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Some properties and performance, such as elastic modulus and strength decrease with increasing temperature. Others, such as ductility, increase with increasing temperature. It is important to note that atomic mobility is related to diffusion which can be described using Ficks Law: Q D = DO exp RT (8.1)

where D is the diffusion rate, Do is a constant, Q is the activation energy for atomic motion, R is the universal gas constant (8.314J/mole K) and T is the absolute temperature. Thus, diffusion-controlled mechanisms will have significant effect on high temperature mechanical properties and performances. For example, dislocation climb, concentration of vacancies, new slip systems, and grain boundary sliding all are diffusion-controlled and will affect the behaviour of materials at high temperatures. In addition, corrosion or oxidation mechanisms, which are diffusion-rate dependent, will have an effect on the life time of materials at high temperatures. Creep is a performance-based behaviour since it is not an intrinsic materials response. Furthermore, creepis highly dependent on environment including temperature and ambient conditions. Creep can be defined as time-dependent deformation at absolute temperatures greater than one half the absolute melting. This relative T (abs ) temperature ( ) is know as the homologous temperate. Creep is a relative Tmp (abs ) phenomenon which may occur at temperatures not normally considered "high." Several examples illustrate this point. a) Ice melts at 0C=273 K and is known to creep at -50C=223 K. The homologous 223 temperature is = 0.82 which is greater than 0.5 so this is consistent with the 273 definition of creep. b) Lead/tin solder melts at ~200C=473 K and solder joints are known to creep at 293 room temperature of 20C=293 K. The homologous temperature is = 0.62 473 which is greater than 0.5 so this is consistent with the definition of creep.

8.1

Creep

Stress Rupture

Strain

T/Tmp >0.5

Constant Load - Low Loads - Precision Strain Measurement ( f<0.5%) - Long term (2000-10,000 h) - Expensive equipment Emphasis on minimum strain rate at stress and temperature

Displacement - High Loads - Gross Strain Measurement ( f up to 50%) - Short term (<1000 h) - Less expensive equipment Emphasis on time to failure at at stress and temperature

Figure 8.1 Comparison of creep and stress rupture tests c) Steel melts at ~1500C=1773 K and is known to creep in steam plant 873 applications of 600C=873 K. The homologous temperature is = 0.50 which 1773 is equal to 0.5 so this is consistent with the definition of creep. d) Silicon nitride melts/dissociates at ~1850C=2123 K and is known to creep in advanced heat engine applications of 1300C=1573 K. The homologous 1573 temperature is = 0.74 which is greater than 0.5 so this is consistent with the 2123 definition of creep. Conceptually a creep test is rather simple: Apply a force to a test specimen and measure its dimensional change over time with exposure to a relatively high temperature. If a creep test is carried to its conclusion (that is, fracture of the test specimen), often without precise measurement of its dimensional change, then this is called a stress rupture test (see Fig 8.1). Although conceptually quite simple, creep tests in practice are more complicated. Temperature control is critical (fluctuation must be kept to <0.1 to 0.5C). Resolution and stability of the extensometer is an important concern (for low

8.2

creeping materials, displacement resolution must be on the order of 0.5 m). Environmental effects can complicate creep tests by causing premature failures unrelated to elongation and thus must either mimic the actual use conditions or be controlled to isolate the failures to creep mechanisms. Uniformity of the applied stress is critical if the creep tests are to interpreted. Figure 8.2 shows a typical creep testing setup. The basic results of a creep test are the strain versus time curve shown schematically in Fig. 8.3. The initial strain, i = i , is simply the elastic response to the E applied load (stress). The strain itself is usually calculated as the engineering strain, L = . The primary region (I) is characterized by transient creep with decreasing creep Lo d ) due to the creep resistance of the material increasing by virtue of strain rate ( = dt material deformation. The secondary region (II) is characterized by steady state creep min = ss , is constant) in which competing mechanisms of strain (creep strain rate, hardening and recovery may be present. The tertiary region (III) is characterized by increasing creep strain rate in which necking under constant load or consolidation of failure mechanism occur prior to failure of the test piece. Sometimes quaternary regions are included in the anlaysis of the strain-time curve as well, although these regions are very specific and of very short duration.

8.3

Primary I

Tertiary III tf

Figure 8.3 Strain time curve for a creep test In principle, the creep deformation should be linked to an applied stress. Thus, as the specimen elongates the cross sectional area decreases and the load needs to be decreased to maintain a constant stress. In practice, it simpler to maintain a constant load. When reporting creep test results the initial applied stress is used. The effect of constant load and constant stress is shown in Fig. 8.3. Note that in general this effect (dashed line for constant stress) only really manifests itself in the tertiary region, which is beyond the region of interest in the secondary region. The effects of increasing temperature or increasing stress are to raise the levels and shapes of the strain time curves as shown in Figure 8.4. Note that for isothermal tests, the shapes of the curves for increasing stress may change from dominant steady state to sigmoidal with little steady state to dominant primary. Similar trends are seen for iso stress tests and increasing temperature (see Fig. 8.4). Creep mechanisms can be visualized by using superposition of various strain-time curves as shown in Fig. 8.5. An empirical relation which describes the strain-time relation is: = i (1 + t 1/3 ) exp(kt ) (8.2) where is a constant for transient creep and k is related to the constant strain rate. A "better" fit is obtained by:

ss = i + t (1 exp(rt )) + t

(8.3)

where r is a constant, t is the strain at the transition from primary to secondary creep and ss is the steady-state strain rate. Although no generally-accepted forms of nonlinear strain-time relations have been developed, one such relations is:

= i + B mt + D ( 1 exp(t ))

where B, m, D, a and b are empirical constants. 8.4

(8.4)

3 > >

2

>

2

3 > >

2

>

2

Time, t

Iso stress Tests Figure 8.4 Effect of stress and temperature on strain time creep curves In this relation, if t >ttransient then

= i + B mt + D

and the strain rate is the steady-state or minimum strain rate:

(8.5)

d ss = B m = dt

(8.6)

The steady state or minimum strain rate is often used as a design tool. For example, what is the stress needed to produce a minimum strain rate of 10-6 m/m / h ( or 10 -2 m/m in 10,000 h) or what is the stress needed to produce a minimum strain rate of 10 7 m/m / h ( or 10-2 m/m in 100,000 h). An Arrhenius-type rate model is used to include the effect of temperature in the model of Eq. 8.6 such that:

ss = min = A n exp Q

RT

(8.7)

where n is the stress exponent, Q is the activation energy for creep, R is the universal gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. To determine the various constants in Eq. 8.7 a series of isothermal and iso stress tests are required. For isothermal tests, the exponential function of Eq. 8.7 becomes a constant resulting in

ss = min = B n

Equation 8.8 can be linearized by taking logarithms of both sides such that

(8.8)

(8.9)

8.5

=

i

Time, t Total Creep Curve

+

i

Time, t Sudden Strain Time, t

+

Time, t Viscous Creep

Transient Creep

min = ss versus (see Fig. 8.6) often results in a bilinear Log-log plots of relation in which the slope, n, at low stresses is equal to one indicating pure diffusion creep and n at higher stresses is greater than one indicating power law creep with mechanisms other than pure diffusion (e.g., grain boundary sliding). For iso stress tests, the power dependence of stress becomes a constant resulting in ss = min = C exp Q RT

(8.10)

Equation 8.10 can be linearized by taking natural logarithms of both sides such that

ss = ln min = ln C ln

Q1 RT

(8.11)

min = ss versus 1 (see Fig. 8.7) results in a linear relation in which Log-linear plots of T Q the slope, , is related to the activation energy, Q, for creep. R

.

n=1 (diffusion creep)

log Figure 8.6 Log-log plot of minimum creep strain rate versus applied stress showing diffusion creep and power law creep.

8.6

-Q/R

1/T Figure 8.7 Log-linear plot of minimum creep strain rate versus reciprocal of temperature showing determination of activation energy.

The goal in engineering design for creep is to predict the behaviour over the long term. To this end there are three key methods: stress-rupture, minimum strain rate vs. time to failure, and temperature compensated time. No matter which method is used, two important rules of thumb must be borne in mind: 1) test time must be at least 10% of design time and 2) creep and/or failure mechanism must not change with time, temperature or stress. Stress-rupture This is the "brute force method" is which a large number of tests are run at various stresses and temperatures to develop plots of applied stress vs. time to failure as shown in Fig. 8.8. While it is relatively easy to use these plots to provide estimates of stress rupture life within the range of stresses and lives covered by the test data, extrapolation of the data can be problematic when the failure mechanism changes as a function of time or stress as shown by the "knee" in Fig. 8.8. Minimum strain rate vs. time to failure This type of relation is based on the observation that strain is the macroscopic manifestation of the cumulative creep damage. As such, it is implied that failure will occur when the damage in the material in form of creep cavities and cracks resulting from coalesced creep cavities reaches a critical level. This critical level of damage is manifested as the failure which can be predicted from the minimum strain rate and the time to failure such that.

min tf = C f

(8.12)

8.7

1

Stress, or log

Change in failure mechanism

Time to failure, tf or log tf Figure 8.8 Stress rupture plots for various temperatures Equation 8.12, known as the Monkman-Grant relation, should give a slope of -1 on min versus t f regardless of temperature or applied stress for a particular a log-log plot of material It then becomes a simple matter to predict a time to failure either by measuring the minimum strain at a given stress and temperature or predicting the minimum strain rate from Eq. 8.7 for the given temperature and stress once the A and Q are determined. Having found the minimum strain rate, the time to failure can be found from the MonkmanGrant plot for the particular material. Temperature-compensated time In these methods, a higher temperature is used at the same stress so as to cause a shorter time to failure such that temperature is traded for time. In this form of accelerated testing it is assumed that the failure mechanism does not change and hence is not a function of temperature or time. In addition, assumptions can be made that Q is stress and temperature independent. Two of the more well-known relations are Sherby-Dorn and Larson Miller. In the Sherby-Dorn method, is the temperature compensated time such that:

log e Q R T

(8.13)

where P SD is the Sherby-Dorn parameter and Q is assumed independent of temperature and stress. In this method, a number of tests are run at various temperatures and stresses to determine the times to failure and activation energy. A "universal" plot (see Fig. 8.9) is then made of the stress as a function of PSD. The allowable stress for an combination of time to failure and temperature (i.e., PSD) can then be determined from the curve. In the Larson-Miller method, , is the temperature compensated time such that:

PLM =

(8.14)

8.8

1 < 2 < 3

Allowable log t f Q log e R 1/T P = log t f - log e Q SD T R "Universal" Sherby Dorn Relation

Experimental Results

Figure 8.9 Summary of Sherby-Dorn relation where P LM is the Larson-Miller parameter, Q is assumed to a function of stress only, and C is a constant of ~20 for most materials. In this method, a number of tests are run at various temperatures and stresses to determine the times to failure and activation energy. A "universal" plot (see Fig. 8.10) is then made of the stress as a function of PLM. The allowable stress for an combination of time to failure and temperature (i.e., PLM) can then from the curve. An example of the application of the Sherby-Dorn relation is as follows. For a certain aluminum-magnesium alloy the stress-PSD relation is found to be = f (PSD ) = 11.3PSD 124 (25 85 MPa) (8.15)

The design problem is to determine the allowable stress to give 2000 h life at 200C. For this alloy, the activation energy, Q, is 150.5 kJ/mole. Using Q=150,500 J/mole, R=8.314 J/mole K, tf=2000 h, and T=473 K, P SD is calculated as -13.21. Substituting this value of PSD into Eq. 8.15 gives an allowable stress of 25 MPa.

1< 2 < 3

Allowable log t f Q log e R 1/T P

LM

-C

= T (log t f - C)

Experimental Results

8.9

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