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CHRISTIAN LINDTNER

BUDDHAPALITA

ON E M P T I N E S S

[Buddhapdlita-m~la-madhyamakavrtti X VIII]

1. Compared to its author's other works N~g~irjuna's Malamadhyamakakdrikd (MK) may be called his magnum opus in the sense that he nowhere else treats the Leitmotiv of all his thinking, viz. his faith in the emptiness (gfmyatd) o f all phenomena or concepts (dharma), with such consistency and thoroughness as here? Two other texts, Sanyatdsaptati (iS) in 73 stanzas 2 and Vigrahavydvartanf (VV) in 70 3 are, as the commentator Candrakfrti observes," to be regarded as 'appendices' (Tib. 'phros pa) to the 448 stanzas of MK's twenty-seven chapters. 5 Finally Yukti.sa.s.tikd,Ratndvalf and Catu.hstava (especially Lokdtfta- and Acintyastava) provide much additional material for the understanding of N~g~rjuna's conception of emptiness. 6 While it would certainly be ill-advised to neglect the fact that N~g~rjuna also composed works expounding traditional Buddhist ethical and religious topics usually in a clear and agreeable style (Suh.rllekha, RatndvalE, etc.) it is, I believe, still his celebrated theory, or rather 'therapy' o f emptiness which retains the greatest historical and philosophical significance. 7 Two things must be held in mind to estimate the import o f MK (SS and VV) properly: N~g~rjuna's own background or premises, and that of his intended readers or audience. First of all he is deeply inspired by the teaching o f 'non-origination' (anutpdda), i.e. tile mdya-vdda preached in tile Prajfifip~ramitfisOtras. 8 It is, then, his intention to impart this conviction to those Buddhists who adhere to the dogmas (d.r.st.i)as codified in the more or less 'realistic' systems o f Abhidharma. It is not that NAg~rjuna proposes to discard the traditional Buddhist concepts (dharma) such as the aggregates (skandha) etc., but what he attempts is to abolish the dogmatic o r clinging attitude towards these as if they were really existing entities (bhava). Such an attitude is the source o f all misery. 9 His method is that o f arguments (yukti), the gist o f which is this: Empirically, all phenomena are dependently originated (prafftyasamutpanna), hence they are nothing in themselves. They lack "own-being" (svabhdva) and are, as such, like illusions (mdydvat)) ~ Logically, nothing can be conceived as 'one' (etca), i.e. as an entity which makes sense independently of a correlate, no matter whether this entity be termed a 'cause', 'desire', 'Buddha' or 'Nirvana' etc.la So while N~garjuna is apparently interested in "ontology" he is not interested in it for its own sake but only for its ethical, or soteriological implication viz. the non-clinging attitude. On this point he is convinced o f his own orthodoxy and

Indo-Iranian Journal 23 (1981) 1 8 7 - 2 1 7 . 0 0 1 9 - 7 2 4 6 / 8 1 / 0 2 3 3 - 0 1 8 7 $03.10. Copyright 9 1981 hy D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordreeht, Holland, and Boston, U.S.A.

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careful to stress it. 12 Thus N~g~rjuna's own achievement in the history of Buddhist thought mainly consists in the fact that he is the first individual who on a large and systematic scale attempts to reform the spirit of Abhidharma to that of the Prajfigp~ramit~. The reformatory tenets of MK etc. must soon have been realized among some of the monks to whom it was addressed, and in due course it not only gave rise to opposition but also to a large number of commentaries written by some of the greatest names in the history of Mah~y~na in India. Some of these are lost, others only known from fragments. 13 Apart from Akutobhayd (and Chung lun) 14 only Prasannapadd, Candrakfrti's commentary, is translated in full into European languages) s The commentaries of Buddhapalita and Bhavya (with the subcommentary of Avalokitavrata) have not yet received the general recognition to which their merits entitle them.16 2. If we are to trust our only source, Taran~tha, Buddhapalita was born in *Ham.sakrf.d~i in Tambala in the south. *Samgharaksita, a disciple of a certain *Nggamitra became his teacher and his residence was the vih~ra of Dantapuff. However we lack the means of verifying the truth of this testimony. 17 Buddhap~ta's commentary was composed later than Akutobhayd (the Malamadhyamakavrtti ascribed to N~g~rjuna) on which it often depends 18 but earlier than Bhavya's (c. 500-570) Prajadprad~pa(c. 550) 19 in which it is sometimes quoted. 2~ If we lend credit to the report that Buddhapalita and Bhavya were pupils of the same Sam.gharak.sita the former may have flourishe&c. 500. Compared to Bhavya his influence seems to have been rather modest though his work was appreciated at least by Candrakfrti and Avalokitavrata. ~1 The internal evidence to be culled from Buddhapfdita's v.rtti is scanty. Apart from a few brief and often recurring satra-quotations his main authorities are N~ig~rjuna and ]~ryadeva. From N~garjuna he only quotes MK though he must, of course, also have known some of his other works. From Aryadeva he quotes Sataka, or Catu.hgataka, and also three verses not to be identified in that text. 22 Finally we meet with one verse from R~hulabhadra's Prajadpdramitdstotra and a verse by a certain ~c~rya called Abhaya. 23 Characteristic of Buddhap~lita is the predominantly philosophical interest. Ethical, religious and psychological issues are hardly mentioned though as a Buddhist the author must obviously also have been concerned with them. The text of MK as used by Buddhapalita is almost identical with the recension transmitted in Candrakfrti's Prasannapadd)4 As far as the titles of the twentyseven chapters are concerned, there are some variants but Buddhapalita always agrees with Akutobhayd (Chung lun), Bhavya and Avalokitavrata on this pointY On the whole Buddhapalita's style is sober, vivid and to the point without

BUDDHAPALITA ON EMPTINESS unnecessary digressions. As such it is, if one had to make a choice among the

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extant commentaries, the one which is most recommendable as an aid to the study of MK. 26 On the following pages I offer a text and a translation of Buddhap~lita's commentary on MK XVIII, Atmadharmaparfksd. My reasons for selecting this chapter in particular are, I think, in no need of an excuse: Among all the chapters of MK this is, in a sense, the most important and cannot be interpretated without the help of a commentary. Secondly none of BuddhapS_lita's remaining chapters are as well-suited to form an introduction to that neglected commentator. It seems, in fact, to have been conceived as an independent essay on the method and aim of M~dhyamika, or on emptiness. Finally there is, in my opinion, no other single chapter in all the extant commentaries which at the same time provides such a readable and informative account of the essentials of early Indian M~dhyamika. The argument is briefly this: The belief in a self (aharnkdra) and its off-shoots are untenable conceptual constructions (vikalpa) since a 'self' cannot be conceived in any possible way, i.e. as either identical with or different from the skandhas. 27 This false belief is the cause of all passions (kle~a) and, consequently, of karma which leads to rebirth (l'anman). Liberation (moksa) from this cycle is to be obtained by realizing the emptiness of the expanded world (prapa~ca) from which all conceptual constructions (vikalpa) arise (1-5). 28 Since the real nature (dharmatd) of the objective world (citta[ddi]gocara = prapa~ca) is non-originated etc., there is no manifest entity to speak about (abhidhdtavya). 29 Hence all the teachings of the Buddha have a purely "pedagogical" or practical purport, not a "scientific" or descriptive one (6-8). 30 Reality (tattva) is not "objective" but it is accessible through a personal cognition (j~dna) of universal correlativity, i.e. of emptiness (9-12). 31 3. For establishing a critical recension of the eighteenth chapter of the Tibetan translation of Buddhapglita's Malamadhyamakavrtti 32 the following materials were at my disposal in Copenhagen:

N . . .
P . . .

Tibetan Tripit.aka, Narthang edition, No. 3233, Tsafol. 262b-270a. Copy belonging to The Royal Library. Tibetan Tripi.taka, Peking edition, No. 5242, Tsafol. 271a-278b. Japanese reprint in The Royal Library.

In the notes to my translation I have referred to or quoted from the other commentaries accessible to me:

Akutobhayd... Mfdamadhyamakav.rtti Akutobhayd (ascribed to N~g~irjuna), P-ed., No. 5229, Tsafol. 80b-84b.

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Chung-lun... Chung-lun (ascribed to *Pifigala), Taish6 XXX, No. 1564, 23c-25b. Prajhdpradipa... Prajgdpradfpa Malamadhyamakavrtti (by Bhavya), P-ed., No. 5253, Tshafol. 222a-239b. Prajadpradfpatfka... Praj~dpradrpatfkd (by Avalokitavrata), P-ed., No. 5259, Za fol. 57b-115b. Prasannapadd. . . Malamadhyamakakdrikds (Mddhyamikasatras) de Ndgdr]una avec la Prasannapadd Commentaire de CandraMrti. Publi6 par Louis de la Vall~e Poussin. St.-P6tersbourg, 1903-13. (Bibliotheca Buddhica IV). (Copy belonging to the Institute of Indian Philology, Copenhagen. With some marginal notes by the late Professor Poul Tuxen).
May I finally be permitted to express the hope that someone else will undertake an edition and translation of the remaining chapters of BuddhapAlita's work, especially at present when there seems to be a wide-spread interest in the M~dhyamika philosophy while so much material still lies unexplored in Tibetan and Chinese translations. [XVIII. ATMADHARMAPARiK.Sk,] smras pa [ gal te dfios po daft [N 263 a ] dfios po med par lta ba rtag 33 pa daft chad pa'i skyon du thai bar 'gyur bas de kho na ma yin na / khyod kyis 34 de kho na gan yin pa dafiji ltar de kho na rtogs par 'gyur ba de smros ~og// b~ad pa / daft po brtsam tshun chad nas de kho na rab tu bstan par byas so// tudor na phyi daft nail la bdag reed pa bdag gi med pa fiid du lta ba gaff yin pa de ni de kho na'i dam pa yin la / de kho na'i lta ba bsgom pas ni de kho na frogs par 'gyur ro// smras pa / [P 271 b ] ji ltar phyi daft nail la bdag med pa daft / bdag gi reed pa fiid du Ira bar 'gyur// bgad pa / 'di la de kho na mthofi bar 'dod pa yofis su rtog pa daft ldan pas 'di ltar so sor yafi dag par brtag par bya ste / bdag ces bya ba gab yin pa de ci phufi po rnams fiid dam / 'on te phufi po rnams gzan zig ym / bdag de ni phufi po rnams fiid dam / phufi po rnams las g2an ~.igtu 'gyur ba de tsam du zad de / 'dir rnam pa g~an du smra ba gaff dag yin pa de dag thams cad kyafi g2an daft g~an ma yin pa fiid du smra ba / kho nar 'dus te / gfiis ga ltar yafi mi 'thad d o / / c i ' i phyir 2e na [1 .]

gal te phuh po bdag yin na // skye dan ~ig pa can du 'gyur //I gal te phuh po rnams las g~an // phuh po'i mtshan aid med par 'gyur //

re Zig gal te phufi po rnams fiid bdag fiid yin par gyur na / de lta na skye ba daft

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'jig pa'i chos can du 'gyur te / phufi po rnams skye ba daft 'jig pa'i chos can yin pa'i phyir r o / / d e la bdag mail po fiid du yah thai bar 'gyur la / bdag tu smra ba don med pa fiid du yah 'gyur te / bdag ces bya ba ni phuti po'i rnam gratis tsam du zad pa'i phyir r o / / d e lta bas na re Zig phuti po roams fiid bdag yin no//2es bya ba mi 'thad d o / / ci ste yafi phuti po roams las gtan yin par gyur na / de Ira na phuti po'i mtshan fiid ma yin par 'gyur te/phufi po rnams IN 263 b] ni skye ba daft 'jig pa'i mtshan fiid yin pas / des na bdag phufi po rnams las g~an yin pa'i phyir skye ba daft 'jig pa'i mtshan fiid ma yin par 'gyur r o / / d e lta bas na x'tag par 'gyur te / bdag rtag pa yin na rtsom pa thams cad don med pa fiid du 'gyur te / 'di ltar rtag pa mi 'gyur ba la ci Zig byar yod / de lta na yah bdag yod par rtog pa don reed pa fiid du 'gyur te / de la curl zad kyah 'jug pa 'am / ldog par mi 'gyur r o / / [ P 272a] de lta bas na bdag phuti po rnams las gtan par yah mi 'thad d o / / de de ltar blo gros ties has yah so sor yah dag par rtog par byed de [2.]

bdag aidyodpa mayin na// bdag gi yod par ga la 'gyur //

brtags na gal te bdag fiid rnam pa thams cad du mi 'thad na bdag gi yod par ga la 'gyur / 'di ltar bdag ces bya ba'i gaff yin pa de bdag 3s gi tes bya na / bdag de yah reed de de reed na de'i 'di yin n o / / t e s bya barji ltar 'thad par 'gyur//de lta bas na bdag gi mifi mi 'thad d o / / d e ltar phyi daft nail la bdag daft bdag gir mi lta ba de ni de kho na mthofi ba yin te / de de bsgom par byed cifi bstan par byed d o / / d e bsgom par byed citi bstan par byed pa de'i bdag daft bdag gir mfion par ten pa fie bar ti bar 'gyur bas /

bdag dab bdag gi ~i ba~ phyir // hat 'dzin ha yir 'dzin med 'gyur //
de ltar bdag daft bdag gir mfion par ten pa fie bar ti ba'i phyir de la fiar 'dzin pa daft / fia yir 'dzin pa med par 'gyur ro// smras pa / gaff gis de ltar yah dag paji lta ba b~,in du mthofi na tiar 'dzin pa daft fia yir 'dzin pa reed par 'gyur ro//~,es bya ba de fiid bdag yin pas de yod pa'i phyir bdag daft bdag gi yah ties kho nar yod pa yin n o / / b~ad pa / [3.]

hat 'dzin ha yir 'dzin med gah // de yah yod pa ma yin te // hat 'dzin tia yir "dzin med par // gab gis mthoh ba mi mthoh ho //

de ltar fiar 'dzin pa med pa daft / [N 264a] fia yir 'dzin pa med pa 2es bya ba gaff yin pa de yah yod pa ma yin te / de ni fie bar len pa la brten nas gdags pa yin

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par ston te / 'di ltar bcom ldan 'das kyis kyah tshe 36 daft ldan pa 'di'i mifi ni 'di ~es ms ni 'di ~es bya 2es bya ba gaff yin pa de ni fie bar len pa ma gtogs par gaff zag gi mifi daft ms dag reed do//~es gsufis s o / / d e lta bas na fie bar len pa'i dbafi [P 272 b] kho nas brjod par zad kyi / gaff fiar 'dzin pa med pa daft fia yir 'dzin pa med par 'gyur ba g~an de ni 'ga' yafi med d o / / c i ste yod na ni de yod na ji ltar fiar 'dzin pa med pa daft fia yir 'dzin pa reed par 'gyur / ci ste de dag yod kyafi 'gyur na ni de lta na de'i de dag log par lta ba kho nar 'gyur gyi de kho na mthoil ba ma yin te / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas kyafi / gal te bdag ces bya ba y o d / / bdag med ces bya de mi rigs// yah na de fiid rtogs pa 'am// mya fian 'da' ba ties rdzun 'gyur// 2es gsuils s o / / d e lta bas na fiat 'dzin pa reed pa daft / ha yir 'dzin pa med par gaff gis mthoil ba log par lta ba blo gros kyi mig flares pa des ni de kho na mi mthofi ba fiid d o / / [4.] nab dab phyi rol aid dag la // bdag dab bdag gi zad gyur na // he bar fen pa 'gag 'gyur ~ih // de zad pasna skye ba zad //

nail s7 daft phyi rol fiid dag la de'i bdag ces bya ba daft / bdag gi ~es bya bar de dag la log par 'dzin pa zad par gyur na fie bar len pa byed pa gaff yin pa de med cifl fie bar blafi bar bya ba gaff yin pa de yah reed pas / fie bar len pa rnam pa b~i yafi 'gag par 'gyur tiff / fie bar len pa 'gags pas srid pa 'gag / srid pa 'gags pas skye ba zad par 'gyur ba de ni that pa ~es b y a ' o / / d e ltar yah dag paji lta ba b~3n du mthofl ba des de kho na rtogs pa yin la / de kho na frogs pas thar par [N 264 b] 'gyur ro// [5.] las dab ~on mobs zad pas thar // las dab fion mobs rnam rtog las // de dag spros las spros pa ni // ston pa aid kyis 'gag par 'gyur //

'di la las daft fion moils pa dag ni skye ba'i rgyu yin pa'i phyir las daft fion moils pa zad pas thar pa 2es bya'o//las daft fion moils pa de dag kyah yah dag pa ma yin pa'i [P 273a] rnam par rtog pa las byufl ba yin gyi flo bo fiid kyis yod pa ni ma yin no//fion moils pa ni tshul b~in ma yin par rnam par rtog pa las byufl ba yin t e / j i ltar yul gcig kho na la yah la la ni chags par 'gyur / la la ni sdah par 'gyur / la la ni rmofis par 'gyur bas//de'i phyir fion moils pa rnams ni rnam par rtog pa las 'byuil ilo//fion mois pa can gyi sems daft ldan pa'i lus dab flag daft yid kyi ration par 'du byed pa dag ni las ~es bya ste / 'di ltar bcom ldan "das kyis kyafi gaff zag ma rig pa

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daft ldan pa 'di ni bsod nams las byufl ba'i mflon par 'du bya ba dag kyafl nation par 'du byed do//~es rgya cher bka' stsal t o / / d e lta bas na las daft fion moils pa dag ni yafi dag pa ma yin pa'i rnam par rtog pa'i rgyu las byufi ba yin n o / / da yafi dag pa ma yin pa'i rnam par rtog pa de dag ni spros patas byufl ba yin te 'jig rten pa'i spros pa las byufi rio//'jig rten pa'i riled pa daft ma r~ed pa la sogs pa'i chos rnams la 'di bden no siam du rmion par ten pa'i blo can dag de daft de 38 la rnam par rtog par byed pas de'i phyir rnam par rtog pa dag ni spros pa las byufi rio//spros pa ni stofl pa rid kyis 'gag par 'gyur / de'i rted pa dafima riled pa la sogs pa 'jig rten pa'i spros pa ni stofi pa fiid kyis 'gag par 'gyur ro//dfios po'i rio bo rid stofi pa fiid du rtogs pas 'gags te / stofl pa ~id rtogs nas 'gag g o / / d e lta bas na stofl pa fiid ni de kho na yin la stofi pa rid bsgom pa kho nas ni de kho na rtogs par 'gyur tiff / [N 265 a] de kho na rtogs pa fiid ni thar pa Ees bya ste / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas kyafi mdor na chos ni mi 'tshe ste// mya fian 'das pa stofl pa fiid// 'di la de gfiis 'ba' rig ces// de btin g~egs pa rnams kyis [P 273b] gsufis// ~es gsufls so// smras pa / gal te de ltar bdag daft bdag gi med na ji ltar saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das roams kyis 39 de daft der bdag bstan pa mdzad pa// b~ad pa / bdag reed pa kho na'o//~es bya ba de yafi mi srnra ste / 'og nas kyafi de ltar len tas gtan ma y i n / / de ni tier len fiid kyafl rain// bdag ni fie bar len reed rain// reed pa fiid du'afl de reed ties// tes byufi rio// 'on kyafi saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das sems can rnams kyi bsam pa daft bag la fial mkhyen pa la mkhas pa rnams kyis gdul bya rnams kyi 4~ nation par ten pa bzlog pa'i phyir [6.]

bdag go ~es kyah btags gyur cih // bdag med ces kyan bstan par gyur // sahs rgyas rnams kyis bdag dab ni // bdag med 'ga' yah med par bstan //

de la gdul bya gaff dag la 'jig rten 'di med do//'jig rten pha rol med do//sems can rdzus te skye ba med do siam pa'i lta ba de lta bu byufi bar gyur pa / log par 'dzin pa la mfion par ~,en pas sems rmofis pa / 'jig rten pha rol la mi bltos pa / 'jig rten gyi tshul las 'da' bas mi 'dzem pa / sems can dmyal ba'i gyafi sa chen po la

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nation par phyogs pa de dag gi bdag med par lta ba bzlog pa'i phyir bdag go ~es kyari btags so// gdul bya gaff dag la las dge ba daft midge ba rnams kyi byed pa po daft de dag gi 'bras bu 'dod pa daft mi 'dod pa dag za ba gaff yin pa daft / gaff gi bcifis pa daft thar pa dag ston par byed pa'i bdag ees bya ba de ni 'ga' Zig yod do//g~an du na bdag med na de dag thams cad don med pa fiid du 'gyur ro sfiam pa'i lta ba de lta bu byuri bar gyur [N 265b] pa / 'khor ba'i rgya mtsho chen por lhuri ba / fiar 'dzin pa daft fia yir 'dzin pa'i chu srin 'dzin khris zin pa / lta ba'i chu bos [P 274a] seres gyeris pa//srid pa'i bde ba la chags pa de dag gi bdag tu lta ba bzlog pa'i phyir bdag med do//~es kyaff bstan t o / / gdul ba bzafi po gaff dag dge ba'i tshogs yofis su stain pa / srid pa'i chu bos las brgal bar nus pa / don dam pa'i gtam 41 gyi snod du gyur pa de dag la / saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das don dam pa'i de kho na ston pa rnam par 'dren pa chen po roams kyis 42 sgyu ma 'di ni byis pa 'brid paste / 'di la bdag daft bdag med pa 'ga' yari reed do//Zes ston te / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas kyafi / reed daft yod daft gfii ga daft// gfii gamin pa'afi ston mdzad de// nad kyi dbari gis ties par ni// sman ni 'phrod par 'gyur ba b~in// ~es gsuris so// yafi na 'di ni g~an ste de kho na mthofi ba la rgyab kyis phyogs pa /thams cad ~es pa ma yin par thams cad mkhyen par mfion pa'i fia rgyal can / raft gi rtog ge'i rjes su 'brefi ba / bdag med na 'di dag thams cad mi 'thad do//~es skrag pa kha cig gis bdag go ~es kyaff btags 4~ so// de b~in du blo gros rnam par rmons pa / reed 44 pa bdag gis 'jig rten na phuri bar byed pa / las dari 'gro ba lkog tu gyur pa g~an dag gis 4s bdag reed do ~es kyaff bstan t o / / saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das sgrib pa reed pa'i rnam par thar pa'i mkhyen pa brfies pa thams cad mkhyen pa thams cad gzigs pa rnams kyis ni / 'gro ba la phan gdags par b~.ed pas de gfii ga yari reed do//~es ties par gsal te / dbu ma'i lain bdag daft bdag reed pa ma yin pa 'di yod pas 'di 'byufi la / 'di reed na 'di mi 'byuri rio//~,es bya ba fiid bstan t o / / 'dir smras pa / spros pa ni stori pa fiid kyis 'gag par 'gyur ro [/2es gaff smras pa de la rigs [P 274b] pa gaff yin / 'dir [N 266a] b~ad pa / [7.]

bqod par bya ba ldog paste//

gari gi phyir drios po mares stori par mthori na ]brjod par bya ba fiid ldog par 'gyur ba de'i phyir spros pa ni stofi pa fiid kyis 'gag par 'gyur te / 'di ltar brjod par

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bya ba yod na de la brten nas spros pa yod par 'gyur gyi / brjod par bya ba med na g~i46 reed pa'i spros paji ltar yod par gyur / smras pa / de'i brjod par bya baji ltar ldog par 'gyur / b~ad pa /

seres kyi spyod yul ldog pas s o / /


seres kyi spyod 47 yul ni gzugs la sogs pa yul mams te / gaff gi phyir de'i seres kyi spyod yul gzugs la sogs pa dag log par gyur pa de'i phyir brjod par bya ba ldog par 'gyur te '/'di ltar brjod par bya ba ni gzugs la sogs pa dag yin na de dag reed na ci ~ig brjod par bya / smras pa / de'i seres kyi spyod yul gzugs la sogs pa dag ji ltar ldog par 'gyur / b~ad pa /

ma skyes pa dab ma 'gags pa // chos aid mya ban 'das dab mtshuhs //
gaff gi phyir des yaff dag paji lta ba b~in du mthofi ba na ma skyes pa daft ma 'gags pa'i chos fiid mya fian las 'das pa daft mtshufis par tab tu ~es pa de'i phyir de'i sems kyi spyod yul ldog par 'gyur r o / / d e lta bas na spros pa ni stofl pa ~id kyis 'gag par 'gyur te / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas kyaff / srid pa'i sa bon mare ~es t e / / yul mares de'i spyod yu110// yul la bdag reed mthofi na n i / / srid pa'i sa bon 'gag par 'gyur// ~es gsufls so// smras pa / gaff 'jig rten 'di reed do//'jig rten pha rol med do//seres can brdzus te skye ba med do//~es bya ba la sogs par lta ba de daft / gaff drios po tharns cad ma skyes pa daft ma 'gags pa 2es bya bar lta ba de gfiis la kyad par ci y o d / / b~ad pa / de gfiis la khyad par ~in tu chen / khyod ni [P 275a] stori pa ~id kyi don [N 266 b] mare par mi ~es nas de gfiis 'dra'o sfiam du seres s o / / ' d i la so sot ma brtags par btaff sfioms byed pa gaff yin pa daft / so sor brtags nas btaff sfioms byed pa gaff yin pa de gfiis btaff sfioms byed par ni 'dra mod kyi so sor ma brtags par btaff sfioms byed pa ni ma fig pa'i kun tu sbyor ba daft ldan par bstan la / btaff sfioms byed pa cig ~os ni sars rgyas bcom ldan 'das roams kyis kun tu bsten pas / de gfiis la khyad par ~in tu che ba de b~in du / 'di la yaff 'jig rten 'di reed do ~es bya ba la sogs pa de Itar mthori ba ni rna rig pas kun tu rmoris pa'i sems daft ldan pa yin gyi / drios po thams cad kyis stofl pa'i phyir ma skyes pa daft ma 'gags par rnthofl ba cig ~os ni ~es pa sfion du btafl ba yin pas / de gfiis la khyad par ~in tu che'o// g~an yaff reed pa de fiid ma mthori ba b~in du 'jig rten 'di reed do//~es tshig 'ha' 2ig brjod pa de la ni / dper na drnus loft phyogs 'di bde'o//~es brjod kyaff mig med pa'i phyir mi mthofi bas der 'khrul pa daft brdeg 'cha' bar 'gyur ba de b~in du / de

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yah 'jig rten 'di med d o / / t e s brjod kyafi ~es pa'i mig reed pa'i phyir mi mthofi bas skyon de dag gis gos par 'gyur ro// g~an yah dper na kha cig rtsod pa na don bden par 'gyur ba kho na la che bti gfiis ston par gyur la / de na gcig ni don de nation sum du mthofl ba yin la / gfiis pa ni don de mflon sum du mthofi bar gyur pa ma yin tiff nor ro 'am mdza' flos gfier ba rig yin te / de gfiis ga yah don de la smrar bcug pa na / de la gcig gis don de ji ltar bden pa de ltar smras su zin kyah don de ration sum du yah ma gyur pa'i phyir rdzun du yah 'gyur la chos ma yin pa [P 275b] daft mi sfian pa daft yah ldan par 'gyur ro//cig ~os kyis ni don de smras pa na don de nation sum du gyur pa'i phyir bden par smra ba yah yin la chos daft sfian pa dag daft ldan IN 267 a] par 'gyur ba de b~in du/dflos po thams cad stofi pa yin Lift stofi pa'i phyir ma skyes pa daft ma 'gags pa de yin du zin kyah / de gaff la ration sum gyi 48 ~es pa yod pa de fiid legs pa daft ldan tiff bsflags pa yin gyi / cig ~os ni stofi pa fiid nation sum duma gyur pa'i phyir lta ba'i skyon gyis kyafi gos la mkhas pa rnams kyis smad par yah 'gyur bas / de'i phyir de aid ni khyad par ~in tu che ste / slob dpon sgragcan zin bzah pos ~es rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa la bstod pa las kyafl / khyod aid mthofi na 'chifi 'gyur t e / / ma mthofi na yah 'chifi bar 'gyur// khyod fiid mthofl na grol 'gyur t e / / ma mthofl na yah grol bar 'gyur// ~es gsufls so// de lta na 'di ni de kho na ~es pa'i blo gros kyi mig dri ma reed pa daft ldan pa'i yul yin gyi / 'di ma rig pa'i mun pa chen pos blo gros kyi mig bsgribs pa daft ldan pa'i yul ni ma yin n o / / gtan yah khyod mkhas par rlom pa aid kyis blo sfion du btafi ste lta ba seres par mtshufis tiff kho bo la rgol bar byed kyi / yod pa fiid daft reed pa fiid du smra ba la ni mi byed pa de las yah khyad par yod par b~ad par bya ste / ji ltar te na / yod pa daft reed pa aid du brjod pa ni lta ba'i dbafi gis te / kho bo ni dfios po roams ri boil gi rva b2in du reed pa fiid du mthofi la tshig gi skyon yofis su spa/as pa'i 49 phyir yod pa fiid kyafi ma yin la reed pa fiid kyah ma yin no ~es mi smra'i / 'di ltar de dag rten cifi 'brel par 'byufi ba'i phyir ji ltar yod pa aid daft / reed pa fiid dag [P 276a] gzugs brfian dag btin du mthofi ba de ltar smra bas / khyod ni nor bu do so zan a nda sfiil gyi rin btah du 'tshofi ba na / yid la bsams pa daft mthun pa'i 'bras bu yah ma thob la raft gi blo yafi bar yah bstan pa b~in du gyur t o / / smras pa / gal te de ltar dfios po thams IN 267b] cad mya fian las 'das pa daft mtshufis pa yin na chos daft chos ma yin pa dag la khyad par rned pa'i phyir rtsom pa thams cad don reed pa fiid du mi 'gyur ram / b~ad pa / ci khyod yah dag paji lta ba b2in du mthofi ba la yah rtsom pa yod par lta 'am//gaff gi tshe sfiar

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br]od par bya ba ldog paste// sems kyi spyod yul ldog pas so//
2es bstan zin pas / de'i rnam par rmofis pa'i sems daft ldan pa la rtsom pa yod kyi/ de kho na mthofi ba la ni bya ba ci yah meal d o / / j i skad du bya ba byas s o / / ' d i las g~an reed do ~es gsufis pa daft / de b~in du gaff zag ma rig pa daft ldan pa 'di ni bsod nares las byufi ba'i nation par 'du bya ba dag kyah ration par 'du byed do//~es gsufis pa lta bu'0//slob dpon 'phagspa lhas kyafi / kun med ci ~ig byar yod ces/[ khyod ni 'jigs pa skye bar 'gyur// gal te bya ba yod na ni// chos 'di ldog pa ma yin n o / / ~es gsufis te / de lta bas na chos fiid mya fian 'das daft mtshufis 2es pa 'di ni don dam pa'i phyir gsufis pa yin no// 'jig rten gyi tha dad kyi phyir / [8.]

thamsead yah dag yah dag min // yah dag yah dag ma yin ~id //

'di ltar beom ldan 'das kyis kyah gaff 'jig rten la yod par grags pa de fia yah yod par smra'o [/gaff 'jig rten la reed par grags pa de fia yah med par smra'o//~es gsufis pas / de'i phyir gaff gi tshe 'jig rten gyi tha sfiad bya ba de'i tshe na gaff 'jig rten la yah dag pa fiid du grags pa / de bcom ldan 'das kyis kyafi yah dag pa fiid do [/ [P 276 b] ~es gsufis so//gaff 'jig rten la yah dag pa fiid ma yin par grags pa de bcom ldan 'das kyis kyafi yah dag pa ma yin no//~es gsufis so//gaff 'jig rten la yah dag pa fiid daft / yafi dag pa fiid ma yin pa fiid du grags pa de bcom ldan 'das kyis kyah yah dag pa fiid daft / yah dag pa fiid ma yin [N 268 a] pa fiid do//2es gsufis so// 'di lta ste dper na / grofi mi gfiis gig bya ba 'ga' 2ig la grofi khyer du doff ba na ltad mo'i phyir lha khah du Lugs has ri mo lta bar brtsams pa daft de na gcig gis smras pa / lag na mduh rtse gsum pa thogs pa gaff yin pa 'di ni sred reed kyi bu'o// lag na 'khor lo thogs pa gaff yin pa 'di ni dbafi phyug chen po'o//cig ~os kyis sl smras pa / khyod kyis log par bzufl ste / lag na mdufi rtse gsum pa thogs pa ni dbafa phyug then po'o//lag na 'khor lo thogs pa ni sred med kyi bu'o//~es de gfiis rtsod pa na / fie 'khor na kun tu rgyu ~,ig 'dug pa'i gan du doff ste phyag 'tshal nas de la raft raft gi bsam pa smras pa daft / des gcig la ni khyod zer ba bden n o / / 2es smras / cig ~os la ni mi bden no//2es smras pa / de la kun tu rgyu des ji ltar 'di na dba/1 phyug chert po yah 'ga' yah reed la / sred reed kyi bu ya/1 reed de s2 'di dag ni rtsig pa la rten pa'i ri mo bris pa'o//~es bya ba de ltar ~es rood kyi [ 'jig rten gyi tha s~ad kyi dbafi gis 'di ni bden no//2es smras pa la rdzun gyi tshig gi

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skyon can d u m a gyur pa de b~in du / bcom Idan 'das kyis kyafi dfios po rnams rio bo Rid stofi par gzigs kyafi / 'jig rten gyi tha sfiad kyi dbafi gis 'di ni yah dag pa Rid d o / / ' d i ni yafi dag pa Rid ma yin n o / / ' d i ni yail dag pa fiid daft / yail dag pa Rid ma yin no//~es gsufls so// don dam par ni /

yah dag rain rain yah dag min // de ni sahs rgyas bstan pa'o // [P 277a]
dfios po rio bo Rid stofi pa sgyu ma daft / rmi lam daft / gzugs brfian daft / brag ca lta bu dag laji ltar yafi dag pa fiid daft / yail dag pa fiid ma yin par brjod de / de'i phyir de ni saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das rnams kyi bstan pa yod pa daft med pa fiid kyi skyon daft bral ba / mu stegs byed thams cad daft thun moil ma yin pa don dam pa gsal [N 268 b] bar byed pa yin n o / / yafi na 'di ni don g~an de kha cig na re thams cad yod pa Rid las skye'o//kes zer ro//gkan dag na re rgyu las 'bras bu sha na reed pa dag las skye'o//~es zer ro// kha cig na re yod pa daft med pa las skye'o//~es zer ro// saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das rnams kyi bstan pa ni dfios po rgyu daft rkyen las gdags par zad kyi yod pa daft med pa ni ma yin te / de ltar yail ka ty~ ya na 'jig rten 'di ni g~is la gnas te / phal cher yod pa Rid la gnas pa daft / med pa Rid la gnas so// ges gsufisso // de lta bas na sails rgyas bcom ldan 'das rnams kyis 'jig rten gyi tha s~ad kyi dbafi gis kyafi de daft de dag gsuils pas / de'i phyir de kho na mthofi bar 'dod pa rnams kyis 'jig rten gyi dbafi gis gsufis pa dag la nation par ma ken par byas te / de kho na gaff yin pa de Rid gzufi bar bya'o// smras pa / de kho na'i mtshan Rid gaff yin / b~ad pa / [9.]

g~an las kes min ~i ba dab// spros pa roams kyis ma spros pa // rnam rtog med don tha dad min // de ni de ~id mtshan ~id d o / /

g~an las ~es rain ~es bya ba ni / 'di la g~an las ~es pa med paste / luil reed par bdag gi mfion sum du 'gyur ~.ih / bdag Aid kyi mhon sum ~es bya ba'i tha tshig go// ~i ~es bya ba ni rio bo Aid stoil pa ~es bya ba'i tha tshig go//spros pa rnams [P 277 b] kyis ma spros pa ~es bya ba ni 'jig rten gyi chos rnams daft bral ba ~es bya ba'i tha tshig go [/rnam par rtog pa med pa ~es bya ba ni 'di ~es bya ba daft 'di'o// ~es rnam par ma brtags p a ' o / / d o n tha dad pa ma yin la / ~es bya ba ni 'di yail yin la / 'di yah yin no//kes don dbyer reed p a ' o / / d e la gaff gi phyir mare par rtog pa reed pa de'i phyir spros pa roams kyis ma spros pa'o//gab gi phyir 'jig rten pa'i chos rnams kyis ma spros pa de'i phyir ~i ba'o// [N 269 a] gaffgi phyir ki ba de'i phyir don tha dad pa ma yin paste / de'i phyir de lta bu'i raft b~.in ~es pa raft rig

BUDDHAPALITA ON EMPTINESS pa g~,an las 53 ~es pa ma yin pa gaff yin pa de ni kho na'i mtshan fiid yin par ~es par bya'o// 'dir yafi de kho na'i mtshan fiid g~an yin te /

199

[10.]

gab la s4 brten te gab 'byuh ba// de ni re kig de ~id min // de las g~an pa'ah ma yin phyir // de'i phyir chad rain rtag ma yin //

'di ltar gaff la s4 brten te gaff byufi ba de ni re Zig de fiid ma yin n o / / d e de las ss g~,an pa'ah ma yin te / gal te de de las gZan yin par gyur na de med par yah 'byufi bar 'gyur ba'i figs na / mi 'byufl has de'i phyir de las g2an pa'ah ma yin n o / / d p e r nasa bon la s4 brten te myu gu byufi ba ni sa bon gaff yod yin pa de myu gu kho na ma yin pa la sa bon las g~an pa myu gu'i flo bo fiid reed pa'i phyir sa bon las myu gu la g2an pa'ah ma yin pa b2in te / de Itar gaff gi phyir gaff la brten s6 te gaff byufl ba de de fiid kyah ma yin la de de las g~an pa'afi ma yin pa de'i phyir chad pa yah ma yin la rtag pa yah ma yin n o / / ' d i ltar sa bon fiid myu gu yin par gyur na// sa bon rtag par 'gyur ro//gaff gi phyir sa bon fiid myu gu ma yin pa de'i phyir sa bon rtag pa ma yin n o / / g a l te sa bon yah g~an fiid la myu gu yafi g~an yin par gyur na de ltana sa bon rnam pa thams cad du rgyun [P 278a] chad pas chad par 'gyur ro//gaff gi phyir sa bon las myu gu g~an ma yin pa de'i phyir sa bon chad pa ma yin te / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas k y a h / / gaff phyir dfios po 'jug 'gyur b a / / des na chad par mi 'gyur r o / / gaff phyir dflos po ldog 'gyur ba// des na rtag par mi 'gyur ro// 2es gsufis s o / / d e lta bas na / de yah de fiid daft g2an fiid du brjod par bya ba ma yin pa'i phyir//rtag pa [N 269 b] yah ma yin la chad pa yah ma yin pas de kho na'i mtshan fiid yin n o / / [11.]

don gcigmin don thadad min // chad pa ma yin rtag rain pa // de ni sahs rgyas ~ig rten gyi // mgon po 'i bstan pa bdud rtsi yin //

de ltar mtho ris daft byafl grol gyi lam roam par 'byed pa don gcig pa ma yin pa don tha dad pa ma yin pa / chad pa ma yin pa rtag pa s7 ma yin pa gcig pa daft tha dad pa daft chad pa daft rtag pa'i skyon las phyi rol tu gyur pa / mchog tu zab pa / don dam pa'i de kho na gsal bar byed pa de ni / 'jig rten daft 'jig rten las 'das pa'i bde ba thob par bya ba'i phyir / saris rgyas bcom ldan 'das thams cad mkhyen pa thams cad gzigs pa / stobs bcu'i stobs daft ldan pa / rgyu med par byams pa mares

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kyi bstan pa bdud rtsi yin te / de sgrub par b y a ' o / / ' d i ltar der ~ugs pa rnams kyi bdag fiid kyi ration sum du gyur pa 'phral kho na la 'grub par 'gyur ro//gaff dag tshogs ma byas pa fiid kyis 'phral lama grub pa de dag la yari tshe rab g~an dag la ties par 'grub par 'gyur te / slob dpon 'phags pa lhas kyafi / de fiid ~es pas 'di la n i / / 'dod chags bral ba ma thob kyafi// tshe rabs g~an la 'bad rned par// ties par thob ste las b~in n o / / ~es gsuias so// [12.]

rdzogs sahs rgyas rnams ma byuh ~ih // ~an thos rnams ni zad gyur kyah // rah sahs rgyas kyi ye ~es ni // brten pa med las tab tu skye //

ci ste yah 'di la curl zad goms par byas pa [P 278b] rnams la rgyal rdzogs pa'i saris rgyas rnams ma byuri fiam / ~an thos rnams zad par gyur te / rkyen daft mi 1dan par gyur du zin na yah / de dag gi sfion goms pa'i rgyu las byufi ba raft saris rgyas kyi ye ies g~an las ies pa ma yin pa brten pa med pa tsam gyi rkyen las rab tu skye bar 'gyur r o / / d e ' i de ltar bstan pa bdud rtsi 'di sgrub pa la 'bras IN 270 a] bu yod par 'gyur bas / de lta bas na yofis su rtog pa daft ldan pa 'khor ba'i dgon pa spori ba 'dod pa / bdud rtsi'i go 'phafi thob par 'dod pa rnams kyis 'di fiid 'bad pas bsgrub par bya ste / 'di kho na las don dam pa ties par 'grub b o / / bdag daft chos brtag pa ~es bya ba ste rab tu byed pa bco brgyad pa'o//

EXAMINATION OF THE SELF AND PHENOMENA If dogmas about being and non-being (bhdvdbhdvadr,s.ti) cannot express the truth (tattva) because they imply the fault of permanence and annihilation (gdgvatocchedadosaprasan'gdt) would you please explain what the truth (tattva) is and how the truth can be attained (tattvddhigama)! s8 The truth has already been explained all along from the very beginning [of this commentary] ! In brief, the view that there is neither a self (dtman) or a mine (dtmfya) outside or inside (bdhyddhydtmika) that is the supreme truth (tattvavara) and by development (bhdvand) of the vision of the truth [a yogi] attains the truth, s9 How does the vision (dargana) of non-self and non-mine outside and inside come about?

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Here (iha) a philosopher who desires to see the truth (tattvadidr.k.su) should carefully consider as follows: The so-called self (dtman), is it simply (eva) the skandhas or are the skandhas quite different (anya)? Is the self simply the skandhas or is it something else (anya) than the skandhas? It is so simple! To put it in another way, everything which exists [must] either be said to be different (anya) or non-different (ananya). But in the final analysis both [alternatives] are impossible (nopapad-). 6~ For what reason? [1 .]

If It If It

the self were [identical with] the skandhas would participate in birth and decay. it were different from the skandhas wouM lack the mark o f the skandhas. 61

First of all (tdvat), if the self simply were the skandhas it would be marked by birth and decay (udayavyayadharmin) since the skandhas are marked by birth and decay. In that case it would imply many (bahu) selves and it would be nonsense (vaiyarthya) to advocate a self (dtmavdda) since the term 'self' would merely be a synonym (parydya) of the skandhas. Therefore it is, in the first place, unwarranted to claim that the self is one with the skandhas. 62 On the other hand (athavd) it might be [considered to be] different (anya) from the skandhas, but in that case it would lack the marks (laksana) of the skandhas. Since the skandhas have the mark of birth and decay the self could of course not have the marks birth and decay since it is different from the skandhas. In that case it must be permanent (~d~vata), but if the self is permanent all undertakings (drambha) will be of no avail. In fact [something] permanent cannot change so what could be effected [by it] ? Thus, again, the conception (kalpand) that a self exists turns out to be meaningless, as it could not be subject to the slightest activity (pravrtti) or cessation (nivr.tti). So it is also impossible that the self is different from the skandhas. 63 When a [yogi with] the intellect (buddhi) has ascertained this to be so he again carefully considers [2.]

When the self does not exist How can [anything called] mine exist! 64

If, when analysed, the [concept of a] self proves totally (sarvatra) 6s unjustified how can there be [anything conceived of as] mine? That is, if that which is supposed to belong to the so-called self be called mine, how can it, since it is absent as soon as the self is absent, be rational to claim that "this belongs to that"? Consequently the term 'mine' is unjustified. Thus not to see a self or mine outside or inside is to see the truth. A [yogi] develops and explains this [truth]. By

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developing and explaining this [truth] his adherence (abhinivega)to a self or mine is appeased (upagama) so that

After self and mine are appeased One becomes selfless and mineless.
After the adherence to self and mine has thus been appeased one becomes selfless and mineless (nirahamkdro nirmama~ ca). - But as it is definitely the self which becomes selfless and mineless when it thus sees quite correctly, it must exist! So self and mine certainly exist! 66 The reply is [3.]

Nor does such a [self] exist Which is selfless and mineless. One who [imagines that he] sees [a self] Which is selfless and mineless, sees not! 67

Thus [a self] said to be selfless and mineless does not exist either. It may [however] be indicated based on an appropriation (updddna) [of the five skandhas]. Actually the Lord has declared: "Sir, as to the expression "this is one's name, this is one's family" there can be no name or family of a person (pudgala) independently of an appropriation." 68 Consequently it is only by virtue of an appropriation that one speaks [of a self]. There is not anybody else who becomes selfless and mineless. Moreover if he did exist, how could he, as he [exists] already, become selfless and mineless? And if somebody would have those two [views of the selfless and the mineless] he would then have wrong views and the vision of truth (tattvadargana) would be absent. The teacher .~ryadeva has also stated If one could speak of a self (dtman) It would not be logical to speak of non-self Again, realization of the truth (tattva) Or nirvana would certainly be false (mrsa). 69 Consequently one who perceives [a self supposed to be] selfless and mineless does not perceive the truth since he has a wrong view (mithydd.r.s.ti), his intellectual eye being impaired (matinayanopahata). 7~ [4.]

When [the notion] about self and mine Has disappeared inside and outside Appropriation ceases. When it ceases Rebirth [also] ceases. 71

Now that the false belief (mithydgrdha) in someone's so-called self and mine inside and outside has ceased, there is neither appropriator (updddt.r) nor anything

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to be appropriated (upddeya). So the fourfold appropriation (updddna) is also stopped and when appropriation has stopped existence (bhava) stops. 72 When existence (bhava) has stopped rebirth qanman) ceases and that is called liberation (moksa). One who thus sees correctly as it is (yathdbhatam) attains the truth (tattvddhigama), and by attaining the truth he is liberated.

[5.]

Liberation is due to the cessation of karma and passions Karma and passions are due to concepts. These are due to conceptualization (prapaaca) But conceptualization is stopped by emptiness. 73

Here [in saro.s~ra] karma and passions (kleka) are the causes of rebirth (janman). Hence liberation (moksa) is said to be due to the extinction (ksaya) of karma and passions. Again such karma and passions arise from wrong (abhata) concepts (vikalpa) but do not exist intrinsically (svabhdvata.h). Passions arise from superficial (ayoniiah.) concepts. For instance one has desire, another hatred, yet another confusion in relation to one and the same object (visaya). Therefore passions arise from concepts. 74 Karma is defined as physical, vocal and mental activity (abhisamskdra) connected with a passionate intention (kli.stacittavat). In fact the Lord has also extensively (vistaren.a) stated: "Subject to ignorance man even performs activities resulting from merit (pu.nya)".7s Therefore karma and passions are due to false concepts (abhatavikalpa). Now these false concepts arise from conceptualization (prapa~ca). They arise from worldly (laukika) conceptualizations. Those whose mind adheres to [the idea] that "this is true" concerning phenomena (dharma) such as worldly profit and loss etc. (Idbhdldbhddi), form concepts about that particular thing so that [their] concepts arise from conceptualization. Conceptualization is, however, stopped by emptiness. The [yogi's] worldly conceptualization of profit and loss etc. is stopped by emptiness. By understanding that the nature of things (bhdvasvabhdva) is empty [conceptualization] is stopped. 76 It is stopped by understanding emptiness. Consequently emptiness is the truth (tattva), and only by developing (bhSvand) emptiness the truth is attained. The attainment of truth is called liberation (mok.sa). The teacher ,~ryadeva has also said In brief, the Buddhas have stated That the dharma is non-violence While emptiness is nirvana. Here there are only these t w o . 77 If there is in fact no self or mine why have the blessed Buddhas occasionally taught a self?

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They have [strictly speaking] not even advocated non-self! Later on it will also be stated Thus [the self] is not different from the appropriation, Nor is it simply the appropriation. The self is not non-appropriation And it is certainly not non-existing. 78 It is in fact in order to dispel the clinging of those who are to be disciplined

(vaineydbhinivega) that the blessed Buddhas, who are experts in understanding the attitudes and propensities (dgaydnu~aya) of living beings (sattva), 79
[6.]

Have indicated both a self And also taught a non-self. Yet the Buddhas have also taught That there is neither self nor non-self. 8o

As to this there are some [people] to be disciplined who cherish view-points

(drs.ti) such as "this world does not exist, the other world does not exist and apparitionally (upapdduka) born creatures do not exist". 8~ Their minds are disturbed by clinging (abhinivega) to false views (mithyddr.st.i), they do not care
about the other world and shrink not from transgressing common principles (lokanaya). It is in order to dispel the dogma of non-self (andtmadrs.ti) of such beings who are heading towards the great abyss of hell (narakamahdprapdtdbhimukha) that a self has been indicated [by the Buddhas] .82 There are some [of the people] to be disciplined who cherish viewpoints as: "There exists a creator (kartr) of good and bad deeds (karma), and there is a reaper (bhoktr) of their good or bad results (istdni.st.aphala), and there is something called self of which bondage and liberation are taught. Otherwise, if the self did not exist, all this would simply be meaningless." It is in order to repudiate the dogma about self of such beings who have fallen into the ocean of migration (sam.sdra), who have been grasped by the monster of the belief (grdhagrahagrasta) in self and mine, whose minds are agitated by the floods of dogmas (drs.tyogha) and who cherish the joys of life (bhavasukha) that it has also been taught [by the Buddhas] that there is non-self. 83 But there are some well-disciplined people (suvinfta) whose collection of merit (punyasam. bhdra) is mature, who are capable of crossing the ocean of existence (bhavdrnava), who are attentive to the discourses on the deepest meaning (paramdrthakathdbhdjanabhata). To them the blessed Buddhas, teachers of the truth about the deepest meaning, and great leaders, have taught that the empirical illusion deludes fools: 84 at this stage there is neither self nor non-self. The teacher ,~ryadeva has also said

BUDDHAPALITA ON EMPTINESS Being and non-being, being-non-being And neither of these two have been taught. But, certainly, it is only due to a malady That a medicine becomes salutary (pathya). 8s

205

But there is also another [possible interpretation] : The self has also been indicated to exist by those who are averse to perceiving the truth (tattvadar~anapardhmukha), who without understanding anything imagine that they understand everything, who follow their own speculations (svatarkdnusdrin) and are afraid that if there is no self all this is unfounded (nopapadyate). 8a Likewise others, whose minds (mati) are stultified, who with an unreal self (asaddtmand) cause misery in the world and to whom the [cause of] karma and stage of rebirth is unintelligible (karmagatiparoksa) have taught that there is no self. a7 The blessed Buddhas who have obtained the knowledge of liberation without coverings (nirdvaranavimoksa), who know everything, who see everything, have, from a desire to benefit the world, taught the middle way (rnadhyamapratipat) without self or mine, it being absolutely clear that these two do not exist [or in other words] : "When this exists, that arises, but when this does not exist, that does not arise". 88 What is the argument (yukti) behind the statement [above] that "conceptualization is stopped by emptiness"? 89 Here is the answer [7.]

The expressible [world] has disappeared/90

when it is seen that [all] things (bhdva) are empty, the expressible [world] disappears. Consequently conceptualization is stopped by emptiness. As a matter of fact when the expressible exists conceptualization arises dependently upon it, but when the expressible does not exist how can conceptualization arise without a basis? But how does the expressible of this [yogi] disappear?

With the disappearance of the sphere of mind/


The sphere of mind (cittagocara) is an object such as form etc. (rapddivi.saya). Since the sphere of this [yogi's] mind, viz. form etc. has disappeared, therefore the expressible has disappeared. If the expressible is in fact form etc. how can the expressible [exist] when they are not present! But how does the sphere of mind of this [yogi] viz. form etc. disappear?

Because (hi) the nature of things (dharmatd) Is unborn and undestroyed like nirvana.

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Since this [yogi] when perceiving correctly (yathdbhgtam), understands the unborn and undestroyed nature of things is like nirvana, the sphere of his mind therefore disappears. Consequently conceptualization is stopped by emptiness. The teacher .~ryadeva has also said

(prajdndti) that

Consciousness is the seed of life While sense-objects are its sphere. When one sees that objects are without self The seed of life disappears. 9x Is there any difference (vi~e.sa)between the view that "this world does not exist, the other word does not exist and apparitionally born creatures do not exist" and the view that "all things are unborn and undestroyed"? 92 The difference between those two is enormous (atimahat)! It is because you fail to discern the meaning of emptiness (ianyatdrtha) that you consider those two to be similar. Here in [our system] one who is unreflectingly evenminded (apratisam.khydyopek.saka) and one who is reflectingly evenminded (pratisam.khydyopak.saka) may be similar to the extent that both are evenminded, but still there is a very great difference between those two since the one who is unreflectingly evenminded is declared to be fettered by ignorance (avidydsam.yojana) whereas the other one who is evenminded is cherished by the blessed Buddhas. It is also like this in the present case: While the one who perceives this world not to exist etc. has a mind confused by ignorance, the other, who perceives that [this world] is unborn and undestroyed because it is empty of all entities (bhdva), is backed up by cognition (jadnaparvika). So there is a very great difference between those two. Furthermore, not seeing this very non-existence [of the world], he makes a mere verbal statement: "This world does not exist." A blind man could for instance also state that a certain place is pleasant but since he cannot see [its beauty] as his sight is lacking he will err and falls down. Likewise he may state that this world does not exist but lacking the eye of knowledge he does not see [the non-existence of the world] and so he is defiled by mistakes (dosa). 93 Again, to take another example, during a dispute two witnesses to an actual occurrence are appointed. One of them saw the thing with his own eyes (sdk.sdt) whereas the other was not an eye-witness to the occurrence but bribed (?) or on the side of his friend, when both of them are required to give evidence one of them relates the true stroy but not being an eye-witness to the case he is lying and brings sin (adharma) as well as disgrace (ayaga.h) upon himself, when the other one gives evidence he not only speaks the truth but also turns out to be virtuous and honourable, for he was an eye-witness to the case. Likewise it is certainly a fact that all things (bhdva) are empty, and, since they are empty, unborn and undestroyed, but whereas one who has personal knowledge is expert and laudable, the other one

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who has not witnessed emptiness is therefore defiled by the blemishes of dogmatism (dr.st.ido.sa)and also despised by the wise. Consequently this amounts to a very great difference. The teacher 1Lqhulabhadra has also stated, in his "Hymn to Perfect Wisdom" By seeing you one is bound; By not seeing [you] one is also bound. By seeing you one is liberated; By not seeing [you] one is also liberated. 94 Thus this [emptiness] is the object (visaya) of one whose truth-knowing intellectual eye (tattva/garnatinayana) is clear (vimala) whereas it is not the object of one whose intellectual eye is enveloped in the deep darkness of ignorance (avidydndhakdra). Besides, the fact that your understanding is accompanied (parvamgama) by a conceit about your wisdom (pan.ditdbhimdnitd) makes [you] equate [us] with dogmatists (lta ba sems pa) and charge us [accordingly], without, however, acting so towards [those who] advocate being and non-being. But it must be said that [we] are at variance with this. How so? Statements about being and non-being take place under the sway of dogmas (drst.i). We consider things to be as inexistent as the horns of a hare (gagavi.sd.na). In order to avoid the defects of language (vdkyadosa) we do not say either that being does not exist nor that non-being does not exist. What we in fact state is that being and non-being [should be] regarded as reflections (pratibimba) inasmuch as they are dependently co-originated (pratTtyasamutpanna). 9S It is as if you would sell a glass pearl for the price of a sapphire. You would not obtain a profit corresponding to your expectations [for a glass pearl] and you would be shown to be despicable (laghu). If all things (bh~a) are thus like nirvana, will not all initiatives (drambha).be meaningless (vaiyarthya) since there is no difference between right and wrong (dharmddharma)? 96 But if you look at it correctly (yathdbhatam), is there any such thing as "initiative" (drambha), for it was shown before that

The expressible [world] has disappeared With the disappearance of the sphere of mind.
One whose mind is confused (ma.dha) may show active engagement but to one who sees the truth (tattva) nothing remains to be done. As is said: "What should be done has been done. There is nothing more to this." 97 And as has also been said: "Subject to ignorance mankind even creates good works. ''98 The teacher Aryadeva has also stated

208

CHRISTIAN LINDTNER "Nothing exists, what am I to do" This [thought] makes you afraid. But if anything had to be done Thisdharma would not stop [activity] ,,.99

Thus the statement that phenomena (dharma) are like nirvana has been said in the ultimate sense (paramdrtha). But since people (loka) are different (bhinna) [8.]

Everything may be true or not true Or true as well as not true. loo

In fact the Lord has also stated: "What is acknowledged to exist in the world, I also affirm that to exist. What is acknowledged not to exist in the world, I also deny that to exist." lol Consequently when it is a question of worldly conventional actions (lokavyavahdrakriyd) then the Lord also affirms what is acknowledged to exist in the world. The Lord also affirms that to be untrue which is acknowledged as untrue in the world. The Lord also affirms that to be true and untrue which is acknowledged as true and untrue in the world. To take an example: As two citizens are on their way to town on some business they enter a temple [to visit] an exhibition and as they begin to look at the pictures (citra) one of them says: "The one who holds the trident in his hand, that's N~rgya0.a, but the one who holds a discus (cakra) in his hand, that's Mahe~vara." The other one replied: "You're mistaken. It's Mahegvara who holds the trident in his hand whereas Ngr~yana holds a discus in his hand." While arguing thus both of them approach a monk residing in the neighbourhood. Having saluted him each of them tells what his opinion is and he answers one of them: "Your statement is true" and the other: "It's not true". When the monk then said: "Indeed you know that there is no Mahegvara and no N~r~yao.a for they are but pictures on the wall, but they are true by virtue of worldly convention (lokavyavahdra)" he did not commit the fault of telling a lie. Likewise, though the Lord has seen that things are empty of own-being (svabhdva~fmya) still he has said that by virtue of worldly convention (lokavyavahdra) "this is true, this is not true, this is true and not true." Ultimately

The teaching o f the Buddhas is That nothing is true or not true. lo2
How could one claim that things which are empty of own-being (svabhdva~fmya) like illusions, dreams, reflections and echoes (mdydsvapnapratibimbaprati~rutkavat) are true or not true? Therefore the teaching of the blessed Buddhas is devoid of the

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faults of being and non-being (bhdvdbhdvado.sa) and it elucidates the ultimate meaning (paramdrtha) in which none of the sectarians (tfrthika) have any share. But there is also another meaning. Some claim that everything arises from being, others that the effect, without existing before, arises from the cause and others claim that [the effect] arises from being and non-being, lo3 The teaching of the blessed Buddhas is that being and non-being are not [to the point], though one can indeed form notions (prajgapti) of 'things' (bhdva) based on causes and conditions (hetupratyaya). It has been stated: "Kgty~yana, this world rests on duality. It mostly rests on being and it rests on non-being." xo4 So even though the blessed Buddhas affirm this or that according to worldly usage, those who desire to perceive the truth (tattva) must therefore not cling to statements according to worldly usage but grasp that which is the truth (tattva). But what is the mark of the truth? We answer [9.]

Incommunicable, quiescent, Unconceptualized by conceptualization, Not discursive, not differentiated That is the mark o f the truth, aos

That it is 'incommunicable' (aparapratyaya) means that it cannot be known from others. In other words it is self-evident without tradition (dgama) and evident to one self. "Quiescent" (gdnta) means that it is empty of own-being. "Unconceptualized by conceptualization" means that it is devoid of the world's phenomena (lokadharma). "Not discursive" (nirvikalpa) means that it cannot be conceived rationally as this or that. "Not differentiated" (angndrtha) means that the meaning does not vary whether it be this or that. Since it eschews notions (vikalpa) it is not conceptualized by conceptualization. Since it is not conceptualized by worldly phenomena (laukikadharma) therefore it is quiescent. Since it is quiescent it is not differentiated. Therefore one must understand that the personally experienced incommunicable knowledge of such a nature is the mark of truth (tattva). And here is another mark of the truth (tattva)

[10.]

That dependent upon which x arises Is, first ofall, not identical with that. But it is not different either. Therefore It is not annihilated nor permanent. ~o6

In fact that which arises dependent upon something is not identical with that. Nor is it different from that. If it were different from that [correlate] it would, logically, also come into being without it. Since it does not come into being

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it is not different from it. For instance a sprout (ahkura) arises dependently upon a seed (bf]a): The seed is not identical with the sprout nor is the sprout different from the seed since the sprout does not have a nature different from the seed. So since that dependent upon which x arises is neither identical with that nor different from that, therefore it is neither annihilated nor permanent. In fact if the sprout was identical with the seed, the seed would be permanent. Since the seed is not simply the sprout therefore the seed is not permanent. If the seed was one thing and the sprout another then the seed would be annihilated since it would be totally destroyed. Since the sprout is not different from the seed therefore the seed is not annihilated. The teacher ,~ryadeva has also stated Since things go on They are not annihilated Since things stop They are, therefore, not permanent.l~ So since one cannot say that an x is identical or different therefore it is neither permanent nor annihilated. So this is the mark of the truth (tattva). [11.]

Not o f one meaning nor o f more meanings Not annihilated, not permanent This is the ambrosial message o f the Buddhas, The leaders o f the world! 108

Thus the discernment (pravicaya) of the way to heaven and liberation (svargdpavargamdrga) is not of one meaning nor of many meanings, it is not unannihilated or non-permanent. It is beyond the faults of one or many, annihilated or permanent. It is very profound. This exposition of the truth about the ultimate meaning (paramdrthatattva) must be attained [as] a happiness (sukha) beyond the world and [things] worldly (lokalaukika). Therefore it is the ambrosial message (gdsandmrta) of the blessed Buddhas who know everything, who see everything, who are armed with the ten powers (dagabala) and who are friendly without a motive (ni.skdran.am). This must be realized. 1~ Those who are thus proficient in this will immediately achieve success as they personally experience [the truth]. Those who have not finished [both] collections (sa.mbhdra) will certainly, in another rebirth, achieve success with regard to establishing the immediate method. The teacher ,~ryadeva has also stated Even though the knower of truth Does not attain nirvana in this [life] He will, without difficulty, certainly attain it In another birth, as [a result of the law of] karma. 11o

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Even if the perfect Buddhas do not arise A n d the disciples also vanish Still the cognition o f own-buddhas Arises from being independent. 111

Among those who have exerted but little effort in this life there will perhaps not arise any Buddhas or the disciples (grdvaka) may vanish. But granting that [some own-buddhas] are independent, an incommunicable own-buddha-cognition due to their previous efforts will arise on the only condition that they are independent

(asamsargamdtrapratyaya). Such a person gets the fruit, i.e. he achieves this ambrosial instruction (gdsandmrta) as shown. Therefore those philosophers who desire to leave the wilderness of migration (sam.sdrakdntdra) must, when desiring to obtain the stage of immortality (amrtapada), achieve it through effort (prayatna). It is only through this that the ultimate meaning (paramdrtha) is definitely
achieved.112

Institut for Indisk Filologi, Denmark


NOTES 1 There is a recent edition of the Sanskrit text: de Jong, J. W. (1977): Ndggr]una, Malamadhyamakakdrika~. Adyar. Cf. also IIJ 20, p. 25 for further references. Among some of the translations see e.g. Gnoli, R. (1961): Ndggrjuna, Le stanze del cammino di mezzo... Torino, pp. 39-139. 2 A Danish translation of this in my: Ndgdr]unas fitosofiske Vaerker, K~benhavn 1981, based on the Tibetan translation (Tibetan Tripi.taka, Narthang edition, No. 3222, Tsa fol. 116b128b; Peking edition, No. 5231, Tsafol. 126a-138a; compared with Nos. 5227, 5268 & 5269 in the Peking ed.). 3 Sanskrit and English in Bhattacharya, K. (1978): The Dialectical method of Ndgdrjuna. Delhi. The previous translations by Yamaguchi and Tucci from Tibetan (which counts 72 stanzas) and Chinese are, however, still not quite superseded; see ref. in May, J. (1959): Candrak~rti, PrasannapaddMadhyamakavrtti. Paris. p. 43. 4 Yuktis.as.tikYv.rtti,TP, No. 5265, Yafol. 2b. Here Candrak-lrti states that ~Sanyatdsaptati should be regarded as an appendix to MK VII, 34 whereas Vigrahavydvartan~ elaborates MK 1,3. s For the titles of the individual chapters and for the number of stanzas see my work Nagar]uniana (in prep.). 6 Yuktis.a.sfikdand RatndvaH are translated (from Tibetan, Chinese and Sanskrit fragments) in my: Ndgdr]una, Juvelkaeden og andre Skrifter. KSbenhavn 1980. The Sanskrit texts of Lokdtita- andAcintyastava (= Catu.hstava I & III) are to appear in my work mentioned in note 5. 7 A good selective bibliography is given by Nakamura, H. (1977): A survey of MahaySna Buddhism with bibliographical notes. The Journal of Intercultural Studies. IV. Osaka-fu. pp. 77-94. 8 The various editions and translations of these texts by Conze et al are well-known, see Conze, E. (1978): The Pra/adpdramitg Literature. The Reiyukal Library's Bibliographia Philologica Buddhica, Series Major, I.

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9 Most clearly stated in Yukti.sa.s.~kd 4 6 - 4 8 : rdgadve.sodbhavas tivradu.stadr.stiparigraha.h / vivddds tatsamutthdk ca bhdvdbhyupagame sati // sa hetu.h sarvad.rs,t.indm kle~otpattir na tam rind / tasmdt tasmin parijagte dr.s.~kle~aparik.sayah. // parijM tasya keneti prafftyotp&tadar~andt / prat~tya jdtam c?t]Stam t~ha tattvavidYm varah // (Quoted Abhisamayt~lam. kdrdloka (ed. Vaidya) p. 343-344) and passim in later commentatorial literature, e.g. Madhyamakdlam. kdrav.rtti, TP, No. 5285, Safol. 75b, etc.). 10 Cf. e.g. W 2 1 - 2 3 . 11 These concepts are chosen at random from MK. Cf. likewise RatnSvali I, 9 1 - 9 2 for a list of such categories. 12 Cf. MK XXVII, 30; Catu.hstava, passim, la See Kajiyama in WZKSO VII, p. 3 7 - 3 9 . Also Ati~a's account of the commentaries on MK etc, in his Bodhimdrgad~papaajik5, TP, No. 5344, Ki fol. 324b. 14 There is a good German translation by Walleser, see May, op. cit., p. 37 & 44. is Listed by de Jong,11J 20, p. 25. 16 See, however, Nakamura, loc. cit., p. 79 and Frauwallner, E. (1969): Die Philosophie des Buddhismus. Berlin. p. 221-241. t 7 T~rarL4thae de doctrinae buddhicae in lndia propagatione (ed. Schiefner) p. 106. Cf. also Vaidya, P. L. (1923): Etudes surAryadeva et son Catuh.kataka. Paris. p. 50. 18 Chapters XXIII-XXVII are even taken over without change from Akutobhayd by Buddhapaqita (or by the editors of this commentary). 19 I must postpone my arguments for this date for another occasion. 2o For the references cf. May, op. cit., p. 162.PrajFu~pradfpa to MK II, 2d also contains an allusion to BuddhapSlita: g~an dag ni gab gi kes bya ba 'gro ba po'i kes zer ro // kha cig na re de

ni rigs pa ma yin t e / de'i phyir ~es bya ba'i sgra'i blamed pa'i phyir dab / sob ba dab ma sob ba'i 'gro ba po 'i 'gro ba dgag pa bstan pa 'i phyir ro ~e 'o//(loc. cit., 77a). 21 Cf. May, loc. cir., for Candrakfrti. For Avalokitavrata note that he often takes over whole
passages from Buddhap~lita. 22 For Catuh.~ataka (never referred to as such) see for the f'ttst twelve chapters Walleser's edition (Bibliotheca Buddhica, XVI), pp. 4, 10, 3 1 - 3 2 , 55, 56, 70, 92, and for the remaining chapters Peking edition, 255b, 258b, 281b, 299b. The three verses not found in Catuh.~ataka but ascribed to Aryadeva by Buddhap~alita occur loc. cit., 288b, 288a & 298a: gab phyir 7ig rten fi s~ed

med // tshogs pa ~id la shah "gyur ba // de phyir dhos po yod min te // d~ os m ed tshogs pa'ah yod ma yin / / (also quoted Praj~dprad~pa, 254b; Pra]~pradipat~kd, 179a); tshogs pa (g) cig pu ma yin te // de b~in dhos po 'ga' yah med // gal te de yah de las g~an // de yah gcig pu 'ga' ~ig yod // ; gab phyir gzugs la bdag med pa // de phyir gzugs las bdag g~an gyur // grab dab tsha ba tha dad ~id // med ces br/od par mi rub b~in //.
23 For R~hulabhadra see note 37. The quotation of a verse by *Abhaya occurs in WaUeser's edition of Buddhap~lita, p. 174, q.v. It is also quoted by Avalokitavrata (op. cit., Sha 294b) but here it is ascribed not to 'jigs reed but to 7ig byed (*Bhayakara)! 24 For the variants cf. my work mentioned note 5. 2s See ibidem. 26 I may here be permitted to add that in 1975 when I had the privilege of discussing M~dhyamika with the abbot of the Drepung monastery, mKhan fin po the pad ma rgyal mtshan, he above all recommended two works as introductory to the study of N~gSa'juna's texts, viz. Candrak~rti's Madhyamak~vat~ra and Buddhap~ita's vr.tti to MK. ~7 And as such it cannot be established acc. to MK II, 21: ek[bh~vena v~ siddhir ndn~bhdvena vd

yayoh / na vidyate, tayoh, siddhih, katham, nu khalu vidyate // ~8 Cf. Ratndval~I, 25 ff. (esp. w. 2 7 - 2 8 , 35 & 42). 29 This is summarized in ~;anyatdsaptati 2: bdag reed bdag reed rain bdag dab//bdag reed rain pas br]od 'ga' 'ah reed//br]od par bya ba'i chos rnams kun // mya ban 'das mtshuhs rah b~in stoh //. ao Cf. Sanyatgsaptati 1 : gnas pa'am skye 7ig yod reed dam//dman pa'am m~am pa'am khyad par can//sahs rgyas 7ig rten bsftad dbah gis // gsuh gis yat~ dag dbah gis rain//.

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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

See ref. given note 1 to the translation. The translators into Tibetan were Jfi~nagarbha and Lo kLu'i rgyal mtshan o f Cog to. rtag : ltag NP. kyis : kyi NP. bdag : dag NP. tshe : c h e NP. nail : daft NP. deP:desN. kyis N,: kyi P. kyi: kyis NP. gram : gtan NP. kyis : kyi NP. btags : brtags NP. med P: marl N. 45 gis N : gi P. 46 g~i : b~i NP. 47 spyod om. NP. 48 gyi : gyis NP. 49 spalls pa'i P: spafi ba'i N. so d o : d e N P . 51 kyis : kyi NP. s2 d e N : d a P . sa las : la NP. s4 la : las NP. ss de de las : de las de las NP. 56 brten : rten NP. s7 rtag pa om. NP. 58 The two antas must be avoided, cf. MK XV, 10: astfti M~vatagraho ndst~ty ucchedadarganam / tasmdd astitvandstitve ndgrfyeta vicak.sanah. /[ . N~gftrjuna acknowledges a tattva 'beyond' these which cannot be described, but which can be experienced through j~a-na or buddhi, cf. YS 1:

astindstivyatikrdntd buddhir ye.Mm, nird~rayg / gambMras tair nirdlambah pratyaydrtho vibhgvyate [/; CS III, 47: tattvajadnena nocchedo na ca ~dgvatatd matd /. . . ; v. also Y.S 10;
MK XXVI 11 ; SS 65; CS I, 2 6 - 2 7 . 59 This bhffvand is referred to CS I, 2 6 - 2 7 ; MK XXVI, 11. The trividhdpra/~a-(i.e, grutamay~, cintdmayi & bhdvandmayO is never mentioned in any o f the philosophical works o f N~g~juna or fi,ryadeva. 60 This passage is slightly amplified by Avalokitavrata, PPT, Za 69b: "di la rnal 'byor pa gab

zag bdag med pa'i de kho nam thoh bar 'dod pa yohs su rtog pa dab ldan pas 'di ltar so sor yah dag par brtag par bya ste / 'di la bdag ces bya ba gab yin pa de ]i ltar phuh po rnams kyi mtshan 8id dam / 'on te phuh po rnams las g~an ~ig yin / bdag de ni phuh po rnams kyi mtshan ~id d a m / p h u h po rnams las g~an ~ig tu 'gyur ba de tsam du zad de / 'dir rnam pa g~an du smra ba gab dag yin pa de dag thams cad kyah g~an dati g~an ma yin pa ~id du smra ba dag kho nar 'dus te / g~is ka yah mi 'thad do ~es de ltar so sor yah dag par brtag par bya'o //. . . 61 MK XVIII, 1: dtmd skandhd yadi bhaved udayavyayabhdg bhaved / skandhebhyo 'nyo yadi bhaved bhaved askandhalak.sa.nah //
62 The absurdity o f 'many selves' is also noted by Bhavya and Candrak~rti, of. de Jong (1949):

67nq chapitres de la Prasannapadd, p. 3, n. 11. 63 The entire passage from ci ste y a h . . , to . . . mi 'thad d o / / i s adopted without changes by Avalokitavrata, PPT., ZA 70a, 3 - 6 . That which is permanent (nitya) cannot be the object o f any undertaking (drambhavaiyarthya), cf. MK X, 2 - 3 . 64 MK XVIII, 2: dtmany asati cdtmTyam kuta eva bhavi.syati / nirmamo nirahamkdrah gamdd dtmdtmanTnayoh. //

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65 sarvatra = pa~cadhdmrgyamd.na, cf. de Jong (1949) p. 2 note 7 (referring to Schayer (1931) p. 90, note 60); MK XVI, 2. 66 Here BuddhapS_lita has adapted Akutobhayd, Tsa 81a4-81b: (b)rtags na de Itar bdag ~id rnam pa thams cad du mi 'thad na / bdag gi yod par gala 'gyur te / 'di ltar bdag ces bya ba'i gab yin pa de bdag gi ~es bya na / bdag de med pas de'i 'di yin no ~es bya ba mi 'thad pa'i phyir / de ltar bdag dab bdag gi med pa ni de kho na'i mtshan yin no [/bdag daft bdag gi ~i ba'i phyir//fiar 'dzin fia yir 'dzin med ' g y u r / / d e Ira bdag dab bdag gi(r) mhon par ~en pa ~e bar ~i ba'i phy& / de la bar 'dzin pa dab / ha yir 'dzin pa med par 'gyur te / 'di ltar bdag tu mhon par ~en pa la (b)rten nas / bar 'dzin par 'gyur la / bclag gir mhon par ~en pa la brten has ha yir 'dzin par 'gyur pas / gah gi phyir bdag tu mhon par ~en pa ~e bar ~i ba de'i phyir har 'dzin pa reed par '~ur la / bdag gir mhon par ~en pa ~e bar ~i ba de'i phyir ha yir "dzin pa med par 'gyur ro // 'dir smras pa ~gab gis de Itar de kho na mthofi na har 'dzin pa dab ha yir 'dzin pa rned par 'gyur ro ~es bya ba de Aid bdag yin pas bdag yod pa'i phyir bdag gi yod do [ / . . . etc. 67 MK XVIII, 3: nirmamo nirahamkdro yak ca so 'pi na vidyate / nirmamam, nirahamkdram yah pa~yati na pa~yati // 68 Apparently a quotation from the Bhdrahdrasatra, of. Sam.yutta-Nikdya III p. 25: yoyam ffyasm~ evamndmo evamgotto... ; Sanskrit quoted Tattvasamgrahapa~]ikd, p. 167; Chinese, Taisho 99. 69 ~,ryadeva's Catu.hkataka (CS) X, 20 translated according to Candrakirti's Catuh.kataka.t~kd, Ya 189a. Also quoted by Bhavya, PP. Tsha 229b 1 - 2 ; Avalokitavrata, PPT, Za 87a8 & 93a2. (The argument, of course, is that permanence is incompatible with change.) Here (229b 2 - 3 ) Bhavya includes a piece of historically highly important polemic against S~m.khya: 'dir grabs can dag las kha cig ni rah b~in that par smra la / kha cig ni skyes bu thar par smra ste / de la re ~ig gab dag rah b~in sna tshogs rten can ni 'khor clah 'chih dab thar par 'gyur / ~es zer ba Avalokitavrata (87a8ff.) provides an extensive account of these two branches of S~.rgkhya (i.e. prakrtT"moks.a- and purusamoks.avdda) introducing it thus: de la re ~ig gab dag / raft b~in sna tshogs rten can n i / / ' k h o r daft 'chifi daft that par 'gyur//~es zer bahes bya bas ni/raft b~in that par smra ba 'i g~uh ston te / de yah grabs can rah b~in that par smra ba dag gi g~uh / gSer bdun cu pa ~es bya ba las tshigs su bcad pa de skad ces 'byuft ste / . . . etc. This klokaquotation by two "good" authorities provides us with the evidence for clearing the old uncertainty about the identity of the 'Gold-seventy' (*Hiranya- or *Suvarnasaptati, etc.) and Stim.khyakdrikd (= Sdm.khyasaptati) and their respective authors.-According to indications in Chinese sources (Taish6 1830 & 2049) Vindhyav~sa composed the "Gold-seventy" (cf. e.g. Frauwallner (1951) p. 24 & WZKSO II (1958) p9 114 with n. 30) against which Vasubandhu wrote the Pararndrthasaptatikd (eL e.g. Schayer (1932) p. 92)9 Takakusu, followed by Garbe, Tuxen, Keith and others (cf. Larson (1969) p. 153), suggested the identity of the "Goldseventy" with the *Sdmkhyab~stra (i.e. ScimkhyasaptatO translated into Chinese by Param~tha (see Takakusu, BEFEO (1904) p. 978-1064) and, consequently, the identity of their reputed authors, viz. Vindhyav~sa and I~varakrsna. On the other hand the evidence provided by SlokavYrttika, Yuktidfpik# and other circumstances (cf. Larson (1969) p. 155) spoke against the identification of Vindhyav~sa and I~varalq.sna thus inducing e.g. Chakravarti (1951) p. 148 and Pandeya (1967) p. xix to assign an earlier date to Vindhyavhsa but to accept the identity of 'Gold-seventy' and Sdmkhyasaptati. Finally FrauwaUner (loe. cit. & (1953) p. 284 and Larson (op. cit.) p. 155 seem to accept Vindhyavasa (or -v~sin) as the author of *Kanakasaptati or *Hiranyasaptati and as quite different from i~varakrsna and his S#.mkhyakgrikg or Sa-m. khyasaptati without, however, adducing any manifest evidence in support of this opinion. Now Bhavya's and Avalokitavrata's quotation of a stanza absent in Iffvara~soa's work supplies the required evidence for maintaining the non-identity of *Kanakasaptati (Sanskrit form on the basis of "ka.nagasattarg", quoted by Charpentier (1921) p. 29, referring to Nand~s~tra and Anuyogadv~ra) written in anu.st,ubh by Vindhyav~sa and attacked by Vasubandhu's Param~rthasaptatikg (hardly Paramgrthasaptatt" as maintained by Hulin (1978) p. 139 and
9

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215

others; cf. Tattvasamgrahapaa/ikd, p. 164) and Sa-m.khyasaptati written by i~vara~sn a in dryd, at a later date and with another purpose. 70 This passage taken from Akutobhayd, Tsa 81b 2 - 3 : bar "dzin pa dab ha yir 'clzin pa med

par gab gi phyir mtho/t ba log par lta bas blo gros kyi mig gams pa des ni de kho na mi mthoti ho / / . . . 71 MK XVIII, 4: mamety aham iti ks.~ne bahirdhddhydtmam eva ca /nirudhyata updd~nam tatk.sayg/ /anmanah. ksaya.h // 72 The four upddAnas are kdma, dr.s..~,k~lavrata & gtmavdda, cf. Prasannapadd, p. 349; Avalokitavrata, loc. cit., 93b;Paacaskandhaprakara.na, p. 138; etc. (cf. also IIJ 20, p. 225) 73 MK XVIII, 5: karmakle~aks.aydn moksah, karmakle~d vikalpatah / t e prapaacdt prapaacas tu ~nyatdygm nirudhyate [[ - In spite of Tib. stoti pa aid kyis in d (all versions) which might suggest Sanskrit ~nyatayd (ef. de Jong, op. cit., p. 10 n. 27) the locative form must be retained with the MSS (cf. IIJ, loc. cit.) as is clear from Bhavya, op. cit., 23 l a 2 - 4 : spros pa de yah gab gis 'gag par 'gyur ~e na / spros pa ni stoh pa aid kyis 'gag par 'gyur ~es bya ba gsuhs te / rtog(s) pas ~es bya ba'i tshig gi lhag ma'o // ehos bdag med pa aid kyi mtshan aid rtogs pas 'gag par 'gyur ro // yah na stoh pa aid kyis 'gag (par) 'gyur ~es bya ba la / stoh pa aid (~)es paste / stofi pa aid kes pa skyes na 'gag par 'gyur ro // kes bya ba'i tshig go // Likewise Avalokitavrata, loc. cit., 95a 2 - 4 ; (cf. 94a). 74 Cf. Akutobhayc~, Tsa 8 1 b 7 - 8 : 'di la las dab aon rno~s pa dag ni skye ba'i rgyu yin pay phyir de dag zad pas sdug bshal las rnam par grol ba ni thar pa ste / des ni phuh po lhag ma dab bcas pa'i mya ban las 'das pa 'i dbyihs su yug par bstan t o / / F o r kleka due to vikalpa (or samkalpa etc.) cf. SS 5 9 - 6 0 : sdug dab mi sdug phyin ci log//rkyen skyes chags sdah gti mug rnams // 'byuh ste de phyir rah b~in gyis // 'clod chags ~e sdah gti mug med l/gab phyir der chags der sdah der // rmohs pa de phyir de dag ni // rnam rtog gis bskyed rnam rtog kyah // yah dagaiddu yod m a y i n / / C f . MK XXIII, 1 (withPrasannapadg, p. 451ff.); CS VIII, 2 (with Catuh.gataka.tfkg, p. 473 & 460); May (1959) p. 179ff. 75 Sanskrit Prasannapadd, p. 558: avidygnugato 'yam pudgalo . . . punydn api samskdrdn abhisamskaroti... Cf. IIJ 20, p. 248. 76 On prapaaca see de Jong (1949) p. 11, n. 30; May (1959) n. 562. Cf. also *Bodhisambharakdstra 46 (only extant in Chinese and ascribed to Ngg~irjuna): "(When one has) pra]fuf without prapaaca, vfrya without kaus?dya, and donna without mdtsarya (then) bodhi is in the right hand!"
(Talsh6 XXXII, 1660, 530b15). 77 CS XII, 23 quoted Prasannapadd, p. 351: dharmam samdsato 'himsdm va~ayanti tathdgatt~h / }anyatffm eva nirvdnam kevalam, tad ihobhayam [/Also Bhavya, PP, Tsha, 231a8; Avalokitavrata, PIT., Za, 95b8, etc. 78 MK XXVII, 8: evam. ndnya updddndn na copdddnam eva sah. / dtmd ndsty anupdddno ndpi

n~sty e.sa ni~eayah //


"79 In this and the following passage Buddhap~llta again adaptsAkutobhayd, Tsa 8 2 a 4 - 8 . 8o MK XVIII, 6: dtmety api pra]aapitam andtmety api de~'tam / buddhair ndtmd na edndtmd

kakcid ity api de~itam // 81 Sanskrit Prasannapadd, p. 356: ndsty ayam. loko ndsti paraloko . . . ndsti sattva upapdduka naraka(ddt)prapdta(pra)patandbhimukhdh (of. IIJ 20, p. 226). Also Bhavya, op. eit., 2 3 1 b 3 - 4 ; Avalokitavrata, op. eit., 96a7ff. de Jong, op. cir., n. 43. 82 This is the f'trst g~oup of three kinds of vineyas, viz. h~na, madhyama and utkr.sta (= vingta), of. all commentators and, as far as N~gffrjuna and ,~tryadeva are coneerned: RatndvaH IV, 9 4 - 9 6 (quoted Prasannapada-, p. 359-360); Yukti.sast.ikd 55 (incorporated in Ottavibaddhiprakara.na '20' et alibi): bdldh, sa]/antT"~pes.u vairdgyam ydnti madhyamdh / svabhdvaiaavimueyante rapasyottamabuddhayah. [[; Cg VIII, 15 & V, 10 (quotedPrasannapadd, p. 370,
9

etc.). Cf. Lamotte (1949) p. 32, n. 3. 83 For references to pudgalavdda, v. Lamotte, op. tit., p. 43, n. 3 & p. 734ff. 84 SanskritPrasannapada-, p. 41: mdyeyam, b~lalgpinL - See Sam.yutta-Nikdya III, 143; May (1959) n. 924 & 925;Paacaskandhaprakara.na, p. 117; WZKSO II, p. 138-139.

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8s C~ VIII, 20: sad asat sadasac ceti nobhayam, ceti kathyate / nanu vyddhiva~dt pathyam au.sadham, ndma layate // . La Va116e Poussin's emendation to sarvam (thams cad) for pathyam (see Prasannapadd, p. 372, n. 2) is untenable as shown by Buddhap51ita and Avalokitavrata (loc. cir., 97a 3). 86 Allusion to Sfimkhya, cf. Prasannapadd, p. 360, 3 - 4 . The term thams cad ~es pa ma yin par thams cad mkhyen par mhon pa'i ha rgyal can seems to refer to the prati]~d of Sfmkhya: sarvam, sarvfftmakam (cf. e.g. Yogabhd.sya ad III, 14 ;MCB II, p. 92; Ak.sara&ataka w 1: Shams cad thams cad kyi bdag ~id do ff ~es dam bca' (ba) gab ham /gab dag gam ~gab rnams 'clod pa de dag gi gtan tshigs las grub par mi 'gyur gyi / . . . Bodhiruci's Chinese translation adds, "The S~.mkhya s a y s . . . "). For *svatarkdnusgrin, cf. Skhalitapramathanayuktihetusiddhi w 8 against the "rationalism" of the paacavim&atitattvajfta: de ltar grahs &esmtho ris 'gyur na n i / rho ~t'hgrabs pas gser snah 'gyur 'os f t . . . 87 This refers to Lokffyatika (Tig rten rgyah pan pa) i.e. C~rv?aka. Note Buddhap~lita's pun: 7ig rten na phuh bar byed pa ( *lokavindgin ). The verse etavs eva puru.so . . . is also quoted by Bhavya, loc. cir., 203b7 & 232b6 and Avalokitavrata, op. cit., Za 97b both adding another verse: / mdzes ma legs par spyod cifi z a / / l u s mehog khyod 'das gaff de m e d / [ 'jigs ruff surf ba phyir mi l d o g / / l u s 'di 'dus pa tsam du z a d / [ (For Sanskrit of. S.a.ddarganasamuccaya 82:

piba khdda ca cdrulocane yad at~tam, varagdtri tan nate / na hi bh~ru gatam, nivartate samudayamdtram idam. kalevaram [[ ). Cf. also Madhyamakdvatdra, p. 208 ;MadhyamakaratnapradTpa, TP, No. 5254, Tsha 329a; Tucci, Opera Minora I, p. 135; Sarvadarganasamuccaya, p. 3 & 24. The source of these verses is given by Avalokitavrata, PPT., Sha 3 8 9 b 6 : . 9 drab sroh chen po 7ig rten mig ces bya pas rah gi chub ma la gtams pa'i luh, i.e. "the figama by mahar.si Lok?ak.sa (or Lokacaksu? cf. WZKSO VII, p. 56, n. 17) 'dedicated' to his wife." This author is also mentioned Madhyamakaratnapradfpa, loc. cit., 330a. 88 Sanskrit e.g. Prasannapacla-, p. 9 with n. 7: asmin saffdam, bhavati asminn asaffdam na bhavati
Cf. also MK I, 10 & ~S 71. 89 From Akutobhayd, loc. cit., 82b4. Also Avalokitavrata, op. cir., 9 9 a 4 - 5 . 90 MK XVIII, 7: nivrttam abhidhdtavyam nivrtta~ cittagocara.h / anutpanng niruddhd hi nirvd.nam ira dharmatd/[ Cf. IIJ 20, p. 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 & Avalokitavrata, op. cit., 9864 for b : . . . sems kyi spyod yul ldog pas so [[ gab gi(s) phyir ~es bya ba'i tshig gi lhag ma'o ~es bya ba smras
9

te / gah gi (s) phyir sems kyi spyod yul ldog pa des brfod par bya ba ldog par 'gyur ro ~es bya bar sbyar ro [[. For the thought, cf. Lahkt~vatt~rasatra (ed. Nanjio) III. 9. 91 C~ XIV, 25. Also quoted by Candrak~rti, ~nyatdsaptativ.rtti, TP, No. 5268, Ya 315a; Bhavya, PP, loc. cir., 235a; Avalokitavrata, op. cir., 99b; 101b; 102a, etc. 92 Mgdhyamikas are not nihilists, ef. May (1959), n. 323; Bhavya, op. cir., 235a4;Prasannapadd,
p. 368-369 9 93 IbMem and Avalokitavrata, op. cit., 103b (mentions Buddhap~lita). 94 Praj~pdramitdstotra 15: tvdrn eva badhyate pakyann apa~yann api badhyate / tvdm eva mucyate pagyann apagyann api mucyate [/Also quoted Madhyamakaratnaprad~pa, loc. cit., 335a;Mahdydnasam. grahopanibandhana, TP, No. 5552, Li 329a. Cf. Lamotte (1970), p. 1374 about the author. 95 Cf. n. 1 and e.g. Ratndval~ I, 38, 46, 50, 56, 58, 62 etc.; May (1959), n. 110. 96 Cf. MK XXIV, 6 for a similar objection and XVII, 1 for a definition of dharma (adharma) in this sense (cf. Ratndvaff I, 10). 97 Sanskrit: katam karaniyam, noparim itthatvam... One of the common formulas of Arhantship, cf. PED, p. 77, s.v. arahant. 98 See n. 18; alsoPrasannapadd, p. 180. 99 CS VIII, 9: kim kari.sydmy asat sarvam iti te j~yate bhayam / vidyate yadi kartavyam ndyam.

dharmo nivartaka.h // lOO MK XVIII, 8: sarvam tathyam na vd tathyam, tathyam, cYtathyam eva ca /naivdtathyam naiva tathyam etad buddhdnuggsanam [[ For anu~4sana, "gradual teaching, pedagogy" cf. Prasannapadd, p. 371, 14; Bhavya, op. cir., 237al; Avalokitavrata, op. cir., 107b8.

BUDDHAP,~LITA ON EMPTINESS

217

lol Sanskrit quoted (from Samyuktdgama) Prasannapadd, p. 370: yal loke 'sti sammatam tan maydpy asti sammatam; yal loke ndsti sam. matam mam~pi tan ndsti sammatam . . . Avalokitavrata, op. cit., 105b. Cf. Lamotte (1949) p. 42. lO2 Cf. Ratndvalf II, 4 - 5 : . . . na satyam, na m r f l . . . (allusion to Va#acchedikd w 1 7 ) . . . it/ satygnrtat~to loko 'yam paramdrthatah. . lO3 For sat-, asat- & sadasat-kdryavdda cf. in particular *Dvddagamukhaka-stra II (Taish6 XXX, 1568, 160b16-162a29). lo4 Cf. Prasannapadd, p. 269: yad bhayasd kdtytiyan~yam loko 'stitdm vdbhinivis.to ndstitdm. c a . . . Also Buddhap~lita, supra, 255a (ad MK XV, 7). Cf. Lamotte (1970), p. 1684; H6b6girin, s.v. Chftd6. 1os MK XVIII, 9: aparapratyayam gdntam, prapaKcair aprapaacitam / nirvikalpam an~ndrtham etat tattvasya laksanam // This verse, acc. to Avalokitavrata, op. cit., 110b, provides the *paramdrthatattvalaksana whereas the following states the *samvr.titattvalaksana. l o6 MK XVIII, 10: prat~tya yad yad bhavati na hi tdvat tad eva tat /na cffnyad api tat tasrndn nocchinnam ndpi ~ggvatam /[ . Cf. e.g. Yuktis.ast.ika-19: tat tat prdpya yad utpannam, notpannam tat svabhtTvatah. / svabhdvena yan notpannam utpannarn, ndma tat katham //I lO7 C~ X, 25 (quoted Prasannapadff, p. 376): yasmdt pravartate bhdvas tenocchedo na ]dyate / yasrndn nivartate bh~vas tena nityo na fdyate [/Also in Bhavya's PP, 238b; Avalokitavrata, PP.T, l12b, etc. lO8 MK XVIII, 11: anekYrtham antindrtham anucchedam agdgvatam / etat tal lokandthffndm buddhdndm gdsandm.rtam // lo9 This passage from de ltar m t h o . . , t o . . . de (b)sgrub par bya'o is adopted by Avalokitavrata (loe. cit., 112b 7-113a 2) who also offers several interpretations of amrta (i.e. nirvdna); Bhavya, op. eit., 238b4-8. 11o C~ VIII, 22: iha yady api tattva]~o nirvdn, am. nddhigaeehati / prdpnoty ayatnato 'vagyam punar]anmani karmavat [[ Also quoted PP, 239b; PIT., 113b, etc. 111 MK XVIII, 12: sam.buddhdndm anutpdde ~rdvakdndm. punah, k.saye / fftdnam pratyekabuddh~nt~m asamsargfft pravartate ft. asamsdrga = ka-yacetasoh praviveka (Prasannapadd, p. 378; Avalokitavrata, 114a 1-2). H2 Allusion to Udt~navarga IV, 1: apramddo 'mrtapadam... (cf. e.g. Suhrllekha 13, etc.). The ffmal sentence also in Avalokitavrata, op. cit., 114b2-3, q.v.

BIBLIOGRAPHY The following list is only intended to supply the references given in the notes to the translation. A few common abbreviations are passed unnoticed. Chakravarti, P., 1975, Origin and Development o f the S~mkhya System o f Thought. New Delhi. Chaxpentier, J., 1921, The Uttarddhyayanasfftra. Uppsala. Frauwallner, E., 1951, On the date o f the Buddhist Master o f the Law Vasubandhu. Roma. Hulin, M., 1978, Sgmkhya Literature. Wiesbaden. Lamotte, 1~., 1949-1980, Le Traitd de la grande vertu de sagesse de Ndgdr]una (Mahgpra]fL4. pdramitg~dstra). Louvalh. Larson, G. J., 1969, Classical Sdm.khya. Delhi. Lindtner, C., 1979, Candraklrfi's Paficaskandhaprakarana. AO XL. Hafniae. Pandeya, R. C., 1967, YuktidTpikg. Delhi. Schayer, S., 1932, Kamala~l-las Kritik des Pudgalavhda. RO VIII. Krak6w. Tucci, G., 1971, Opera Minora. Roma. Tuxen, P., 1911, Yoga. K4benhavn. Tuxen, P., 1936, Indledende Bema~rkninger til buddhistisk Relativisme. K4benhavn.

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