit and educational organization cooperating in the formulation and uniform application of standards for the safe installation and use of electricity. Since 1928, the IAEI has been a leading proponent for electrical safety, bringing together inspectors, utilities, insurance groups, dealers, contractors, electricians, manufacturers, and testing laboratories to promote safe installation and use of electrical systems and products. Some of the products and services offered by the IAEI include national inspector certification, seminars, and books, manuals and training materials on electrical codes and related topics.

5.7

International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO)

Since first developing the Uniform Plumbing Code in 1945, the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) (http://www.iapmo.org) has been dedicated to the orderly yet aggressive evolution of codes and product standards best able to address the needs of the public and the plumbing/mechanical communities in hundreds of jurisdictions. IAPMO publishes guidelines on solar thermal equipment and installations.

6. Accreditation and Certification Organizations


6.1 American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA)

The American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) (http://www.a2la.org) is a non-profit, professional membership society committed to the success of laboratories through the administration of a broad-spectrum, nationwide laboratory accreditation system and a full range of training on laboratory practices taught by experts in their field. A2LA accredits laboratories in the following fields: acoustics and vibration, biological, chemical, construction materials, electrical, environmental, geotechnical, mechanical, calibration, nondestructive and thermal. Accreditation is available to private, independent, in-house and government labs.

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6.2

PowerMark Corporation (PMC)

PowerMark Corporation (PMC) (http://powermark.org/) was established in 1996 to promote the manufacture of high quality photovoltaic (PV) products through the development and administration of a product certification process that is both nationally and internationally accepted. There are certification programs covering PV modules, components, and packaged systems. PMC is the sole U.S. agent for the Global Approval Program for PV (PV-GAP) and the only U.S. PV testing and certification program meeting the requirements for international reciprocity. PowerMark Certification assures that the highest standards of quality are met. Manufacturers' facilities are required to conform to ISO 9001 quality standards, including specific elements for the manufacture of PV products. Laboratories are required to have accreditation to ISO Guide 17025 for the specific tests they conduct.

6.3

Global Approval Program for Photovoltaics (PV GAP)

The Global Approval Program for Photovoltaics (PV GAP) (http://www.pvgap.org) is a not-for-profit organization that certifies the quality of PV systems and components. PV GAP also promotes the development and utilization of internationally accepted specifications that promote the integration of quality into all aspects of PV energy delivery. The organization encourages international reciprocity of national specifications for manufacturers, testing laboratories and accreditation of training programs in installation, operation and maintenance for PV practitioners.

6.4

Institute for Sustainable Power (ISP)

The Institute for Sustainable Power, Inc. (ISP) (http://www.ispq.org) is a non-profit corporation, organized to provide a quality framework for the accreditation of training programs and the certification of renewable and sustainable energy practitioners and professionals. Activities include the development and deployment of knowledge and skills competency standards, training content modules, training guidelines, testing standards, and third-party qualification procedures. These objective quality standards provide assurances to financing organizations, development organizations, and clients/customers that those with whom they are working have the knowledge, skills, experience, and capability to provide the services expected.

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