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. G.

YELISEYEVA,

I. A. YERSIIOVA

ENGLISH WORDS
AND HOW TO USE THEM
THE THEATRE AND THE CINEMA

FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE M o s c o w 1 96 0

EDITOR R. D I X O N

. . , . .

. . . . . . 15. IX. 1960 . 84xlO8Vai. . . 4%. . . 15,17. .-. . 14,02. Ks 787. 5 . 90 . 1/1 1961 .59 . 82.000. J*3 8

. . - . 1- , 2- . , , , , , 12, 13, 18, 21, . , , , . , , , . 1, 9, 20 . . . , , , . , , , , . , , , , . , , . -. , , : , . , 3

. , , 3- , , , . , - . -. ( -). , , , ; ) , . , -, . , .

CONTENTS
THE THEATRE
Page

'Lesson One. Going to the Theatre .................................................... Lesson Two. Essex at the Bolshoi..................................................... Lesson Three. The Tennent Company in Moscow ............................. Lesson Four. An Amateur Production Rehearsal.............................. Lesson Five. Portrait of a Producer ................................................ Lesson Six. Carrie Steals the Show ......................................., , Lesson Seven. Glimpses of Macready ................................................ Lesson Eight. Gielgud on Tour ......................................................... Lesson Nine. The Kremlin Chimes .................................................... Lesson Ten. Puppet Theatre .............................................................. Lesson Eleven. Ulanova the Unforgettable ....................................... Lesson Twelve. The Classic Chinese Theatre .................................. Lesson Thirteen. Theatre of Truth ..................................................... THE CINEMA Lesson Fourteen. Film Acting .......................................................... Lesson Fifteen. The Peculiarities of Film Material.......................... Lesson Sixteen. The Debut of a Film Actress .................................. Lesson Seventeen. The Preview .......................................................... Lesson Eighteen. Between the Acts ................................................. Lesson Nineteen. "David Copperfield" Televised .............................. Lesson Twenty. Moscow International Film Festival .................... Lesson Twenty-One. "Mother", 1926................................................. V o c a b u l a r y N o t e s ...................................................................

9, 18 24 34 43 51 62 72 82 03 102 112 121

133 143 151 159 168 178 189 201

THE THEATRE

LessonOne
GOING TO THE THEATRE

Going to the theatre is a way of spending an evening which may be at the same time most entertaining and educative.1 Despite competition from the cinema, wireless and television, the theatre still plays an important part in the entertainment of the average Englishman. In London there are theatres for all tastes: some people prefer musical comedy, and shows of this kind, with their catchy tunes, are very popular. Variety shows, in which actors entertain the audience with sentimental and comic performances or skits on social or political life, also draw full houses and greatly influence the artistic tastes of the public. In this kind of entertainment the role of the master of ceremonies (or chairman) is very important. He announces the different items on the programme, introduces the actors and maintains the attention and interest of the spectators. Those who do not care for musical comedy or variety will find other shows to their taste. Some theatres stage modern plays; Shakespeare and other classics are played mostly at Old Vic; the Royal Opera, formerly Covent Garden, shows opera and
ballet.

Seats in theatres where dramatic works of real educational1 value are played and where the standard of acting is high are expensive. This makes the theatrical art in Britain more or less the monopoly of the well-to-do and better educated classes. As a rule, performances start (or begin) at about half past seven and run2 for three hours or more, including about an hour for intervals between acts. There are sometimes matinees in the afternoon, but most spectators prefer evening shows. Seats are booked (or reserved) beforehand either at the boxoffice (or booking office) or by phone. If all the seats are not booked up (or so'd out) you can get tickets at the box-office

just before the show begins; otherwise, the sold-out sign3 is posted over the box-office. The best and most expensive seats in the auditorium (or house) are the orchestra stalls, the boxes, and the dress-circle. From these scats you can get a good view of the stage. The view is not so good from the cheaper seats the pit and the gallery or "the gods." Spectators are not allowed to stand in the gangway (or aisle) during the performance. When you arrive at the theatre you leave your hat and coat at the cloakroom, where the attendant can also provide you with opera-glasses, if you wish. An usher shows you to your place and sells you a programme, which tells you the story of the play that is on that evening and gives the names of the actors who will act the different parts (or roles).
NOTES

1. educative having value or importance in education; cf. later in the text: educational having a direct relation to education; educational is generally used attributively, educative predicatively; e. g. an educational film. The experience was most educative. 2. to run said of a single show to last 3. the sold-out sign a notice bearing the words "soldout" posted over the box-office when all tickets are sold . But note: . The show was played to full houses.
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. What is your usual way of spending a free evening? 2. What kind of entertainment do you prefer: going to the cinema, the theatre, a concert, listening to music on the radio or watching television? 3. Do you care for opera, or do you prefer ballet? What do they show at the Bolshoi in Moscow? Where are opera and ballet shown in London? 4. Name some theatres you know and say which kind of entertainment they stage. It)

5. Do you like variety and do you ever watch variety shows on television? 6. Are you fond of musical comedy, or do you not care for this genre? In which Moscow theatre (or theatre in your home town) can you see musical comedy? Which musical comedies are most popular with Soviet music-lovers? 7. Are there special theatres in Moscow staging only modern plays and others playing only classics? 8. Which is your favourite modern play? Who is it by? At which theatre did you see it? 9. Why is the theatrical art more or less the monopoly of the well-to-do classes in Britain? 10. At what time do performances begin at the Moscow theatres? For how many hours do plays run as a rule? Are there intervals after every act? At what time do shows end? 11. Which seats do you prefer at the Bolshoi? at the Mos cow Art Theatre? 12. How do you book your seats (or buy your tickets) for the theatre: by going to the box-office or by phone? When is the sold-out sign posted up over the box-office? Is it easy to get tickets for the Moscow theatres just before the perform ance begins? 13. Where do you leave your coat and hat when you enter the theatre? Who takes your coat and hat? Who provides you with opera-glasses? Who shows you to your seat? Who can you buy a programme from? What does the programme tell you? 14. Which do you prefer, matinees or evening perform ances? (Give your reasons.) 15. In what kind of entertainment is the role of the master of ceremonies very important and why? What is the job of a master of ceremonies? Exercise II. Give the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases and use them in sentences of your own: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( ), ,

, () , . Exercise III. a) Give verbs corresponding to the following nouns: show, stage, play, entertainment, acting, introduction; b) Give adjectives corresponding to the following nouns: theatre, drama, artist, education, entertainment. Exercise IV. Use auditorium or house (or both) according to the meaning: 1. What do we call the part of a theatre in which the audi ence sits? We call it.. . . 2. When there are no tickets at the box-office we say ... is sold out. 3. By 7.15 ... was almost full. 4. Smoking is not permitted in ... . 5. The play had just begun and the whisper in the halfl i t ... had not died out. 6. This play inevitably draws full ... . 7. He hurried upstairs towards... . 8. The curtain fell and ... went wild. 9. Which are the best seats in ... ? 10. The actor failed to make himself heard in every part of ... . Exercise V. Use play or performance according to the meaning: 1. We managed to get seats just on the day of ... . 2. "The Three Sisters" is my favourite ... by Chekhov. 3. I got two stalls a quarter of an hour before ... began. 4. He offered me two seats for the first ... of ... . 5. Although we had to wait almost twenty minutes for the bus, we were not late for . . . . 6. At what time do ... start at the circus? 7. A matinee is ... given in the afternoon. 8. Spectators are not allowed to stand in the aisle during .... Soviet theatres are very comfortable. There is nothing to disturb the actors in getting ready for ... . After ... they have a chance to rest, which is not the case in England, where a lot of people usually come backstage after ... . It is not because the Moscow audiences are not eager to express their appreciation of ... , but rules are rules.
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Exercise VI. Translate the Russian words into English and insert them in the sentences below as required: 1. The bell rang and () went back to their (). 2. They were sitting in () almost directly below us. 3. We could get a very good view of ( ) from our (). 4. I 'm an actress, and the job of an actress is ( ). 5. She was critical of her () and wished that she could play certain scenes over again. 6. When we arrived at the theatre we saw () posted over (). 7. This is the best scene in () One. 8. Englishmen often call () in a theatre "the gods." 9. He took up his () for a long look round (). 10. I had my seat just off (). 11. No one knew what the next ( ) was. 12. When I go to the Bolshoi I like to have my seat in (-). 13. We () our seats at the box-office of the theatre. 14. He always plays () roles. 15. ( ) was the item on the programme I liked best. 16. The success of ( ) depends largely on the resourcefulness of (). 17. I remember the scene well; it used ( ). . 18. When does the () season begin in Moscow? 19. What do you think of ( )? 20. Her fine sense of style in ( ) astonished the audi ence last night. Exercise VII. Insert the missing words: 1. I found the play most ... and educative. 2. ... isn't over till 10.45. 3. I like ... my seats beforehand, long before the night of ... . 4. The ... was packed, there was not an empty seat. 5. This play is both ... and a lasting work of art.
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6. I ' l l leave two tickets in your name with . . . . 7. The best seats in the Moscow Art Theatre are ... 8. Let's go and have some refreshment at the buffet, ... will last another ten minutes. 9. The curtain went up and the audience watched ..., anx ious not to miss a thing going on on ... . 10. Where do you prefer to be seated, in the middle of a row, or just off ... ? 11. The cheapest seats are in ... . 12. Most of the seats had been ... through ... agencies. 13. Theatre should be an integral part of the cultural l i f p of a people, not only ... . 14. ... won't be on sale until April 10th. 15. There was great applause after each . . . . Exercise VIII. Paraphrase the italicized words and phrases finding substitutes in the text: 1. We might go and see "Uncle Vanya" to-morrow if you can get tickets. 2. I prefer evening shows to afternoon ones. 3. They're giving "Anna Karenina" to-night. 4. When this play is on, the house is always full. 5. We reserved our seats beforehand at the booking office. 6. Shows begin at half past seven and go on for three hour's or more. 7. All the seats were sold out. 8. This kind of entertainment is known as variety. 9. Shakespeare and other classics are played at Old Vic and the Phoenix. 10. At what time did the show end? 11. The theatre was packed. 12. Are you fond of musical comedy? 13. Seat 22 is just off the aisle. 14. The house went wild when the clown did his act. 15. He played the part with great naturalness. Exercise IX. a) Read the passage given below and pick out all the words formed from act. b) Look up the words in the Vocabulary Notes and discuss their meanings.

c) Give Russian equivalents for: longs to act; love of acting; the urge to act; acting ability; childish acting; act ing game; will make an actor; the art of acting. d) Comment on the syntactical function of acting in: acting game, the art of acting, childish acting, acting ability.
WITHOUT AN AUDIENCE

Every child longs to act: a love of acting reveals itself from the earliest age. The urge to act underlies most children's games, where they show power of observation, of imagination and of expression that grown-up actors envy. Little girls show remarkable acting ability as they put their dolls to bed, take them to the doctor and scold them for being naughty. If you ever manage to get into a children's game, which is not an easy thing for a grown-up to do, you will be astonished by the power of a child's imagination. I, of course, went through this phase of pure, childish acting. And to this day I remember many games of my earliest years; I remember not only what they were about, but also the inner truth of what I acted. But, however truthfully and well children may perform in their acting games, and generally speaking they act very well indeed, there is not one of them you can be sure will make an actor, that is a person who can preserve his inner seriousness and belief in the truth of his acting in the presence of an audience. Only in the presence of the spectator does the art of acting achieve its full meaning. Exercise 'X. Learn by heart and practise in dialogue form. Tell "At the Cloak-room" as a narrative.
AT THE BOX-OFFICE

A. B. A. B.

Have you got any seats for Sunday? Matinee or evening performance? Matinee, please. I want two stalls, if you've got any. Yes, you can have two in the middle of Row 12.
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A. Thank you. I think they'll do very well. How much are they? B. Twelve-and-six each ,,. that's twenty-five shillings.
AT THE CLOAK-ROOM

A. We'd better hurry up. The bell is ringing. There is nothing more unpleasant than to have to disturb people sit ting in their seats. B. But we've got plenty of time. I t ' s only 7.15. It must be the first bell. Look, there are lots of people in the cloak room and no one seems to be in a hurry. A. All the better. I hate arriving after the curtain has gone up. B. Let's get a pair of opera-glasses; our seats are rather a long way from the stage, so we shall need them. ATTENDANT. May I see your tickets, please. Dresscircle, Row 4, seats 9 and 10. This way, please. Would you like a programme? B. Yes, please. How much? ATTENDANT. One rouble. Thank you. A. How full the house is tonight. Not a single vacant seat.
(After Brush Up Your English)

Exercise XI. Translate into English: 1. . , ? . - , ? . , , *, , . , ? . . . ? . , . . . , .** ? . . , . , .


* Silva ** It cuts the day up so. 16

. , . . . 2. . . . . , , , . . . . . . 1824 . . . . , .

Lesson Two
ESSEX AT THE BOLSHOL "Are you going to the Red Army Theatre?" Essex asked. "I put that off," Katherine said. "I'm going to the Bolshoi to see 'Giselle.'"1 "You had better hurry." "I shan't be late," Katherine said. "I'm never late." They were not late for the ballet, but they were still in the marble foyer when the bell rang. An attendant hurried them into a box and locked it behind them. "It's a pity to waste such a beautiful theatre on ballet," Essex murmured as the overture started. He had been surprised at the Bolshoi from the moment he entered it. He had thought that the Bolsheviks would spoil it, but he recognized here the atmosphere of a well-run 2 theatre. They had not taken away its rich red furnishings,3 and all the gilt facings4 were freshly painted right to the high ceiling. The theatre was packed to its six tiers,5 and below in the parterre8 there was not an empty seat. Essex forgot his prejudice about ballet in the first act of "Giselle," and at the entr'acte7 he said to her: "This is the best of their culture, no doubt." "By no means," she cried as they joined a large circle of people who were walking round in the large upstairs foyer. "Their music and drama are quite as good. Their opera is better than you will see in Londonand far more frequent. In fact, there is no place quite like Moscow for theatre and music, so don't be grudging 8 about it." When they had seen the ballet through,9 she said: "Have you ever seen anything like it?" as they waited at the counter10 to gather their coats. 11 "I don't believe I have," Essex said. "Not in ballet, anyway."
(James Aldridge, The Diplomat) NOTES

1. I ' m going to the Bolshoi to see "Giselle."Note the use of "to see" in English; cf. .
is

2. well-run well organized, well managed 3. furnishings , 4. facings , . 5. tier , 6. parterre orchestra stalls and pit 7. entr'acte interval 8. to be grudging to show reluctance in giving or praising 9. they had seen the ballet throughthey had watched the ballet till the end 10, the counter the partition over which coats and hats are handed out in the cloakroomby analogy with the count er ( ) in a shop 11. to gather their coatsto collect or to get their coats
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the questions: 1. Which theatre did Essex and Katherine go to? 2. What were they going to see there? 3. Were they late for the ballet, or did they arrive in time? 4. Where were Essex and Katherine when the bell rang? 5. Where did they leave their coats? 6. Where were their seats? (Where did they sit?) 7. Who did they show their tickets to when they entered the theatre? Who showed them to their places? 8. Why do you think Essex thought the Bolshoi would have been spoilt? 9. How did the theatre impress Essex? 10. Was the theatre packed, or were there many empty seats in the house? 11. What effect did the first act of "Giselle" have upon the English diplomat? Was he enthusiastic over the performance or was he grudging in his appreciation of it? 12. Was this Essex's first acquaintance with Soviet bal let art? 13. Had Essex seen anything like Soviet ballet in London? 14. How did Soviet art impress Katherine? 19

Exercise II. Make up sentences of your own using the following words and phrases: seat, box, foyer,- attendant, cloakroom, opera, ballet, drama, overture, act, to go to see a play, to collect one's coat. Exercise III. Paraphrase the following sentences, giving substitutes for the italicized parts: 1. The theatre was full to its six tiers, and below in the parterre there was not an empty seat. 2. The music and theatre are quite as good. 3. We waited at the counter to gather our coats. 4. They were not late for the performance. 5. They missed the overture. 6. At the entr'acte she said to him: "This is the best opera I've ever seen." 7. An attendant showed them to their seats. 8. Where did you sit? 9. What play was given at the Moscow Art Theatre that night? 10. I've bought two seats for "Giselle." 11. Our seats were just off the aisle. Exercise IV. Tell "Essex at the Bolshoi" in more colloquial language (see the Notes). Exercise V. Use ticket or seat or both as allowed by the meaning: 1. When I arrived home I suddenly missed the ... for "Winter's Tale." 2. Although the bell was ringing, two-thirds of the ... were still empty. 3. The ... were uncomfortably narrow. 4. He had reserved ... for a play that was opening the following Sunday. 5. What are ... usually made of? As a rule they are made of paper or cardboard. 6. Are the ... at the Moscow Art Theatre upholstered or not? 7. The best ... in the theatre are very expensive. 8. Where are the ... ? They are in my handbag. 26

9. Our ... were in Row 6, just off the aisle. 10. I have bought two ... for Chekhov's "Uncle Vanya." 11. Book me two ... for tonight, please. 12. All ... are sold at the box-office or through theatre agencies. Exercise VI. Use the theatre or a theatre as required: 1. There used to be ... in Atkins Street. 2. On the nights she played ... was always "packed. 3. She told me she had seen you at ... some days before. 4. Many of the spectators left ... before the end of the performance. 5. There is nothing like ... for me. 6. The company were playing in ... smallish... seating 900. 7. ... is a true communal art. 8. Have you ever been in ... when no play was being performed? 9. There's no place quite like Moscow for ... . 10. Do you care for ... ? 11. The heat in ... was stifling. 12. All those who had the good fortuneto see Yermolova even once on the stage left ... with an indelible memory. Exercise VII. Insert the missing words, giving several variants where possible: 1. I ' m going to the Moscow Art Theatre ... Chekhov's "The Three Sisters." 2. We ... for the opera and missed the overture. 3. I have bought two ... for the theatre. 4. What do you think of the play? Have you ever seen anything ... it? 5. Let's have some refreshments during the ... . 6. We had very good ... in the very middle of Row 3 in the stalls. 7. Let's wait in the foyer, the cloakroom is ... . 8. The attendant ... us to our seats. 9. Although I'm very fond of music, I don't ... for opera. 10. When do performances at the Moscow theatres ... ? 11. They are waiting in the cloakroom to ... their coats. 12. The ... asked us to show him our tickets. 13. What's ... at the Maly tonight?
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14. Many masterpieces of world ... have been shown at the Moscow Art Theatre. 15. He was detained at the University and joined us in our box when ... Two had already begun. Exercise VIII. Learn by heart and practise in dialogue form:
ABOUT THE THEATRE

Mrs. S, Charles, we've been in London over a week and we haven't done any shows yet! Don't you think i t ' s time we went to one? Mr. S. Certainly, my dear. What would you like to see? Opera, musical comedy, review, variety show, or a comedy? Mrs. S. Well I think that as the opera season will soon be over we might go and see "Carmen" tomorrow if you can get scats. Mr. S. What part of the house do you prefer? Gallery, pit, upper circle, dress-circle, stalls, or a box? Mrs. S. Well, if you can get dress-circle seats that will do nicely. I suppose they're fairly expensive? Mr. S. I should say they are. All theatres are expensive nowadays. I ' l l phone for seats. Mrs. S. I do hope you'll be able to get them. "Carmen" is my favourite opera.
(After Brush Up Your English)

Exercise IX. A. Translate the following questions into English and answer them: 1. ? 2. - ? 3. , ? 4. , ? 5. ( )? 6. ? 7. , ?
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8. , ? 9. ? 10. ? . Translate into English: A. , . B. , . A. ? B. . A. ? B. . A. ! , - .* , - . , ? B. . , . A. , , , . B. . . . A. - , ; , . B. ! .** , , , - . Exercise X. A. Describe a visit to the theatre. . Make up a dialogue based on the text "Essex at the Bolshoi."
* Somehow I never manage. ** Oh, no! By no means!

Lesson Three
THE TENNENT COMPANY IN MOSCOW

In December 1955, Moscow theatre-goers saw "Hamlet" played by an English company under the direction of producer Peter Brook. The performances were given at the Moscow Art Theatre. The troupe was formed especially for the staging of "Hamlet" by the Tennent TheatreCompany founded by H. Beaumont in 1942. Theatre organization in England is such that only a few theatres have their own permanent company. Troupes are formed for a season, sometimes for a single play, the director inviting from various places the actors whom he considers most suitable to appear in the parts. An instance of this was the company invited by the USSR Ministry of Culture to perform in Moscow. It included wellknown actresses like Diana Wynyard, who appeared as Queen Gertrude, while others, like Mary Ure, the youngest actress in the company, who played Ophelia, were hardly known to the public. The following are extracts from interviews given by these two actresses to a News correspondent. "I 've been on the stage for thirty-one years now," said Diana Wynyard. "In that time I've performed in almost every country and in all sorts of plays. My favourite playwrights are Shaw and Shakespeare, my favourite rolesLady Macbeth, Beatrice in "Much Ado About Nothing" and Desdemona. I have played Lady Macbeth and Beatrice in London, Europe and even far-off Australia. "For some reasons I thought we would have a dull time of it in Moscow. Dull because there would be a dull audience who wouldn't understand us. I was mistaken, however. The audience was splendid. They arrived in time for the performance, something that never happens in England. They love the theatre. When we changed an evening performance billed for December 10 to a matinee so that the whole company might see the ballet "Romeo and Juliet," the public was giv24

en only a few days' notice. 1 But the theatre was packed as usual and nobody was late. "Your audiences are very attentive. They respond to the actors' every movement, every word. I would sometimes steal a glance 2 at the audience during the performance and see tense, absorbed faces, looking over the shoulders of those sitting in front of them, anxious not to miss a thing happening on the stage. To put it briefly, I shall miss your enthusiastic, attentive play-goers." "I think your audience is quite wonderful and most attractive," Mary Ure told the correspondent. "During performances, watching how people here follow the acting, I tried to compare English and Russian audiences. I can't understand our strange custom of drinking tea during performances. In Britain we actors can often hear people in the audience stirring the sugar in their cups during the play. I like the Russian custom of serving tea only at buffets between acts. "Although Moscow also has a "Hamlet" production3 at the Mayakovsky theatre, I was unfortunately unable to see it, as the theatre happened to be on tour in Baku at the time. I did, however, meet Samoilov, who plays the title role, and even appeared with him in a television scene from the play. He, of course, played Hamlet in Russian and I Ophelia in English. Knowing the play so well, we understood each other perfectly despite the difference in languages. "I am twenty-two years old, the youngest actress in the cast. Up to now I've appeared only in a French comedy, and Ophelia is my favourite role... I'm already thinking of the future, which to an actress means new parts. As for me, I want to play Nina in Chekhov's "The Sea-gull." I love dramatic roles and it is my ambition to play Nina."
NOTES

1. the public was given only a few days' noticethe pub lic was informed only a few days in advance 2. to steal a glanceto take a look without being noticed 3. a "Hamlet" productionnote the attributive use of the title of a play
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EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the usual way of forming a theatre company in England? 2. Is the Tennent Company a regular theatre with a per manent troupe attached to it or a theatre corporation which forms such troupes for particular seasons or plays? 3. Are Soviet theatres organized in the same way, or has each theatre in the Soviet Union its own company? 4. Do all theatres in England perform in their own play houses, or is this the case only of those that have their own permanent company? 5. For the staging of which Shakespeare play was the Eng lish company that gave performances in Moscow formed? 6. What was thp cast like as far as the players' age and experience were concerned? 7. Who was the youngest member of the cast? Which role did she play? Who appeared in the title role of the "Hamlet" production at the Mayakovsky theatre? Which role is it Mary Ure's ambition to play? 8. What enables Moscow audiences to follow the acting of foreign companies despite the difference in language? 9. What had Diana Wynyard expected the Soviet audiences to be like? What were her reasons? Was she mistaken or were her fears justified? 10. What makes a Soviet audience such an exacting, responsive and discriminating one? 11. Why is Shakespeare so popular with Soviet play goers? Which other English dramatists are popular with So viet audiences? 12. Which Shakespeare plays are repeatedly performed on the Soviet stage? Which plays by other English drama tists are in the repertory of Moscow theatres (or the theatres of your home town) at present? Exercise II. Give English equivalents for the following: ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; 26

; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise HI. Make up sentences of your own using the following: excellent cast; second cast; appear in; appear as; to be billed for; to be billed; to perform; to be performed; to miss the first act; a "King Lear" production; a young player; the first big role; to give a few days' notice; under the direction of; tense, absorbed faces. Exercise IV. Give possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. The great Russian actress Yermolova had been with the theatre for fifty years when she finally left the stage. 2. I failed to see the play, because the matinee announced for May 10th was changed to an evening performance. 3. Kachalov appeared in almost every Chekhov play pro duced at the Moscow Art Theatre. 4. That night Ulanova was dancing and the house was full as usual. 5. It was the actress's ambition to play the part of the new Soviet woman. 6. The best productions of all Soviet theatres are pre sented at the Kremlin Theatre. 7. The performances of the Shakespeare Memorial Thea tre were given at the Moscow Art Theatre. 8. Yermolova was quite a young actress when she first played the part of Emilia Galotti. 9. Khmelev appeared as Karenin in the stage version of Tolstoy's novel "Anna Karenina." 10. He was a young actor hardly known to the theatre-going public. 11. I shall miss your enthusiastic, attentive audience. 12. She was the most suitable actress in the tfoupe to ap pear in this role.
Exercise V. A. Insert either play, performance or production:

1. Until last year the ... had been out of the repertory of the theatre for quite a long lime.
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2. I want two stalls for tonight's . . . . 3. I happened to see the first... of Okhlopkov's "Hamlet".... 4. The director naturally expected his interpretation of the ... to arouse a great deal of heated discussion. 5. Actors say that a good dress rehearsal means a bad . . . . 6. They put on t h e . . . and it was a success. 7. How many ... did the Leningrad Drama Theatre give during its Moscow tour? 8. Alexei Popov's ... of "Romeo and Juliet" remains one of the happiest Shakespeare ... in my memory. 9. The English Stage Company announce their ... of Aris tophanes "Lysistrata" in an English version by Dudley Fitts. 10. In view of the leading actor's illness the ... will be postponed to November 15. B. Which two of the three given words may be used in each of the following sentences? Why are they synonymous in these cases? 1. The... isn't over till half-past five. 2. Come and fetch me after the ..., will you? 3. In Androvskaya the ... has the perfect Lady Teasle. 4. I was standing in the wings watching the ... . 5. To see Shakespeare played as in his own country was most interesting for the Moscow people, who had seen many a good ... of Shakespeare. 6. You can never really tell what success a ... is going to have until you've got an audience. 7. For all its merits the ... revealed something that was not to the credit of the producer. 8. I've been to see t h e . . . three times. 9. The... failed despite thegreatactor'spresenceinthecast. 10. I was unable to ring you up before the .... Exercise VI. A. Use audience or public as required by the meaning. In which sentences could either word be used? 1. The ... is one of the most important factors in a good theatre. 2. The dramatic critic must be a useful servant of both the theatre and the . . . .
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3. He went to the Soviet Union in 1937 to see for,him self what a real collective ... was like. 4. The ... seemed to be satisfied, because the... grew bigger and bigger. 5. The theatre management was allowed a few paragraphs to tell the ... what they proposed to do. 6. It is only in the theatre that we are really members of ... . 7. To appreciate the theatre properly we must become part of the ... , we must respond as our neighbours do. 8. There are still two entirely independent sections of t h e . . . which the British theatre has not yet reached: the industrial workers and the country people. 9. The prosperity of the whole British theatre depends today on an expansion of the total theatre . . . . 10. Plays should be written with the idea of attracting the... at large rather than a limited intellectual sec tion. 11. The producer carefully selected the play most likely to appeal to the . . . . 12. One cannot speak about the theatre without mention ing the ... . 13. ... that does not eat or smoke during a performance is more quiet, more attentive and has a greater responsive ness, and there is not an actor who will not confirm this. B. Use spectator(s), theatre-goer(s), playgoers) or audience(s), bearing in mind their specific meaning: 1. I don't think that the ... of a film have really the collective mentality and response of a true audience. 2. The Petrovs are enthusiastic ... , they never miss a new production. 3. Moscow ... , however, remained much cooler to this scene than their guests, for the simple reason that a high standard of ballet performance cannot surprise them. 4. There are thousands of inexperienced ... , especially those who visit London once or twice a year to do all their play-going.
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5. The theatre brought Shakespeare and the classics before ... to many of whom such things had been a sealed book before. 6. The earlier opening has considerably enlarged the number of suburban . . . . 7. The speaker brought up the question of the relation between the play and the individual ... . 8. In this "Romeo and Juliet" production, the ... looks upon the tomb scene through an artificially broken roof and walls. 9. Soviet ... are most responsive. Exercise VII. Insert acting with or without an article or a possessive as required: 1. I have seen "The Three Sisters" at the Moscow Art Theatre. It's marvellous, absolutely marvellous! ... is ex traordinarily subtle. 2. What did you think of Mamaeva ... as Ophelia? 3. Before making up your mind to go on the stage, first be sure you love ... as an art. 4. The staginess of ... was unbearable. 5. Despite the pleasure she got from ... , she never thought oi taking it up as a career. 6. I ' m afraid both the production and, in most cases, ... have failed completely. 7. As for ... , well you shall see her tonight; she is simply a born actress. 8. The "vocal" side of ... is one of the greatest merits of this production. 9. He knows good ... from bad. 10. ... was the expression of his creative instinct. 11. What did you think of the play? I enjoyed every minute of it. ... was excellent. Exercise VIII. Consult the Vocabulary Notes and then answer the following questions: 1. What are the semantic characteristics of the words: spectator, theatre-goer, play-goer, audience, public? Which of these words, as a rule, is used to denote the co-creator
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of a piece of theatrical art? (Cf. the Russian: -.) 2. Which adjectives are used to describe '' both attributively and predicatively in the text and exercises of this lesson? Which of these adjectives may be used to modify any of the nouns usually employed to designate ' ', and which of them are limited in their use? 3. Give synonyms for the words: play a., play v., play goer, play-going, playwright, role, troupe, stage. 4. Give antonyms to: intelligent, responsive; suggest synonyms for: marvellous, discriminating, vivid. 5. Pick out all the adjectives used with the noun role. Exercise IX. a) Insert the missing words. b) Which words are used in this text to denote a perform er? Discuss the differences in their meanings (see the Vocabulary Notes). Stratford, the actress told us, is my dream theatre, where ideal working conditions are the order of the day. The leading player may ... in five different ... in one ... , which means playing three or four ... a week. It is a system which keeps the artist on his toes,* because he has to stop and give special thought to ... he is about to play, much more so when he is not playing it eight times a week. There is no question of going along to the theatre to give a mechanical repetition of . . . . Working at Stratford humbles an artist. In a modern play much may depend upon the way the actors work on ... night, but at Stratford ... is by Shakespeare and the verdict on his ... was pronounced years ago. They are magnificent and do not depend on the actors to put them over. It is a question of the players being good enough for . . . . At Stratford the actor is conscious of ... coming every ... to enjoy the plays of Shakespeare, and that realization makes the actor less nervous than ever before and gives him a more balanced view of himself as an artist and of his place in ... .
* on his toesalert and in good form 31

Exercise X. Learn and practise the following dialogue: AFTER THE THEATRE A. Oh, hello! Where have you been? B. To the theatre. I was lucky enough to get a ticket just before the performance. A. Which theatre did you go to? B. The Parnassus ; "Macbeth" is on there, you know. A. Is it? I t ' s been on for a long time, hasn't it! I thought it had been taken off. B. No, i t ' s had such a reception that it just can't be taken off now. People still want to see it and there is a queue outside the theatre every night in spite of the sold-out sign. A. Well, what did you think of it? B. I thought it was just splendid. I enjoyed every minute of it. I t ' s one of the best productions I've ever seen, the performances are absolutely first-class. The acting is so natural and true-to-life that you forget you are watching a play. A. Are there no bad or even mediocre performances? B. Certainly no bad ones. Brian Waine and Alice Dunn in the leading roles are superb. The spectators brought the house down after every scene they appeared in. I don't believe I've ever seen such an-enthusiastic audience. They applauded as I had never seen them applaud before. A. So you're not sorry you went? B. I should think not! I've never enjoyed a show more. Exercise XI. A. Translate the following questions into English and answer them: 1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4. . ? ? 5. , . ?

6. , , ? 7. ? 8. ? 9. () ? . Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . 2. , . 3. 20- . 4. . . 5. . , . 6. . 7. . 8. . . 9. . 10. , 25 , 30- . . . , . Exercise XII. Speak on the performances given by a company on tour in your native town.

Lesson Four
AN AMATEUR PRODUCTION REHEARSAL The rehearsals were not going any too well. For one thing, 1 with the exception of Selia Ross and Henry they would not learn their lines properly. Doctor Templett even took a sort of pride in it, he was for ever talking about his experience in amateur productions when he was a medical student. He uttered such lines of his role as he remembered in a high-pitched voice. "I leave it to the spur of the moment,"2 he told them. "It's wonderful what a difference it makes when you have your make-up on." "How can we get the timing right or the positions3 if the cast don't know their lines properly?" Dinah remonstrated. 4 Selia Ross and he had an irritating habit of turning up 5 late for rehearsals. They would walk in half an hour late, while Dinah was reading both their parts and trying to play her own. Miss Campanula in a different way was equally troublesome. She refused to give up her typewritten part. She carried it about with her and would rehearse her own lines in an undertone during the preceding dialogue. When her cue came she seldom failed to say: "Oh! Now i t 's me!" before she began. She would often rattle off 6 her lines apparently without the slightest regard for their meaning. Jocelyn was the type of amateur performer who learns his lines from the prompter. Unlike Miss Campanula he did not hold his part in his hand. Indeed, he had lost it immediately after his first rehearsal. He said that it did not matter, as he had already memorized his lines. This was a lie. He merely had a vague idea of their sense and had to repeat all his lines after Mrs. Copeland, who was prompting. However, in spite of this defect, Jocelyn had an instinctive sense of the theatre.
(From Overture to Death, by Ngaio Marsh) NOTES

1. for one thingan expression used to introduce the first and most obvious of a number of reasons ,
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2. to leave to the spur of the moment not to prepare beforehand, to be guided by actual circumstances 3. to get the timing right or the positions to succeed in having all the lines, gestures and motions done at the correct time 4. to remonstrate to protest 5. to turn up to arrive 6. to rattle off recite by heart, mechanically, with out thought or expression
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Was the production that was being rehearsed a pro fessional one or an amateur one? 2. Why were the rehearsals not going any too well? 3. When had Doctor Templett allegedly got experience of amateur theatricals? 4. Did he utter his lines, or those that he knew, in a highpitched or a low-pitched voice? 5. Can one leave things to the spur of the moment during a stage performance? 6. Do you think it makes a great difference to the ac tor whether he has his make-up on or not? 7. What is necessary for the actors to get the timing and the positions right? 8. Are there many rehearsals before a production is staged? 9. What is a dress rehearsal? 10. Why was the habit Selia Ross and Doctor Templett had of turning up late a very irritating one? How did it af fect Dinah? 11. Why do you think Miss Campanula would not give up her typewritten part? Do you think she really learned her lines, outside rehearsals? What other troublesome habit did she have? 12. What does an actor have to do when his cue comes? 13. Why is it not permissible even for amateur actors to rattle off their lines without any regard for their mean ing?
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14. Which of the performers in the story learned his lines from the prompter? 15. Where is the prompter's place in the theatre? What is it called? What is his function in the performance? 16. Why is an instinctive sense of the theatre a neces sary quality for all actors? Exercise II. Retell "An Amateur Production Rehearsal." Exercise III. Give possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. What a difference it makes when you have put on your make-up. 2. He was the type of amateur actor who learns his lines from the prompter. 3. He was for ever talking about his experience in ama teur theatricals. 4. The players did not know their lines properly. 5. He had to repeat all his lines after Mr. Moreland, who acted as prompter. 6. She was reading both their parts and trying to act her own. 7. Learn your part properly. 8. When the preceeding actor had finished speaking his lines, she seldom failed to say "Oh, it's me!" 9. He said such lines of his role as he remembered in a high-pitched voice. 10. The rehearsals were not proceeding well. Exercise IV. Make up sentences of your own using the following words and phrases: amateur production; make-up ( ., v.); cue; prompt; amateur actor; prompter; rehearsal; prompt-box; rattle off one's lines; turn up; leave it to the spur of the moment; for one thing. Exercise V. a) Read the extract below; pick out of it all the words formed from prompt and discuss their meanings.
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b) Give the Russian equivalents for the following: the prompt, prompt-copy, needs prompting, prompt-box, prompt ing, prompt-corner. c) Comment on the syntactical function of prompt in: the prompt, prompt-box.
PROMPTING

The prompter should be present at all rehearsals in order to know exactly how the play goes. Oddly enough, an actor nearly always "dries up" at the same place, and such places should be marked with a danger signal in the prompt copy. Prompting at a first performance is a full-time job, and the prompter should have no other duties to distract him. It is usually enough to supply the actor with the missing words, and the prompt must be so timed that the prompter's voice is heard exactly on the syllable where it is wanted. The prompter can usually tell from the actor's face when he needs prompting. The experienced actor will throw a glance at the prompt-corner when he wants a line. Prompting is a difficult and rather a thankless task but interesting, and a good prompter is a godsend to a company.
(From The Amateur Actor, by F. Mackenzie)

Exercise VI. a) Pick out of the extract given below all the phrases including amateur. b) Give Russian equivalents for the following: amateur drama, amateur theatricals, amateur producer, amateur acting, amateur theatre, amateur performance, amateur actor. c) Make up sentences of your own, using the phrases given above. AMATEUR DRAMA Those of usand we are manywho take an active interest in amateur acting will readily admit that amateur drama has achieved a level of efficiency which is far removed from pre-war "amateur theatricals." No longer is it con37

sidered "fun" to put on a show of which the successful performance is a miracle of good luck. All that is in the past. The amateur of to-day would consider it disgraceful to put on a show in which the actors did not know the lines or were inaudible and in which a shapeless performance exhausted the patience or insulted the intelligence of his audience. The public, too, is gradually beginning to take him seriously. Looking back upon a large number of amateur performances witnessed during the past few years, one can recall much that was good in production, but the acting lacked in personality and vitality. There is a serious danger, both in the amateur and professional theatre, of magnifying the importance of the producer's work at the expense of the acting... Does that mean that amateur acting can never hope to advance beyond a certain point? One cannot believe that it is so. It does mean, however, that something must be done to bring the quality of acting up to the level of that of production. The amateur producer, unlike the professional, is dealing with inexperienced actors, and has to train them in their job as he goes along. This is not easy. Exercise VII. Discuss the following points, Vocabulary Notes: using the

1. How many meanings has the word rehearsal and what is the difference between them? How does this difference become revealed in the Russian translation? 2. The word lines is used in "An Amateur Produc tion Rehearsal" 8 times. Say in which cases it can be replaced by the word part and in which not. Give your reasons. 3. Pick out of the text all the verbs used with the word lines. Think of some other verbs to add to the list. Exercise VIII. Insert the missing words: 1. During the first ... all the members of the cast had their typewritten ... with them. 2. Long before the dress ... was to begin the leading ac tress was in her dressing-room ......... her make-up. 38

3. This was her first... in a professional ... and she was so excited that she feared she would forget her . . . . 4. She was so fascinated by the performance of the star that when her... came she would not have remembered her lines without the help of the . . . . 5. During the... the producer spared no efforts to get the timings and the positions.... 6. On the stage, before the audience, in her ... and .... she was no longer herself, she was the character she was playing. 7. He was such a great actor that even had he played his ... without any ... his performance would have carried just the same conviction with the audience. 8. She knew her lines to such perfection that for her a ... was superfluous. 9. Everything was thought out in the slightest detail beforehand, nothing was left . . . . 10. The actor must know his ... as well as ... for entrances and ... . Exercise IX. Learn the dialogue by heart and practise it in pairs: OLEG. Why didn't you come to the chess club yesterday? IGOR. I intended to, honestly I did. As a matter of fact I was on my way there, but some of the boys took me with them to a rehearsal of our amateur dramatics society. And once I started watching, I forgot about everything else. OLEG. Amateurs imitating famous stars, eh? You must have enjoyed it! IGOR. Oh, but they're doing fine. A professional producer from the Vakhtangov Theatre has been working with them over a year now. Made a real team out of them. They're all so keen, never miss a rehearsal or turn up a minute late. Take Telegin. You know he always manages to be late for lectures. Well he's there on the dot for every rehearsal. And they don't imitate stars at all. They act as they think they should. OLEG. What are they putting on? Some silly, nonsensical thing, I suppose. IGOR. That's just where you're wrong. They're staging Ostrovsky's "Thunderstorm."
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OLEG. "Thunderstorm?" Who's playing Diky? IGOR. Vasya Telegin. I almost got a fright when I saw him made-up for the role, he was so life-like. OLEG. And who's cast for Katerina? I don't think any of our girls fit that part. It's a really difficult one. IGOR. Vera's doing it, and not badly either. Come and see for yourself what a talent they've discovered among us. You'd never believe it. The producer told Vera she could become a real professional actress. But the best of all is Ivanova playing Kabanikha. OLEG. Ivanova? I ' l l never believe she can play anything. IGOR. She can though. The producer says she is quite capable, only a little lazy. At first he couldn't do anything with her, she couldn't say her lines without the script. She always missed her cue. The prompter would give her the prompt, and make signs to her, but she never noticed him. OLEG. And that's the best part of a l l ! Why do they put up with a leading actress who can't even learn her lines? IGOR. Well, the producer got fed up and said he'd take the role away from her and give it to Masha. She begged him and said she loved nothing more than acting. Sure enough, she had her lines off by heart at the next rehearsal, and the way she acted nonplussed everybody. OLEG. What about Petrov? I can't forgive him for giving chess up for the amateur stage. IGOR. He's everybody's favourite. They couldn't make him an actor, but the troupe just can't do without him. He's prompter. He's so taken up with the show that he's learnt every part off by heart. He knows where each actor hesitates or dries up and can tell by their faces when they need prompting. So the timing's always perfect. The actors say they can't play badly with him watching them. He's the producer's chief assistant. He's dying to do a role himself, but so far he's not been a success in any. OLEG. When's the next rehearsal? I ' l l go and have a look if you think so much of i t . IGOR. Do. You won't be sorry.
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Exercise X. A. Translate the following questions into English and answer them: 1. ? 2. - ? 3. ? 4. ? 5. ? 6. , , : ? 7. ? . Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . 2. : . ! 3. , , . 4. . 5. ; . 6. , . 7. . 8. . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , . 12. ( ). 13. , . 14. , , , ,
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15. . 16. , . 17. , . 18. , . 19. . 20. , . Exercise XI. Make "An Amateur Production Rehearsal" into a dialogue. Exercise XII. Speak on: a) Your experience in amateur theatricals. b) The place of amateur theatricals in the cultural life of our country.

Lesson F i v e
PORTRAIT OF A PRODUCER Michael had started with Shakespeare. That was before Julia knew him. He had played Romeo at Cambridge, and when he came down1 after a year at a dramatic school, Benson had engaged him. 2 Michael toured the country and played a great variety of parts. But he realized that Shakespeare would get him nowhere3 and that if he wanted to become a leading actor he must gain experience in modern plays. A man called James Langton was running a repertory theatre at Middlepool that was attracting a good deal of attention, and after Michael had been with Benson for three years, when the company was going to Middlepool on its annual tour, he wrote to Langton and asked him whether he would see him. Jimmy Langton, a fat, bald-headed man of forty-five, had a passion for the theatre. He loved acting, but his physique4 prevented him from playing any but a few parts, which his natural flamboyance,6 and every part he played, though he studied it with care and gave it thought, he turned into a grotesque.6 He broadened every gesture, he exaggerated every intonation. But it was a very different matter when he rehearsed his cast; then he suffered nothing artificial. "Don't be natural," he told his company, "the stage isn't the place for that. The stage is make-believe.7 But seem natural." He worked his company very hard. They rehearsed every morning from ten till two, when he sent them home to learn their parts and rest before the evening's performance. He bullied8 them, he screamed at them, he mocked them. He underpaid them. But if they played a moving scene well, he cried like a child, and when they said an amusing line as he wanted it said, he followed with laughter. He would skip about the stage on one leg if he was pleased, and if he was angry he would throw the script down and stamp on it, while tears of rage ran down his cheeks. The company laughed at him and abused 9 him and did everything they could to please him.
(From Theatre, by Somerset Maugham) 43

was fortunate, for he was a bad actor. He could not subdue

NOTES

1. when he came down when he left the university 2. Benson had engaged him Benson had given him employment, had signed a contract with him 3. Shakespeare would get him nowhere playing Shake speare would not help him to make a career 4. his physique his physical appearance, build, etc. 5. flamboyance a tendency to exaggerate in gesture and expression 6. a grotesque a caricature 7. make-believe pretence, pretending 8. to bully to frighten and intimidate 9. to abuse to call names, to insult
EXERISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Who was the first playwright whom Michael per formed? In which roles did he appear? 2. Was that before or after he got to know Julia? 3. Who engaged Michael after he came down from Cam bridge? 4. Did Michael play many parts while he was with Benson? 5. Why do you think he came to the conclusion that act ing Shakespeare would get him nowhere and that he had to gain experience in modern parts? 6. What was James Langton doing in Middlepool? What kind of theatre was he running? Why did Michael go to that town? How long had he been with Benson then? 7. What is a repertory theatre? Can you suggest any reason why work in a repertory company would help Michael to become a leading actor? 8. What did Jimmy Langton look like? (What was his physique like?) Why was he a bad actor, although he had a passion for the theatre? What was the result of his being unable to subdue his natural flamboyance? 9. In which theatre genre is grotesque often used? 10. What did Langton do to his gestures and his intona. tion? What was the result on his performances? 11. What made Langton a good producer? 44

What was his opinion about being natural on the stage? Why did he say the stage was make-believe? 12. For how long did the company rehearse every day, and what did they do afterwards? 13. Describe how Langton worked his company. 14. How did Langton react to the good or bad acting of his troupe during rehearsals? 15. Wasn't Langton's behaviour during the rehearsals rather childish and undignified? Why did the company do all they could to please him, although they laughed at him and abused him? 16. Had Langton done well and wisely in giving up act ing? Is it possible to concentrate on the two jobs, acting and producing, without both inevitably suffering from it? Exercise II. Give possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. He appeared in a great variety of roles. 2. James Langton was manager of a repertory theatre. 3. If he wants to become a big actor he must gain experi ence in modern drama. 4. He worked his company very hard. 5. He appeared as Romeo on the stage of Old Vic. 6. He had worked under James Langton for 3 years. 7. The repertory company was gaining popularity. 8. Don't be artificial. 9. He was running a repertory company. 10. Every morning they had a rehearsal lasting from 10 till 2. 11. The stage isn't the place for it. 12. He couldn't repress his showiness and unnaturalness. 13. He overacted. 14. He endured nothing unnatural. Exercise III. Give Russian equivalents for the following: to run a theatre; a dramatic school; to turn a part into a grotesque; a well-run theatre; repertory; the stage is makebelieve; a repertory theatre; to go on one's annual tour; to be not much of an actor; to exaggerate every intonation; a moving scene.
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Exercise IV. Use the word theatre or stage as required. In which cases can either word be used? 1. The play was brought back to the ... after an absence of three years. 2. Many masterpieces of world drama are shown on the Soviet ... . 3. The Soviet people have every right to be proud of their ... . 4. She tried her luck on the pictures but achieved no suc cess: her face, on the ... so mobile and expressive, for some reason lost on the screen. 5. This was the last part he played before retiring from the ... . 6. In the Soviet Union ... bears the name of a writer or an art director, or suggests the genre peculiar to it. 7. The young man asked Kachalov to give him advice about going on ... , as he wanted to become an actor. 8. She is charming both on and off ... . 9. He loved ... with an intensity which it is hard to realize. 10. Sybil Thorndyke first played this part on the ... of Old Vic. 11. Enormous numbers of people are now educated in the art of ... who previously had never been inside a ... , either for lack of money or want of education. 12. It is the audience that makes ... , and therefore the theatre cannot be remote from the social trends of the time. 13. You cannot speak of the ... without mentioning the audience. 14. The curtain went up and we turned our attention to the... .
Exercise V.

a) The word company is used four times in "Portrait of a Producer." Say in which cases it is synonymous with theatre and in which with cast or actors; say in which cases the word theatre in the "Portrait of a Producer" may be replaced by the word stage. 46

b) Translate the text given below into Russian; discuss the meanings of the words theatre and ; pay special attention to the overlapping of meaning in the words theatre and company; tell in what way the life's objects denoted by the words theatre and differ. I use the word "theatre" in the sense of a unit for dramatic presentation which includes company, producer and stage staff, playwright and audience. A further indication lies in the remark of a Russian critic, who, trying to inform his Russian readers of theatre l i f e in London, wrote: "In London there are no theatres, only theatre buildings." There is also a saying in the Russian theatre world that if a company has enough members qualified to play the various characters in Griboyedov's "Woe From Wit," that company may be called a "theatre." It should be also added that in the Soviet Union the word "theatre" is used of all scenic performances including Ballet and Opera, the latter being as carefully "produced" as are strictly "dramatic" shows.
(J. Macleod, The New Soviet Theatre)

Exercise VI. Use run or one of its derivatives in the following sentences and then translate the sentences into Russian: 1. The play ... for four hours with an additional hour for intervals. 2. Different plays have long ... for different reasons. 3. As the author of two plays then successfully ... in London, Bernard Shaw was the quarry of all theatre-goers. 4. He wanted to ... his theatre in as business-like a way as a city office. 5. L. Olivier gave a tremendous performance, and not just at the opening, but steadily throughout the . . . . 6. The play's never gone better in all its ... . 7. Very few of the British theatres are ... by the State. 8. This was the time when Old Vic was ... a season at the Lyric. 9. The ... begins on December 23. 10. I saw the play after it had ... for almost a year. 11. The play is sure to have a long . . . .
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Exercise VII. Insert the appropriate words: A. 1. Stage actors must not exaggerate their gestures or intonation, they must ... natural, the producer said. 2. Although he had ... the country and played in a variety of ... , Michael felt that he had not gained enough ... to become a leading ... . 3. The director ... his company very hard; he ... them for four hours every day and then sent them home to learn their ... before the evening . . . . 4. The scene was so ... and was played with such convic tion by the ... that many of the ... cried like children. 5. This actor has played in many classic ... but he has little experience in ... plays. 6. The repertory ... that was ... the country ... a good deal of attention. 7. After he had played for years in many ... , Michael hoped soon to be engaged as a leading . . . . 8. The ... for this play was written by a famous script writer after a novel which had recently appeared. 9. All the members of the ... studied their ... well and the rehearsals went off smoothly, the producer paying attention mainly to ... , positions and gestures. THE ACTOR AND THE PRODUCER B. The actor goes to his first ... with a general idea of the part in his mind, which he is prepared to adapt to that of the.... The first ... will probably be merely a "walk through" of the whole play mainly for ... and positions, without attention to interpretation, but from this the actor will be able to form an inkling of the way in which the ... intends to treat the play, and as ... proceed, he will see how his interpretation of his ... will fit in with the ... 's conception of the . . . . The producer, on the other hand, will probably be delighted to find that the... has given some preliminary study to his ..., and has brought something of his own to it, and unless the ... 's reading of his ... is completely irreconcilable with his own scheme for the play, the producer will not want to change it, save in points of de tail. In this way there should be perfect co-operation between ... and player. The ... must, of course, obey the producer's in48

structions implicitly. On the other hand, the ... must realize that he may be asking the actor to give an interpretation which is incompatible with his particular personality, for the actor must, to a great extent, interpret his ... in terms of his own personality. This amount of give and take between ... and producer is essential. The producer should, of course, never act in his own ... , if it possibly can be avoided. It is impossible to concentrate on two jobs at the same time, and both will inevitably suffer. Exercise VIII. Retell "Portrait of a Producer." Exercise IX. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. 2- 5- . . 9. . 10. , , . . 11. , . 12. . . , . 13. , . 14. .
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15. , . 16. , . 17. , . 18. , , . 19.. (). 20. . Exercise X. Speak on the producer's job and the give and take that should exist between actor and producer (use also Ex. VII B).

Lesson S i x
CARRIE STEALS THE SHOW

The manager who was putting on the summer skit at the Casino had never heard of Carrie, but the several notices she had received, her published picture, and the programme bearing her name had some little weight with him. He gave her a silent part at thirty dollars a week. Now, because Carrie was pretty, the gentleman who made up the advance illustrations of shows about to appear for the Sunday papers selected Carrie's photo along with others to illustrate the announcement. Because she was pretty, they gave it excellent space and drew scrolls about it. Carrie was delighted. Still, the management did not seem to have seen anything of it. At least, no more attention was paid to her than before. At the same time there seemed very little in her part. It consisted in standing around in all sorts of scenes, a silent little Quakeress.1 The author of the skit had fancied that a great deal could be made of such a part, given to the right actress, but now, since it had been doled out2 to Carrie, he would as leave have had it cut out.3 Carrie had no warning of his intention. She practised her part ruefully, feeling that she was effectually shelved.4 At the dress rehearsal she was disconsolate. "That isn't so bad," said the author, the manager noting the effect which Carrie's blues5 had upon the part. "Tell her to frown a little more when Sparks dances." Carrie did not know it, but there was the least show of wrinkle between her eyes. "Frown a little more, Miss Madenda," said the stage manager. Carrie instantly brightened up, thinking that he had meant it as a rebuke. "No, frown," he said. "Frown as you did before." Carrie looked at him in astonishment. "I mean it," he said. "Frown hard when Mr. Sparks dances. I want to see how it looks." It was easy enough to do. Carrie scowled.8 The effect was something so quaint7 and droll8 it caught even the manager. "That is good," he said. "If she'll do that all through, I think it will take." 9
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On the opening night it looked to Carrie as if there were nothing to her part, after all. The audience did not seem to see her in the first act. She frowned and frowned, but to no effect. In the second act, the crowd, wearied by a dull conversation sighted her. There she was, grey-suited, sweet-faced, demure but scowling. At first the general idea was that she was temporarily irritated, that the look was genuine and not fun at all. As she went on frowning, looking now at one principal and now at the other, the audience began to smile. At last, the chief comedian, singing in the centre of the stage, noticed a giggle where it was not expected. Then another and another. When the place came for loud applause it was only moderate. What could be the trouble? He realized that something was up.10 All at once, after an exit, he caught sight of Carrie. She was frowning alone on the stage and the audience was giggling and laughing. "By George, I won't stand that!" thought the comedian. "I'm not going to have my work cut up11 by someone else. Either she quits that when I do my turn or I quit." "Why, that's all right," said the manager. "That's what she's supposed to do. You needn't pay any attention to that." "But she ruins my work." "No, she don't,12" returned the former, soothingly. "It's only a little fun on the side." "It is, eh?" exclaimed the big comedian. "She killed my hand13 all right. I'm not going to stand that." "Well, wait until after the show. Wait until tomorrow. We'll see what we can do." The next act, however, settled what was to be done. Carrie was the chief feature of the play. The audience, the more it studied her, the more it indicated its delight. Every other feature paled beside the quaint, teasing, delightful atmosphere which Carrie contributed while on the stage. Manager and company realized she had made a hit. The critics of the daily papers completed her triumph. There were long notices in praise of the quality of the burlesque,14 touched with recurrent references to Carrie. The contagious mirth of the thing was repeatedly emphasized.
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"Miss Madenda presents one of the most delightful bits of character acting ever seen on the Casino stage," observed the critic of the Sun. "It is a bit of quiet, unassuming drollery which warms like good wine. Evidently the part was not intended to take precedence,15 as Miss Madenda is not often on the stage, but the audience selected for itself. The little Quakeress was marked for a favourite the moment she appeared, and thereafter 10 easily held attention and applause. The vagaries17 of fortune are indeed curious." The critic of the Evening World wound up by advising: "If you wish to be merry, see Carrie frown."
(Abridged from Sister Carrie, by Th. Dreiser) NOTES

1. Quaker member of a religious sect noted for their severe morals ,2. to dole out to giveout; to distribute in small portions (often unwillingly); cf. the dole = the weekly payment given to an unemployed worker in Great Britain 3. he would as leave have had it cut out he would just as willingly have omitted it 4. to be shelved to shelve to put off employing; cf. to shelve a question to put off considering a question 5. blues pl. low spirits; depressed, unhappy feeling; cf. I don't know why, but I had the blues all day. 6. scowl look in a frowning, bad-tempered way 7. quaint attractive and pleasing because of its unfa miliar, odd or old-fashioned appearance; eccentric, peculiar 8. droll amusing in a quaint way 9. I think it will take I think it will gain public favour cf. the play did not take = did not become popular 10. something was up something was wrong 11. to cut up (col.) to ruin 12. she don't (incorrect) she doesn't 13.she killed my hand she ruined my part 14. burlesque mock seriousness 15. to take precedence to go before in importance, e. g. Public interests take precedence over private. 16. thereafter adv.^ (lit.) after that, afterwards 17. vagary a whim, a capricious or extravagant idea or act
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EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Why did the manager who was putting on the show de cide to give Carrie a part in the skit? 2. What kind of part was it? What did it consist in doing? Do you think it was a gratifying part? 3. What kind of character was Carrie to build up? 4. What did the author of the skit think of the part? Did he think Carrie was the right actress to play the role or was he disappointed to hear that it had been given to Carrie (or: that Carrie had been cast for the part)? 5. Who did he speak to about his misgivings, and what answer did he get? 6. What kind of publicity was Carrie given? How did the publicity people bring the show Carrie was to appear in to the attention of the public? What made them select Carrie's photo along with others to illustrate the announcement of the skit? In which papers did the announcement appear? 7. What made Carrie feel delighted and uncertain at the same time? 8. What prevented Carrie from rehearsing (practising) her part with enthusiasm? How did she feel at the dress rehearsal, and why? 9. What did the author think of the performance Carrie gave at the dress rehearsal? What were his suggestions for improving her acting? 10. What was the audience's response to Carrie's performance on the opening night? What made the audience realize at last that Carrie's look was not genuine but meant for fun? 11. Why did the principal comedian in the show fly into a rage? 12. In what way did Carrie ruin his performance? 13. How can you account for Carrie becoming the chief feature of the play? What was her contribution to the show? What made her performance a hit? 14. How did the audience express their delight at Carrie stealing the show? 15. How did the critics of the daily papers complete Car rie's triumph?
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16. What did the critics consider especially worth prais ing in the skit: Carrie's character acting or the quality of burlesque in her performance? 17. How does the notice written by the critic of the Sun impress you? Do you think it is a serious review or just a bit of publicity? 18. What made Carrie a hit: the part she was given, her acting talent, the vagaries of fortune, or the three combined? Exercise II. Give possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. She was cast for a silent part. 2. The man who was running the show engaged Carrie. 3. The young man who played the minor part of waiter won all the applause and attention of the audience. 4. I'm not going to have my part ruined by someone else. 5. Every other feature paled beside the teasing atmos phere which Carrie brought into the show. 6. Her piece of character acting was so quaint and droll that it gripped the entire audience. 7. The manager was producing a summer skit. 8. The audience knew better. 9. The notices Carrie had received did not impress him too much. 10. It seemed to Carrie that nothing could be made of her part. 11. You never can tell. 12. The part is sure to be a success if it is given to the proper actress. 13. Carrie's performance in the first act failed to attract the audience's attention. 14. Wait until the play is over. Exercise III. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following: make an exit; manager; on the opening night; to put on (a play etc.); to make smth. of a part; the chief feature of.the play; to receive notices; to practise one's part; to give an actor a part; management; to make a hit; to hold the audience's attention; the right actress; the part consisted in; to make a part (funny etc.).
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b) Use the above words and phrases in sentences of your own. Exercise IV. Tell "Carrie Steals the Show" in the narrative, substituting colloquial and correct counterparts for literary and incorrect forms. Make use of the Notes and Ex. II. Exercise V. Make up, learn and practise a dialogue on "Carrie Steals the Show" in which the speakers give their opinion of the acting and the staging of the skit. Exercise VI. Translate the Russian words: 1. He went straight home after (). 2. They ( ) Arbuzov's "Tanya" at the House of Culture. 3. I saw the play twice. It ( ). 4. The Maly Theatre has a filial operating under the same (). 5. Two () have been cut out and two others abridged, and yet ( ) isn't over t i l l twelve. 6. She was reading newspaper ( ) about different plays. 7. The variety show we attended last night had a most amusing one-act ( ), the best () on the (). 8. The way a play goes depends largely on the skill and competence of ( ). 9. Acting is second nature to him, he doesn't go out of the room, he makes (). 10. Standing about the stage, the producer had a chance to observe ( ) and to see the beginnings of a great (). 11. They've got ( ) here on the part he's going to () tomorrow night. 12. The magazine published not only portraits of ( ) but now and then () from various plays. 13. It was Mr. Thesiger, the oldest member of the pre dominantly young ( ), who ( ).
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14. ( ) had to be postponed because of the chief actor's illness. Exercise VII. a) Translate the following sentences into Russian. b) Discuss the different meanings of the word perform ance and suggest synonyms wherever possible. c) Make up a list of adjectives used with the word perform ance attributively or predicatively. In which of its meanings can performance be modified by a large variety of adjectives? 1. Her performance on that night did not carry conviction: she was exaggerating and over-acting. 2. The critics were unanimous in their assessment of the general level of the performance. 3. Stanislavsky came to Knipper-Chekhova's dressing-room when she came off the stage to congratulate her on her brilliant performance. 4. The audience's lack of enthusiasm presently communi cated itself to the actors. Everyone in the company gave a bad performance. 5. I did not enjoy the production as a whole, but I did like some of her performances. 6. He gave a highly artistic performance on that unforget table night. 7. He saw the first performance of "Cherry Orchard" when he was just a kid, and then, many years later, he saw it again at its hundredth performance. 8. One of the traits they had in common as actors was that they were exacting as to the standard of their perform ances. 9. All the suggestions coming from the producer made not the slightest difference to her performance. 10. Two nights before the performance the leading actress was suddenly taken i l l and was unable to appear in the play. 11. The six young girls who were to sell programmes and act as ushers at the performance sat in a row to watch the dress rehearsal.
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12. It's a most exciting and instructive experience to watch a play's growth in the course of a long succession of per formances. 13. The performance was brilliant: she got laughs that she had never got before. 14. Her stagey performance was unbearable. 15. She put into her performance all her life's experience and all her talent as an actress. 16. She gave a beautiful performance of Natasha Rostova at her first b a l l . Exercise VIII. a) Translate the following sentences into Russian. b) Arrange all the compounds and phrases containing the word stage into two groups according to the meaning of stage. 1. The recent revival of Sheridan's comedy was a triumph of stage direction and design. 2. Lermontov's "Masquerade" is a stage masterpiece. 3. Gogol's "Inspector" displays that curious combination of realism and exaggeration which is the mark of stage humour. 4. A producer should respect Shakespearean stage-craft. 5. "A Soldier Returns from the Front" is a stage version of Katayev's novel "I am a Son of the Working People." 6. Akimov's stage sets have always been easy to work in. 7. He began his stage career in 1922. 8. Besides constant stage experience she was given a sound and rigorous training in music, dancing and voice. 9. He stopped to give a few final instructions to the stagemanager. 10. She had been stage-struck ever since she was a little girl. 11. She was by no means a great actress, but she was attrac tive and had a good stage personality. 12. We were on our way backstage to see some friends in the company. 13. Stage casting is now far more difficult and expensive than it used to be. 14. He's been a call-boy, a stage-hand, a stage-manager, an actor, a publicity man, he's even been a critic.
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15. One film star who may be an indifferent stage per former will attract far bigger audiences in most provincial towns than a really first-class team of stage-players. 16. All this is done to raise the artistic level of stage pro duction. 17. Summer schools were held for producers, actors and stage-staffs in different parts of the country. 18. There was a stage-door and a stage-door keeper too. 19. Both Ann and Miriam had stage fright. 20. The fundamental difference between the methods of the theatre and the film involves considerable difference be tween the technique of stage acting and that of film acting. 21. He spoke in an exaggerated stage-whisper. 22. The audience are paying tribute to the stage designer for his fine decor. Exercise IX. a) Pick out of the extract below all the words and phrases formed from corned- and tim- and discuss their meanings. b) Give the Russian equivalents for: timing is everything; to get a laugh; comedy points; the playing of comedy; to time one's actions; comedy parts; skilled technique; play up to one's fellow-actors; to kill smb.'s laugh; to upset one's timing.
COMEDY PARTS

Comedy, especially farcical comedy, is quite the most difficult thing a young actor can attempt. It requires a particularly skilled technique, which can only be acquired by years of constant training. Light comedy parts are difficult because they are all in one key, and within the limits of that key the actor has to find range and variety. Lines must be poured forth with speed and apparent inconsequence, yet comedy points, as fine as needles, must be made, touched in passing, lightly but definitely. This requires the skill of long experience. Timing is everything. It is said that Mr. Lynn has his business so exactly timed that when at one point he lights a cigarette, the matchbox must be placed in a certain position, to an inch, and the
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match he is to use must be ready sticking out of the box, otherwise his timing would be upset by several seconds. The playing of comedy demands considerable command over the audience. The comedian must know how to get a laugh, and how to kill one; when to expect it, and how long to wait for it before resuming; when it is legitimate to hold up the action by "comic business," and when it is not. The actor must, moreover, in comedy more than in any other type of play, consider his fellow-actors and play up to them; avoid killing their laughs, or help them to get them.
(From An Amateur Actor, by F. Mackenzie)

Exercise X. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. , , . 2. , ., . 3. . 4. ; , . 5. X. 6. , . 7. . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , , , . 11. , , , , .


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12. . , . 13. ? , , . 14. , . , . 15. , , , , , , . 16. . 17. . 18. , . Exercise XI. Speak on: a) your favourite comedy actor (or actress), b) a comedy or a skjt you like best of all.

Lesson S e v e n
GLIMPSES OF MACREADY*
by Lois Macready This intimate sketch of one of England's greatest actors, written by his great grand-daughter, contains several incidents which have not previously been published. William Charles Macready died on April 27, 1873 at the age of eighty.

"I studied 'Hamlet' for five hours, recited some poems by Milton for two hours, then back again to 'Hamlet' after supper for another three hours," William Charles Macready once told his wife in a letter. He goes on to say that he is writing the letter at five o'clock in the morning"having been unable to get any sleep owing to the restless state of my mind. I am haunted by this Danish Prince, and wonder continually whether I cannot improve my interpretation of the part by altering it in various ways. Yet alteration is only effective when it is based on a greater understanding of the character concerned. Finally I got out of bed and went through the whole play again. And now my letter to you ..." Hating the stage with an intensity which is hard to realize, Macready nevertheless loved his art with equal fervour and from the age of seventeen, when he made his first appearance in front of the footlights, until almost the day of his death, he took the greatest pains to perfect himself. His wife must have been a woman of extraordinary patience, for he was given to springing up in the middle of the night1 to read over his lines or jot down2 a point about some character which had just struck him. When he was working, Macready, like many other artists, was quite oblivious of the passing of time. 3 The family could sit at tablewhile the roast beef and potatoes in the oven turned from brown to blackwaiting for him to join them (it was never wise to start), and then be informed by trie maid, as likely as not, when the clock's hands pointed to a quarter to two, that Mr.

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Macready had decided to go on rehearsing in his study and have lunch taken to him on a tray. It was said by his contemporaries that he was silent and aloof4 in public and rarely smiled. He certainly took great pains to disguise the fact that he was an actor when among strangers. Only when he felt some person, because of their knowledge of a subject, might be able to benefit him, did he unconsciously relax, momentarily forgetting the dread of having his profession discovered, introduce himself and start pumping5 the usually willing victim. One Saturday afternoon having spent a busy week in town, he took a coach to Elstree, where hisfamily was then living. He found himself seated next to a man of distinguished appearance, who later turned out to be a doctor. They began talking, and during the course of the conversation the doctor happened to mention that one of his patients was suffering from a form of madness which seemed to resemble in some respects the madness which had afflicted King Lear.* Macready's curiosity was aroused. The indiscreet practitioner7 was subjected to a fire of questions8 How long had the madness taken to develop? Had it been brought on by sorrow? And how old was this gentleman? Then, just as he was stepping from the coach, he asked whether he might be allowed to meet him, as he thought thereby9 he would acquire more insight into the character of Lear. But at this the doctor jibbed,10 by now extremely sorry, no doubt, that he had ever mentioned the subject, and Macready had to rest content11 with the information gained. Shortly before retiring from the stage, Macready sold all his costumes, theatrical jewelry, wigs, etc. even his make-up box, glad to be rid of anything that would remind him in retirement of his past career.Yet there was one article he could not bring himself to sell. He took it home wrapped around with a piece of sacking,12 silently cursing his weakness in being unable to part with it. Once home, he put it in a cupboard, then locked the door. It was the suit of armour he used to wear when acting his favourite part, Macbeth.

NOTES

1. he was given to springing up in the middle of the night he would spring up (or was in the habit of springing up) in the middle of the night 2. jot down write down quickly 3. be oblivious of the passing of time be unaware of the passing of time 4. aloof reserved, reticent 5. pump somebody get information from somebody by insistent questioning; keep asking questions 6. the madness which had afflicted King Lear the mad ness King Lear was suffering from 7. practitioner a professional man, esp. a doctor, who does practical work, not, for example, research. Here it means a G. P. a general medical practitioner 8. be subjected to a fire of questions be repeatedly and insistently questioned; be showered with questions 9. thereby by that means; in that way 10. jib at refuse to face; show unwillingness; cf. My horse sometimes jibs at a steep hill. 11. rest content be satisfied 12. sacking the coarse material of which sacks are made
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Who was Charles Macready? 2. Whose contemporary was he? 3. Why did. Macready disguise the fact that he was an actor when among strangers? 4. Why is the habit of watching people so common in many actors? 5. Was Macready aware that he was constantly observ ing people or did he do so unconsciously? 6. What made Macready immediately relax, introduce himself and start a conversation? 7. What kind of people aroused Macready's curiosity? 8. What did Macready do to acquire more insight into a character he was to play? What enriched his interpretation of the part he performed?
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9. Why can we claim that Macready was most exacting to himself and his performance? 10. What was his method of studying a part? 11. What made Macready a big actor, and what is more, a genuine artist? Exercise II. a) Comment on the meanings of the words appearance and line in the text. Suggest synonyms wherever possible. b) Discuss the meanings of the nouns art, career, and profession; illustrate their meanings with sentences of your own. Give the names of different arts. What do we call the career of an actor (or actress), a film actor (or actress), a dancer, etc? c) Why are the nouns interpretation, acting, perform ance, and rendering synonymous in certain contexts? d) Which are the commonest phrases containing the noun stage used in connection with an actor's career? Exercise III. Find in "Glimpses of Macready" English equivalents for the following and make up sentences of your own using them: ( ); , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; . Exercise IV. Retell "Glimpses of Macready." Exercise V. Use appear, appear as, make one's appearance, or appearance instead of the italicized words or phrases: 1. The young actor acts in both films and plays. 2. Ulanova will dance at the Bolshoi tonight. 3. He has been on the stage for almost thirty years. During that time he has performed in all sorts of plays. 4. Since my first' performance I have been asked over and over again if I enjoyed acting.
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5. The photograph brought back to her the days when she gave her first performances at the Moscow Art Theatre. 6. It was rather frightening to play before people many of whom did not know the language. 7. Yelanskaya played the part of Anna Karenina in the stage version of Tolstoy's novel. 8. During his American tour Emil Gilels performed in all the big concert halls in the United States. 9. I have in mind Plisetzkaya's dancing in "Swan Lake." 10. Her performance of the part of Ophelia was a revela tion and a treat. 11. He went to rehearsals of even those plays in which he did not play. 12. As time went on he began to act less frequently. 13. It is his greatest ambition to play Lopakhin in the "Cherry Orchard." 14. Lucky are those who saw Kachalov's unforgettable performance of the part of the Baron in the "Lower Depths."' 15. Besides playing in Kiev the Maly Theatre Company gave performances in a number of other Ukrainian towns. Exercise VI. Translate the following sentences into Russian and arrange them into groups according to the meaning of the word character; say in which sentences character is synonymous with part: 1. An actor can't possibly get the character under con trol if he does not know his lines. 2. It seems that some of the characters do not appear in the play until somewhere in the second act. 3. The principal character had a touch of poetry. 4. There are six characters in the play: three men and three ladies, 5. On either side of the stage there were doors by which the characters entered or disappeared. 6. Not one of Chekhov's characters is really positive. 7. The leading actor's ambition was to work out a new interpretation of the central character of the play. 8. The characters of this novel are imaginary. 9. It has interested me to watch the way in which a part grows in the actor's hands from the first lifeless reading
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of the typescript to something like the character that he has seen in his mind. 10. When a puppet production is started, the director, actors and designers discuss together all the functions of each character in the play and decide how the puppet should be constructed in order to play its "part." Exercise VII. a) Read and translate "Character Parts" and "Theatre" telling about how an actor builds up a character. b) Pick out of "Glimpses of Macready," "Character Parts," "Theatre," and Exercise V all the verbs used with the nouns part and character; say which verbs may be used with both nouns and which only with one of the two. c) Pick out of the same extracts all the synonyms and synonymous phrases used to describe the way the actor studies the character he is to represent on the stage. Pay special attention to the way the words repeat themselves. e.g. ... in whatever business she was engaged... ... as he goes about his daily occupations... CHARACTER PARTS To a great extent the actor builds up his part from observation. As he goes about his daily occupations he is consciously or subconsciously finding models from everyday life. He will study the characteristics and mannerisms of the people with whom he comes into contact; he will watch people in the street, in trains and buses, in shops, at public gatherings, he will notice the way they walk, the movements of head and hands, how they speak, the sound of their voices, the expression on their faces, both permanent and momentary, he will take this peculiarity from one person and that from anotheranything that may help him to give individuality to the character he is to play. Not only will he seek to imitate and reproduce superficial and physical characteristics, but he will try to get inside the minds of his models and understand their thoughts and the circumstances which make them behave the way they do. He will exercise all his sympathy and intuition in this, and, with the aid of his imagination will build up a complex character that is ut67

terly different from his own. If possible, he will observe people's reaction in emotion, fear, excitement, disappointment, joy, or sorrow, and notice particularly how their voice and movements are affected. THEATRE The critics admired her variety. They praised especially her capacity for insinuating herself into a part. She was not aware that she deliberately observed people, but when she came to study a new part, vague recollections surged up in her from she knew not where, and she found that she knew things about the character she was to represent that she had had no inkling of. It helped her to think of someone she knew or even someone she had seen in the street or at a party; she combined with this recollection her own personality, and thus built up a character founded on fact but enriched with her experience, her knowledge of technique and her amazing magnetism. People thought that she acted only during the two or three hours she was on the stage; they did not know that the character she was playing dwelt in the back of her mind all day long, when she was talking to others with all the appearance of attention, or in whatever business she was engaged. It often seemed to her that she was two persons, the actress, the popular favourite, the best-dressed woman in London, and that was a shadow, and the woman she was playing at night, and that was the substance. She could step into a part, not a very good one, perhaps, and by her personality, by the dexterity which she had at her finger tips, infuse it with life. There was no one who could do what she could with a part. Exercise VIII. Find substitutes for the italicized words and phrases in "Glimpses of Macready" and Ex. VII: 1. An actor builds up his part from watching people in their everyday life. 2. He tried to improve his representation of the character, although he had been p'aying the part for many years. 3. The actor will take this characteristic from one person, that from another. 4. The actor will study people's reaction in emotion and
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notice particularly what effect these emotions will have on their voice and movement. 5. He succeeded in acquiring a greater understanding of the character by observing people going about their daily occupations. 6. The actor's ambition was to give a new rendering of the part. 7. The actress combined her recollections with her own individuality, creating a character based on life. 8. The profession of an actor demands whole-hearted de votion to his art. 9. The actor spent the afternoon at home studying his part. 10. The actor is consciously or unconsciously finding prototypes in everyday life. 11. There was no one who could do what she could do with a part, any minor part would become imbued with life, the moment she took it up. Exercise IX. Translate into English: 1. , . 2. . - . 3. , . 4. . 5. , , , , . 6. . 7. ? 8. , . 9. , 50 . 10. . , , .
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11. , , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. , . 15. , , . Exercise X. Give an English rendering of the following: 1 - 2. , , . , . , . . 3. . , , , , . . . , , 4. , , . , , , . - . , , , .
1 3 8 4

n "The Merchant of Venice" a run-through it suits his purpose; it is to his liking

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, , , . , , . 1. , , , . . , , , . . . , , . . , , , 2, . , . . . . , , . . , , . , 3. , , , .
( , , . 1957)

Exercise XL Speak on how an actor builds up a character.


1 2 3

excitement, stir to assume one's pose the very image (picture) of life or like a piece of life itself

Lesson E i g h t
GIELGUD ON TOUR The Palace Theatre in Cambridge Square is a sort of halfway house 1 on the ambitious tour which Sir John Gielgud is undertaking at the head of the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre Company now presenting "Much Ado About Nothing" and "King Lear." Already the players have appeared in Vienna, Zurich, Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the Hague, and when their season at the Palace finishes on September 17th, they will go back to the Continent to give performances in Berlin, Hamburg, Oslo and Copenhagen before returning to visit six major cities in the United Kingdom. Finally there is to be a short season at Stratford-upon-Avon. Qielgud has been deeply moved by memorable receptions in Austria, Holland and Switzerland. Neither he nor Peggy Ashcroft had previously played in Vienna, but they made new reputations overnight 2 and could easily have stayed twice as long playing to capacity audiences. After every performance people in the stalls surged 3 down to the front and continued to applaud most-enthusiastically until the company had taken at least fifteen curtains. That was not all; when Gielgud and Peggy Ashcroft would leave the theatre by the stage door best part of an hour later, they would be greeted by several hundred people, waiting to clap and cheer them as they stepped into their car. Six embassies sent representatives to the opening performance in Vienna, and at a reception afterwards Gielgud was amazed to hear a Russian guest observe that one of the earlier scenes of "Much Ado About Nothing" had been cut. No one else had noticed it even in London! So much for Russian thoroughness and devotion to the theatre. The Continental critics were a little bewildered by two such dissimilar productions of classics being presented by a company from Shakespeare's birthplace. There is nothing in common between the picturesque, more or less conventional production of "Much Ado About Nothing" and the bleak, modernistic presentation of "King Lear." Those who expected the plays to be staged and acted according to a British traditiona definite style which might be regarded as the
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English equivalent of the Comedie Francaisewere completely baffled. On that account they praised the particular performances more enthusiastically than the production in general. One influential critic asked in print "Where is the producer?" Even in London, where Gielgud's enchanting direction of "Much Ado About Nothing" is considered the last word in Shakespeare comedy, George Devine's experimental production of "King Lear" aroused a storm of controversy. The fantastic setting and costumes by the Japanese artist Isamu Noguchi have been divorced from historical and decorative associations 4 so that the universal and mythical quality of the story may be clear. An attempt has been made to present the places and the characters in a very simple manner to enable the play to come to life through the words and the acting. To Gielgud's astonishment most of the London critics concerned themselves entirely with the decor. They had neither eyes nor ears for any other aspect of the production. He naturally expected a great deal of heated discussion and was quite prepared for a number of people to condemn the staging in no uncertain terms, 5 but he was not prepared for the interpretation of the play to pass practically unnoticed. On the evidence of the first-night press no one would guess Gielgud had completely restudied his part. His interpretation differs from the Lear he played at the Old Vic in 1931 and 1940 and at Stratford in 1950. He is now convinced that Lear is just a stubborn, obstinate and difficult old man, neither a romantic nor a saintly figure. His earlier interpretations had a certain nobility about them, but Gielgud has now arrived at different conclusions as the result of studying the play for the fourth time. He sees Lear as a victim, but the victim of his own tyranny; only when he has suffered does he realize what the world is really like, but even after he has been purged through suffering, he still does not see life through the eyes of a noble being. Because Gielgud refuses to cheat and play the old man as a sympathetic figure, his performance is in striking contrast to the sentimentalized characterizations favoured by the great Victorian actors. In his opinion the play is a biting comment on the un73

reason of old age, and unless Lear is regarded as a sinner and a tyrant there is no tragedy in his fall. Perhaps much critical comment would have been written about this new interpretation of Lear, had Gielgud remained true to the Bardic tradition6 and played the tragedy in the shadow of Stonehenge.7
(Theatre World, Sept. 1955)
NOTES

1. a sort of half-way house In the time of the stage coaches a half-way house was a resting place approximately in the middle of a journey. 2. overnightin a single night; cf. The weather changed overnightit was quite different in the morning from what it was the evening before. 3. to surge here: to crowd 4. the fantastic setting and costumes have been divorced from historical and decorative associations in his fantastic setting and costumes the designer has broken with the con ventional reflection of history in the scenery and costumes 5. in no uncertain terms categorically 6. the Bardic tradition a bard is a poet or singer. Shakespeare is often referred to as the bard of Avon. The Bardic tradition is the traditional way of presenting Shake speare's plays. 7. Stonehenge a prehistoric structure on Salisbury Plain, England
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the questions in English: 1. In which countries did the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre present "Much Ado About Nothing" and "King Lear" before showing the two plays to the London public? 2. At which theatre did the company give their per formances in London? 3. Which countries were they to tour after their season in London was over? 4. Which do you think were the six major cities in Britain which they visited on their return from Europe? 74

5. Where did the theatre give its final season? 6. Who were the leading players of the touring company? 7. Had John Gielgud and Peggy Ashcroft ever played in Vienna before, or was it their first appearance in the country? How were they received by the Vienna audiences? 8. What appraisal did the critics give of their perform ances? 9. What makes you think that the seats were sold out a long time before the opening night? 10. How did the audiences express their appreciation of the actors' performances? 11. Why was the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre Com pany's season in Vienna a great theatrical event? 12. Which of the two plays opened the company's season in the Austrian capital? 13. What alteration did the producer make to the script? Who was the only person to notice this? What was Gielgud's reaction to the guest's remark? 14. Who designed the sets and costumes for "King Lear"? How did the designer depart from the conventional design? What was his aim in doing so? 15. What made the two productions, "King Lear" and "Much Ado About Nothing," so dissimilar (different)? What had the Vienna audiences expected the "King Lear" produc tion to be like? Were their expectations fulfilled? 16. Which of the two productions aroused a storm of controversy and why were both critics and public baf fled? 17. Had Gielgud expected to be criticized, even condemned, for his interpretation of Lear's character? Why had the critics no eyes or ears for this part of the production? 18. Do you think it was wrong of Gielgud to break sharply with his previous interpretations of Lear? What was this break the result of? Do you think his alterations were an improvement or a failure? 19. Is any new approach on the part of an actor to the interpretation of a character sure to enrich further inter pretations? 20. How does Gielgud see Lear in this production? What do you think of his interpretation? 75

Exercise II. Give English equivalents for the following: ; ; ; ; ; ; - ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise III. Find possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. The audience applauded for five minutes most enthu siastically. 2. The new production caused a great deal of heated dis cussion. 3. The touring company could easily have stayed twice as long in the town drawing full houses. 4. Those who expected the plays to be presented and played according to the British traditions were completely bewildered. 5. One of the first scenes of "Much Ado About Nothing" has been cut. 6. The critic praised the acting of some particular perform ers more than the production in general. 7. In those days Stanislavsky was both a leading actor and a producer at the Moscow Art Theatre. 8. The critics were a little baffled by two such dissimilar productions being shown by the same company. 9. Most of the critics condemned the production categor ically. 10. It was through the brilliant performance given by the great actor that the play became infused with life. 11. Danchenko's direction of "The Three Sisters" was con sidered a great achievement in Chekhov drama.
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12. In designing his settings and costumes the artist has broken with Shakespearean tradition. Exercise IV. a) Insert open or one of its derivatives. b) Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The play ... at the Saville Theatre on January 31. 2. John Gielgud and Peggy Ashcroft recently ... in "Much Ado About Nothing." 3. On the ... night the ballet will be "Sylvia." 4. Michael wanted to ... with a new play early in Sep tember. 5. Before ... there had been two dress rehearsals. 6. She had never been to the ... night of a play. 7. They played "King John" for their... play that autumn. 8. Why else do you think we are ... in this poor little theatre instead of the opera-house? 9. Although the bell continued to ring off stage the actor began to say his ... lines. 10. Important London actors and actresses ... in plays by prominent playwrights in the provinces prior to London production. 11. His presence in the cast made the ... an event of great importance in the theatrical world. 12. The play is to be toured before ... in London. 13. Before "Time and the Conways" ... we were al ready rehearsing "I Have Been Here Before." 14. She gave a tremendous performance, and not just at the ... but steadily throughout the run. 15. The play ... with quite astonishing success. 16. At the ... of the fourth act I was in his box. 17. The play was due to ... at the Phoenix Theatre early in autumn. Exercise V. a) Pick out of the text below all the words derived from produce and direct and say in which case words of these two roots are interchangeable and in which not. b) Pick out all the expressions used by the author to say that an actor will play some part, and discuss their stylistic value.
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THE MEMORIAL THEATRE, STRATFORD-UPON-AVQN

The programme for this year's Memorial Theatre season has been announced. The season will last thirty-four weeks and five plays will be produced; the opening date is April 8. The company will include Michael Redgrave, Googie Withers, Dorothy Tutin, Angela Baddeley, Geraldine McEwan, Rachel Kempson and Richard Jonson. "Romeo and Juliet," directed by Glen Beam Shaw, will be the opening play. "Twelfth Night," directed by Peter Hall, follows a fortnight later, and "Hamlet," produced by Glen Beam Shaw, on June 3. For the production of "Pericles," to be directed by Tony Richardson, which opens on July 8, Paul Robeson has been invited to play the part of Gower. "Much Ado About Nothing" will be added to the repertoire on August 26 with Douglas Seale directing. Michael Redgrave will play Hamlet and Benedict, Googie Withers, in her first Stratford season, will be seen as the queen in "Hamlet" and Beatrice in "Much Ado About Nothing." Dorothy Tutin will play Ophelia, Juliet and Viola for the first time. Angela Baddeley appears as the nurse in "Romeo and Juliet" and the bawd in "Pericles." Geraldine McEwan has been cast for Olivia in "Twelfth Night," Maria in "Pericles" and Hero in "Much Ado About Nothing." Rachel Kempsen will play Lady Capulet, Dionyza and Ursula in "Much Ado" and Richard Johnson will be the Romeo. Exercise VI. Insert the missing words:
THE POTTING SHED

The date of the London ... of "The Potting Shed" by Graham Greene is February 5 and the ... is the Globe. The play will have a pre-West-End showing at Brighton, where it will ... for one week from January 27. Irene Worth and John Gielgud are in the ... and the ... will be MacOwen. The play, which has been ... in several countries on the continent, was originally ... in the U.S.A. with Sibyl Thorndike and Lewis Casson playing the ... parts.
(The Arts and Education, February 1958) 78

The ... went well from the beginning;, the audience were pleased after the holidays to find themselves once more in a ... and were ready to be amused. It was an auspicious beginning for the ... season. There had been great ... after each act and at the end a dozen ... calls; Julia took two by herself and even she was startled by the warmth of her ... . There had been a final ... of the entire company and then the orchestra had struck up the National Anthem*. Julia, pleased, excited and happy, went to her ... . She had never felt more sure of herself. She had never ... with greater brilliance, variety and resource. The ... ended with a long tirade. It was two pages long, and there was not another ... in England who could have held the ... of the audience while she delivered it. With her exquisite timing, with the modulations of her beautiful voice, with her command of the gamut of emotions, she had succeeded by a miracle of technique in making it a thrilling, almost spectacular climax to the . . . . A violent action could not have been more exciting nor an unexpected denouement more surprising.
(From Theatre, by Somerset Maugham)

Exercise VII. 1. Pick out of "Gielgud on Tour" and "The Memorial Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon" all the words derived from present, stage and produce, and use them in sentences of your own. Which are the principal meanings of the word production? Which of them are synonymous with staging and presentation? 2. Pick out all the attributes used to modify produc tion in the text of this lesson. In which of its meanings is the noun production widely used with attributes and why? Make five sentences using five different adjectives to modify production. 3. Discuss the use of the verb present in "Gielgud on Tour." Suggest synonyms in each case. 4. Pick out of the text of this lesson and Exercise VI all the words derived from play; discuss their meanings and give synonyms for each of them.
* In British theatres the National Anthem is played at the end of each performance. 79

5. Pick out all the predicates used with the noun play and compose five sentences using them. 6. Pick out all the nouns used to denote the public's approval of a performance and the predicates used with them. Make up five sentences using these nouns. Exercise VIII. Retell "Gielgud on Tour," making use of the Notes. Exercise IX. Give an English rendering of the following extract:

-* . -** , . - , -. , . . ,*** . - , -, , . - , . , , . , , . . . . . . , . * Leicester Square ** Piccadilly Circus *** the English are offered a surfeit of useless entertainment 80

. ? ! . , . , . , , , . - , . . , , . : ... , , , ... , , . . , .
( , 17 1959)

Exercise X. 1) Tell about your favourite Shakespeare play on the Soviet stage. 2) Tell about the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Moscow (use reviews published in Soviet newspapers and magazines).

Lesson

Nine
THE KREMLIN CHIMES

As I was going past the Art Theatre on my way home I heard somebody ask in a low voice, "Want to come to the theatre?" It was a young fellow with no hat on and a disappointed look on his face. I understood at once: his girl hadn't turned up, otherwise he would not have had a ticket for the Art Theatre to sparethey're not that easy to come by. "What's on?" I asked. "A revival of Pogodin's 'Kremlin Chimes'." That was a play I had been wanting to see for a long time. I wasn't dressed for the theatre and I had not had any dinner, but why be bothered with trifles when such luck had come my way. I accepted. Handing in our coats, we hurried to look for our seats. Our tickets were for the twelfth TOW in the pit and we were not allowed to enter after the third bell to avoid disturbing actors or spectators. So we went upstairs and found seats in the last row of the upper circle. The curtain went up as we sat down. Even without a programme I knew that the scene was in Moscow in 1920. But what a Moscow! On the stage was a motley crowd of black marketers.1 Conspicuous among them, a gentleman wearing an engineer's peaked cap and a frayed but well tailored overcoat was selling matches. "Pre-war sulphur matches..." I recognized actor Livanov's voice. "Engineer Zabelin, one of the principal male roles," prompted Oleg, my new acquaintance. A forceful character, that Zabelin, calling his wares in pedantic tones and crossly repulsing his wife's entreaties to give up such an unbecoming occupation. Selling matches was a pose he was striking, a challenge to the new system under which he, a first-rate engineer, could sink to the role of a pedlar.2 But in his eyes was grief, melancholy. Russia, he thought, was going to rack and ruin.3 Livanov's superb acting brought home4 to the audience the intellectual's tragic failure to understand what was happening. Indeed, those
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were hard and complicated times. Fighting against the Intervention was still going on in the outlying regions. Battered by the World War and then by civil war, Russia lay gripped in a vice of battle-fronts. The Kremlin chimes no longer pealed. "It's the end!" thought Zabelin to himself as he crossed the silent Red Square like a man condemned to death. Then the atmosphere of the play changed. Youth came on to the sceneZabelin's daughter Masha, and Rybakov, a former Red Fleet sailor, now a Soviet official. Ruin and famine all around, and they had fallen in love. They got engaged and we could see they were confident that the fate of Russia was in their hands and that it would be splendid, glorious. The curtain falls, the lights go on, we are back in the warm, brightly l i t playhouse. "Let's go and get a programme," I say to Oleg. Yes, I was right, it's Livanov playing Zabelin, and other roles are played by Petker and Svobodin. Great and interesting actors. B. Smirnov is in the part of Lenin. He acted Ivanov in Chekhov's tragedy and was cast in Ostrovsky's plays. But Lenin! We are used to Shchukin's lifelike interpretation of Vladimir Ilyich. He is considered to be the ideal casting for Lenin. How will Smirnov revive such a unique part? Will his Lenin be convincing? The bell goes, the curtain rises, applause breaks loose in the hall. The scenery is really gooda forest lake in the dim light before dawn, trees blurred5 in the mist, birds singing their morning song. The air is tense with vague and anxious expectation. The staging is unaffected, poetic in its expressiveness. During the next interval I must see who the designer was. Smirnov comes on as Lenin and establishes contact with the audience by his very first repliques. Russia is poor and in ruins, but Lenin is working out his electrification plan. You could hear a pin drop in the hall. Oleg, a student at a power institute, a future engineer, is leaning forward in his seat. But it's not only electrification that absorbs Lenin. The silent Kremlin chimes worry him too. For Zabelin their
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silence symbolizes the death of Russia, for Lenin it is a problem in building the Land of Soviets, one to be tackled at once. Engineer Zabelin is called to Lenin. What is his matchselling compared to Lenin's historic plans? A wretched attempt at revolt! Livanov's acting is powerful now. Zabelin is not humiliated by Lenin, life is re-kindled6 in his eyes, his head is whirling with thoughts, his hands itching to draw, to plan. Then comes the interesting scene in which Lenin receives an English writer. Oleg nudges me: "You know who the writer was?" "Of course," 1 nod. Russia, the Englishman says, is plunged in darkness, on the brink of ruin. Lenin sits meditative. We try not to miss a single of the actors' lines. It is our Soviet country's life that we see on that stage. A life that many abroad thought would not last long enough to be victorious. The scenes succeed each other. Difficulty after difficulty confronts the heroes. But in the midst of all their worries one state matter is on their minds to make the clock in the ancient Spassky Tower chime again. Oleg and I know it will, but we're as impatient to hear it as the personages in the play. At last comes the denouement. 7 The Red Square stirs to life. The Kremlin chimes ring out. Lenin and the other characters on the stage know that they will still peal when the bright lights of power stations shine all over our country.
NOTES

1. black marketer one who sells goods on the black market 2. pedlarsomebody who goes from place to place sell ing small articles 3. going to rack and ruinon the way to utter destruc tion, rack, here has the sense of wreck 4. to bring home toto impress on; to make clear to 5. to blurto make or become indistinct in outline or shape; cf. Mists blurred the view.
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6. to kindleto cause to light up; to make bright; cf. The wood is too wet to kindle. Her eyes kindled with ex citement. The scene kindled the interest of the audience. 7. denouementthe outcome, solution of a plot in a dra ma, a story, etc.
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Who wrote the "Kremlin Chimes"? What other plays by the same author do you know? Have you seen any of them? 2. Which of the Moscow theatres has staged the play? Who is the producer and who plays the leading roles? 3. How does People's Artist Smirnov play Lenin? Which of the biggest Soviet actors was usually cast for the role of Lenin, on both stage and screen? In which play or film did Shchukin build up a most lifelike and convincing image of Lenin? Is Smirnov's interpretation as lifelike? Have you seen Smirnov in any other part? Which of his parts did you like best? 4. Who plays the part of Zabelin in the Moscow Art Theatre production of the "Kremlin Chimes"? What makes Zabelin a forceful and interesting character? Does artist Livanov bring home to the spectator all the significance of the character he portrays? Which of the characters played by Livanov are among his best? 5. Who designed the sets and costumes for the play? What is the scenery like? Does the decor help the audience to understand the production better and sense the flavour of the period in which the events shown on the stage take place? Is it ingenious enough or does it limit the scope of acting in any way? Describe the stage set of the scene you like best of all. What makes the staging so poetic and expres sive? 6. Which scene particularly grips the audience? Why did N. Pogodin call his play the "Kremlin Chimes"? 7. Is the Moscow Art Theatre's new production of the "Kremlin Chimes" the only revival of Pogodin's play or have some other theatres revived the play on their stage?
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Exercise II. Give English equivalents for the following: ; ; 10- ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise III. Give antonyms and synonyms for the following: the curtain rises; the curtain is up; the lights go on; the curtain dropped. Exercise IV. Paraphrase the following sentences using a word or expression from the "Kremlin Chimes" instead of the italicized ones: 1. Our seats were in the twelfth row. 2. Then the atmosphere of the play changed: youth came into action. 3. The curtain is down and the lights are up, we are again in the brilliantly lit auditorium. 4. Livanov's marvellous interpretation of the part revealed to the audience Zabelin's tragic failure to realize what is happening. 5. Smirnov appears as Lenin. Will his performance of the part be convincing? 6. The audience highly appreciated Shchukin's lifelike rendering of the part of Vladimir Ilyich. 7. Who has designed the sets for this production? 8. Smirnov appears on the stage as Lenin and his very first lines get instant response from the audience. 9. The production is simple, not overdone, poetic in its ex pressiveness. 10. He was considered to be an ideal performer of the part. 11. The audience burst into stormy applause. 12. The sets are really good. 13. Smirnov was always given parts in Ostrovsky's plays.
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14. Leaving our coats in the cloakroom, we hurried to look for our seats. 15. He appeared in one of the leading male parts. 16. The setting is Moscow in 1920. 17. No matter what he does on the stage he finds his way to the audience's heart. 18. Lenin and the other characters on the stage are impa tient to hear the Kremlin chimes peal. 19. We try not to miss any of the actors' repliques. 20. The curtain rose as we sat down. Exercise V. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying particular attention to the combinations theatre+noun: 1. There was no theatre building in my native town before the revolution. 2. The performances of the young theatre unit were very popular. 3. The Moscow Art Theatre has trained in theatre craft men who were to branch out so differently as Meierkhold and Zavadsky, Vakhtangov and Yanshin, Sudakov and Bersenev. 4. Theatre currents such as these usually find their own leaders. 5. He told me about his uncle, who began his theatre career in 1911 as a young poet. 6. I don't know the name of the theatre artist who designed the sets for this production. 7. My theatre programme will be very difficult to fulfil. 8. He has been collecting theatre programmes of all the productions he has seen at one time or another. 9. The Theatre Conference will open on Tuesday, Febru ary 20, and will last four days. 10. The audiences for these conferences are fully repre sentative of theatre audiences everywhere; they are what theatre-goers are the world over. 11. Theatre World is one of the principal theatre journals in Britain. 12. Civic theatre means more jobs and security for thea tre workers in Britain.
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13. The two companies work under the same theatre management. 14. The prosperty of the whole British theatre world depends today on the expansion of the total theatre public. 15. He was the director of the Georgian Theatre Studio in Moscow. 16 The newspaper Pravda referred to a theatre group organized at the village of Alpatyevo 17. The play "Native Land" opened the Yerevan twentieth theatre season in 1940. Exercise VI. Insert the missing words: It is safe to assume that the. reader of this article can be dubbed "theatre-goer" or "film-goer" and in all probability he will be both. Yet his habits in the role of the former differ remarkably from those that he adopts in ... of the latter. Consider the average ... as he'sets out for his evening ... . He knows the time of ... and he arrives at ... some minutes before the start. He enters unhurriedly and leaves his hat and coat in . . . The ... shows him to his ... and sells him ..., which he has ample time to study before ... rises. The programme gives him a clear indication of what to expect, and the foreknowledge of the plot is further strengthened by a list of ... in order of appearance. In due course... go down, a hush of expectancy settles over , and ... rises. Forty-five minutes of concentration is usually held to be about as much as he can take at a sit ting and the curtain ... to mark the end of ... One. He then retires to the bar for drinks and a general discussion as to what is likely to happen next. Act Two follows, and once again he returns to the bar for further drinks and discussion. Last of all, the final curtain. He... loudly or politely, as the case may be and then goes leisurely in search of his hat and coat Contrast these customs with those which he adopts in his alternate ... of "film-goer." (The Times) Exercise VII. a) Think of possible answers given by Misha at the other end of the line.
88 88

b) Practise in dialogue form the talk between Misha and Kolya. c) Tell about Kolya's impressions of "Filumena Marturano." K- Hello, Misha. Kolya here. Sorry I couldn't come and see you. I happened to get tickets for "Filumena Marturano" at the Vakhtangov. M ........ K- It was awfully good! (or: Oh, lovely. I enjoyed it thoroughly.) The Vakhtangov people are fine at that kind of play. M ........ K. The producer? Simonov. M ........ K. No, Yevgeny. ... What did you say? (or: Sorry, I didn't get that.) No, his son, the father appears as Domenico. M ........ K. I think the play was grand (or: splendid), really clever and subtle. M ........ K. Eduardo di Filippo. Surely you've heard of him. Three other plays of his have been translated into Russian as well. M ........ K. Oh, yes. He's one of Italy's biggest progressive playwrights today. M ........ K. What it's about? You can't very easily put it in a few words. The subject (or plot) is really a vaudeville one. A prostitute deceives a respectable businessman into marrying her. That's not the main thing in the play, though. It's the characters and their aspirations that really matter. And then, just as in every big work, laughter's never far from tears and human vices show up by the side of deeper, purer and no less human virtues. I t 's not overdone, the whole play is quite simple, unaffected and there's plenty of jollity about it. You might say ... 89

. ...

. What's that? . ... . Yes, it is. Well thought out, really clever. M. ... K- Simonov is very good. I think he's the best thing about the play. M. ... K. No, Mansurova is fine too. But Simonov has just got all it takes for such a play. You know what he's thinking even if he just sits there and doesn't say a word. M. ... K. No, Saryan, he's not a theatre designer. M. ... K. Yes. People's Artist of the Armenian Republic. M. ... K. The scenery is magnificent. And it's not overdone. Everything is just right, the acting, the sets and the music. In fact, the whole performance. M. ... Yes, bye-bye. Be seeing you then. Exercise VIII. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ? 2. , . 3. . 4. . 5. . . ; - . 6. , . .
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7. ? 8. , . 9. . 10. , , , . 11. , . 12. X., . , . . , - , . 13. ! , ? - , . 14. , , , , , . 15. , . Exercise IX. Give an English rendering: , 41- . : . , . , , . , . : . . : . : ,
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. . , , : , . , , . , , , . , , , . (," 1958, .) Exercise X. Speak on: a) My favourite Soviet play. b) The best performer of the part of Lenin.

Lesson Ten
PUPPET THEATRE Sergei Obraztsov, the Soviet puppet master who has just given a season at the London Casino, is the founder and director of the State Central Puppet Theatre, founded in 1931. In the twenty-three years since its establishment the theatre has produced 42 plays32 for children and 10 for adults, and has given 17,000 performances to audiences totalling some eight million. When the theatre was opened it was intended exclusively for children. For nine years its work was mainly directed towards the production of bright and interesting children's shows. But time showed that the art of puppetry had an equal appeal for all ages, and it was decided to produce shows for adults. For the first presentation for adults, put on in 1940, "Aladdin's Lamp" was chosen. It was a great success. The repertory for adults still includes a number of tales, but there have been added satirical plays like "To the Flutter of Your Eyelashes," the skit "An Unusual Concert," and the modern comedies "2:0 in Our Favour" and "She Loves Me, She Loves Me Not." The repertory for children includes shows for different age-groups from toddlers1 to teenagers. With the widening of the theatre's repertory, new ways and means of theatrical expression had to be found, and many technical and production problems faced the entire company. The first shows had been technically very simple, with hand-puppets and a method borrowed primarily from the old Petrushka (Punch and Judy) shows.2 The hand-puppet still lives on and will continue to play a part in the Soviet puppet theatre. There are parts in the shows that no other kind of puppet can play effectively. The Petrushka type of puppet is by nature, first and foremost a comic character; it is not given to him to play romantic, lyrical or heroic parts. These are played by puppets on rods, the type originally used by the first Soviet puppeteers Nina and Ivan Yefimov.
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The State Central Puppet Theatre produced "Aladdin's Lamp" with a similar type of puppet. This is at present the most commonly used by Soviet puppet theatres. The rod-puppet varies considerably in proportion and size. Its arms are able to bend at all joints and can reproduce almost any gesture of a living person. Its broad and easy movements make it especially suitable for using in heroic and romantic plays. The hands of the puppet are operated by means of rods attached to the wrist or elbow and suspended behind the screen; with one hand the actor holds the puppet and with the other he operates the rods that set the puppet's arms in motion. When a new puppet production is started, the director, actors and designers discuss together all the functions of each character in the play and decide how the puppet should be constructed in order to play its "part." Sometimes, however, neither rod-nor hand-puppet suits the part; then the mechanical puppet has to be used. Its mechanics are usually quite simple. The puppet might have to climb a ladder on to a roof. To do this it has to leave the hands of the puppeteer and act independently. For this a mechanical puppet is made which forms a single unit with the ladder it has to climb. Inside the bars of the ladder are rods attached to the arms and legs of the puppet. The actor manipulates the rods and the puppet climbs. Up to this point the effect is perfect, but unfortunately, when the puppet climbs down it cannot goon with its part since it is made only to climb the ladder. Then sleight-ofhand3 methods have to be employed. Two puppets are manufactured, exactly matching but of different types: one is a hand-puppet and the other a mechanical one. The director has to arrange the scenes and the puppeteer to operate the puppets in such a way that the audience remains unaware of any substitution. Sometimes the actions of a character in a play are so numerous and different that one puppet stand-in is not enough and several have to be made. The profession of a puppeteer is rather a complex one. The artist has to work very persistently and be very keen in his observations to be able to reproduce both with his
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voice and with the puppet movements all the emotions required by the play. He has to master all the secrets of acting just like a straight actor,4 and in addition has to learn the specific secrets of his art. An actor does not have to learn to walk on the stage, but the beginner-puppeteer has to practise persistently to make his puppet walk expressively and not to let it fall below the screen or come out too far above it. To make his puppet skate well, the young puppeteer Kussov had to spend double the time he himself spent on learning to skate as a boy. A puppet is playing the piano. From the movements of its hands one would think that it was really doing the playing and not an accompanist hidden behind the screen. The movements of the hands are manipulated by puppeteer Divov, who does it with his right hand only; his left hand is inside the puppet. When the audience watches a dancing couple doing a tango in "An Unusual Concert" it does not know that they are operated by five puppeteers: two handle the bodies, two others the hands, and the fifth is in charge of the lady's train and the legs of her partner. Here exceptional synchronization of movements is needed. The puppet theatre, above all, requires perfect team work on the part of the theatre company. They must work together perfectly to achieve that intricate and harmonious performance so popular with the public.
(Theatre World, Aug. 1954)
NOTES

1. a toddler a child that has just learned to walk 2. Punch and Judy showa popular puppet show in England. Punch is the chief hero, Judy his wife. 3. sleight-of-handquickness of the hand, esp. in perform ing tricks or conjuring 4. a straight actor here: one who appears in person be fore the public

EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Who is the founder and director of the State Central Puppet Theatre in Moscow? When was this theatre founded? Who was it exclusively intended for originally? What made Sergei Obraztsov decide to produce shows for adults as well? When was the first production for adults put on? What kind of shows (plays) did the repertory of the theatre include during the first nine years following its establishment? What kind of productions have been added for adult audi ences? Name the most popular satirical plays, skits and modern comedies put on by the S.C.P.T. Which show is a favourite with toddlers? 2. What is a Punch and Judy show? What kind of show did Obraztsov borrow his method from? What kind of prob lems faced the Puppet Theatre Company with the widening of the repertory? 3. What is a marionette? Which are the principal types of puppet? Which is bigger, as a rule, a hand-puppet or a rod-puppet? How is the hand-puppet worked? By what means is the rod-puppet operated? Which of these kinds of puppet has the wider acting ability? What kind of part is the hand-puppet suited to play? What makes a rod-puppet especially suitable for acting in heroic and romantic plays? What kind of puppet has to be constructed when neither hand- nor rod-puppet suits the part? Who decides how the puppet must be constructed in order to play its part? In what cases must two exactly matching puppets be made? What is a stand-in? Which cases call for stand-ins in the puppet theatre? 4. Who were the first Soviet puppeteers? What makes the profession of a puppeteer a most complex one? Why is it specially important for a puppet actor to master tech nique? Why does the art of puppetry require perfect team-work on the part of the company? Exercise II. Paraphrase the italicized words and phrases finding the necessary substitutes in the text: 1. The theatre was mainly concerned with the staging of bright and interesting children's plays.
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2. The art of puppetry appeals to all ages alike. 3. We went behind the scenes and found the screen actors operating the puppets. 4. The art of producing puppet shows requires perfect team work and endless ingenuity. 5. The hands of the puppets are manipulated by means of rods. 6. Two puppets exactly matching each other were made for the show. 7. Sergei Obraztsov started his Puppet Theatre in Moscow in 1931. 8. It is beyond her to play lyrical and romantic parts. 9. For the first play for adults produced in 1940 "Aladdin's Lamp" was chosen. It made a great hit. 10. A puppet maker is a person who designs and cos tumes puppets. Exercise III. Insert the required words: 1. Puppet ... have as much appeal for adults as for . . . . 2. The Central State Puppet Theatre's ... includes chil dren's shows, satirical ..., skits and modern ... . 3. The theatre company was faced with many produc tion ... when its repertory was widened. 4. The most common kind of puppets are ... puppets, the simplest type of all, ... puppets, which can play romantic, lyrical or heroic ... , and ... puppets, which can do almost anything the "straight" actor can do. 5. The hands and legs of a rod ... are operated with ... by an ... standing behind the screen. 6. Before each new puppet ... the director, actors and designers must discuss how the ... are to be constructed so as to be able to ... their parts. 7. Sometimes one single puppet cannot do all that the character in the ... has to do; in this case it must be provided . with a... or even several. 8. When a ... must take the place of a puppet during a .... the operator needs to use ... so that the ... will not notice the substitution. 9. You see dancing puppets ... a tango, but you do not always realize how many people are needed to ... them.
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10. Several ... manipulating a single puppet need excep tional ... of movements. 11. A puppet ... company, more than any other, perhaps, must display perfect ... work. Exercise IV. Retell "Puppet Theatre." Exercise V. a) Pick out of the sentences given below all the words derived from puppet and all the compounds containing puppet as the first word. b) Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. Obraztsov soon began appearing at concerts as a pro fessional and his puppet performances assumed the character of regular performances. 2. Many of the friends Obraztsov made at that time re main his friends to this day, and some of them have, like him, taken up puppetry professionally. 3. She had. not seen a single puppet show in all her life. 4. Mariya Artyukhova makes puppets for many puppet theatres. 5. The young man decided to take up puppetry seriously and set about studying all forms of puppet theatres, past and present. 6. There were also some human puppets on sale, but they had heavy wooden heads and arms. 7. In Czechoslovakia he met Professor Vesely, editor of the puppet magazine Loutkar. 8. It was obvious that the theatre existed only because its founders believed in the art of puppetry and its social function. 9. In many countries the word 'marionette' is sometimes applied to theatrical puppets of all sorts. 10. But for those home theatricals he would never have made puppetry his profession. 11. At that time I knew very little about the aspects and forms of puppet theatres and the various methods of acting with puppets. 12. The conventionalized human speech of a shrill squeak er combined with the conventionalized puppet becomes
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a "natural" puppet voice, while the natural human voice in combination with a puppet becomes conventionalized. 13. The time law in the puppet theatre is probably stricter and harsher than in any other kind of theatre. 14. All this was strangely like the play of a puppet actor, especially when he is using a hand-puppet. 15. I have come to understand that it is not always, and far from only, the violin which ought to be used to ac company puppet play. 16. The director removed the top curtain and the pup peteers became visible. 17. The State Central Puppet Theatre in Moscow has a total puppet population of two thousand. 18. Some of the puppets need two or three operators; sometimes a dozen duplicate puppets are required to play one characterrod-puppets when he is moving, hand-puppets when he is sitting and talking. 19. The illustration of romances by puppet acting had come to Obraztsov not as a conscious creative method but as a chance joke. 20. In Soviet books on puppet acting, hand-puppets are usually called Petrushka figures. Exercise VI. a) Paraphrase all the do+noun phrases. b) Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. When the puppet theatre audience watches a dancing couple doing a tango, it does not know that they are operated by five puppeteers. 2. I was deeply impressed by the fact that whole plays could be done by puppets. 3. In the early summer of 1917 we did a season at the Royal Theatre. 4. We did a "She Stoops to Conquer" revival. 5. It was the only theatre in London that did consistently good plays all through the war. 6. We were doing our first matinee of the "Trojan Women." 7. I'll do your line now. Do you mind taking up your positions in the potion scene?
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8. "My dear child," said she, "if you think you are going to do one of your modern questionable problem plays you're very greatly mistaken." 9. What time does Miss Vivien do this toe dance? 10. I must say we are doing this pantomime under remark ably difficult conditions. 11. He does both classical and character dancing. 12. I suppose Eleanor will do the Duchess and Miss C. will be the other one. 13. He was constantly asking me if I enjoyed dancing and if I should like to do some more (dancing). 14. I suggest we do "Shop Windows." 15. They did "pas seul", "pas de deux" and "pas de quatre." 16. Why not do your chorus song now? 17. I was only laughing at your suddenly putting in a thing like that after we have done this play so many hun dreds of times. 18. From the movements of the puppet's hands one would think that it really was doing the playing. 19. In point of fact, he had done most of the producing. 20. These long shows are so often done now, but then it was unheard of in the commercial theatre. Exercise VII, a) Translate the following extract into Russian. b) Say in English what makes the author so enthusias tic about Obraztsov's puppets?
THE LITTLE WORLD OF TWO THOUSAND PUPPETS

It is one thingand a very good thing at thatto see Sergei Obraztsov's puppets when they are on tour in the Western world, it is quite another thingand a much better thing at thatto see them in a little world of their own. This little worldSCPT, the State Central Puppet Theatre in Moscowhas a wealth of mechanical appliances and built-in gadgets that cannot go on tour, and it has a total puppet population of two thousand. Most of the two thousand are as famous characters as their rivals are on the living stage.
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Not content with making pseudo-humans do superhuman things more naturally than humans do human things, this Obraztsov has a whole menagerie of creatures that look and act exactly like birds and beasts, only more so. Even when those creatures speak, the poor dumb animals in the audience, including your correspondent, catch themselves thinking: "So that's how a kangaroo speaks! I ' d never have guessed it." When you enter the State Central Puppet Theatre you check not only your hat and coat, but also your God-given ability to tell reality from fantasy. If the poets and peasants and princes and paupers, the puppies and porcupines and pots and pans of your acquaintance do not act as those at the SCPT act, then you just have to admit that they don't act naturally. An armchair has legs and armswhy shouldn't it dance? A tunnel has a mouthwhy shouldn't it speak? A clock has a face and handswhy shouldn't it wash its own face? You may think you have fixed ideas that such things cannot be; this Obraztsov doesn't care a darn about your fixed ideas. (After Archie Johnstone) Exercise VIII. Speak on: 1. Sergei Obraztsov and the State Central Puppet Thea tre. 2. The Art of Puppetry. 3. My Favourite Puppet Show. Exercise IX. Make up a dialogue on "Going to the Puppet Show."

Lesson

Eleven
ULANOVA THE UNFORGETTABLE

Galina Ulanova, prima ballerina of Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre Ballet, has turned out to be the most exciting theatrical personality, not only of the year, but of the decade. Her name has been a legend here for years and those interested in arts listened eagerly to tales of travellers from Moscow who had been lucky enough to see her dance at the Bolshoi Theatre. Ever since the war our Royal Opera has been negotiating for the Bolshoi Theatre Ballet to appear in London and we all hoped that should such a miracle come to pass Ulanova would head the troupe in some of her most famous parts. The Soviet ballerina captured the imagination of the entire country. People who had never seen a ballet in their lives heard about her and spoke about her. Hundreds waited for tickets outside Covent Garden for three days and three nights. They queued to see the Bolshoi Ballet productions; every man and woman hoped that "she" would be dancing on the night for which they had been lucky enough to secure tickets. Fourteen million viewers saw her dance a fragment of "Swan Lake" on television. Fleet Street 1 was not short of front page material and the public never grew tired of reading about it all. What is the secret of Ulanova's magic? It lies in the fact that whenever she appears on a stage she works something of a miracle. With precious 2 little make-up, she materializes as the Juliet of our dreams. With such intensity she imagines herself to be a fourteen-year old girl that we also see her looking thirty years younger than she really is. She is an actress next to none. Certainly no actress in the English-speaking world could hope to surpass or even equal the Juliet created by Ulanova. She is a Stanislavsky disciple, succeeding in giving the complete illusion of reality while concentrating upon the truth of feeling, moods and emotions. She believes that dance can say everything and express the truth of human relationships, and she has mastered the ability to express
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in dance movement the meaning of the music. She is convinced that the more fully the dancer responds to the spirit of the music and the closer her technique is to the ideal, the more complete will be the image she presents to the audience. Inner conviction makes possible Ulanova's transformation to the ecstatic daughter of the Capulets. The miracle of Ulanova has long been the talk of Russia, and though the legend preceded her, she surpassed our highest expectations when she actually danced at Covent Garden. So plain an actress has not woven so potent a spell of beauty since Duse. Ulanova is unforgettable, and those who had the good fortune to see her even but once, whether as Juliet or Giselle, left the theatre with an indelible memory to be discussed at intervals the rest of their lives. When the Covent Garden curtain fell on that historic first night the house went wild in an endeavour to express its appreciation. Seldom, perhaps never, has a ballerina had so many encores. There is no flamboyant showmanship 3 about Ulanova's curtain call. When the spell of the ballet is over, she is tired, and conscious of having done her best, she craves to be allowed to go home and rest. Ulanova will be remembered because she combined superlative talents of actress and dancer to express truth about humanity; in other words, she does far more than dance for pleasure. It is gratifying to hear that when she retires from the stage she intends to devote her time to teaching a future generation of dancers.
(After Ulanova the Unforgettable, by Eric Jones, Theatre World, Dec. 1956) NOTES

1. Fleet Streeta street in London in which most of the big newspaper offices are situated; journalists collective ly, the British bourgeois press 2. preciousan adverb often placed before adjectives such as little, few, etc. to intensify their meaning 3. showmanshipthe ability to present things so as to produce a big effect (often used with a negative mean ing)
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EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Why does Ulanova's dancing have such an appeal for the audiences? Is it her impeccable technique that grips them or some dramatic quality of her dancing that captures their imagination? 2. What is the dancer's medium to express the truth of feeling, moods and emotions? What helped Ulanova to acquire the ability to express in dance movement the truth of human relationships? What enables her to give the complete illu sion of reality while creating a ballet character? What makes possible her transformation into the character she is portray ing? 3. Whose disciple is Ulanova? How did Stanislavsky's ideas enrich her interpretation of the characters she pre sents to her audiences? Exercise II. Pick out of "Ulanova the Unforgettable" all the words and phrases belonging to the specific ballet vocabulary. Study them so as to be able to use them in Exercises VI, VII and VIII. Exercise III. Re-arrange "Ulanova the Unforgettable" from the beginning to "She is a Stanislavsky disciple," imagining that Ulanova is a dramatic actress and replacing ballet words and phrases by their theatrical counterparts. Exercise IV. A. Discuss the different meanings of the word ballet and suggest synonyms wherever possible: 1. They were late for the ballet. 2. The Sadler's Wells Theatre Ballet was formed in 1945. 3. It is often forgotten that ballet, as a vital art of the theatre, must be subject to the theatre's laws. 4. "Swan Lake" is a ballet that will never lose its appeal for lovers of dance. 5. He forgot his prejudice about ballet in the first act of "Giselle." 6. These are the best two modern ballets. 7. Pavlova's power of dramatic expression was very much more than the gift for expressive mime quite frequently found in ballet. 104

. 1) Translate the following sentences into Russian. 2) Replace ballet words and expressions by their theatrical counterparts where possible. 1. This was her first ballet role. 2. It was the first experimental translation of a symphony into ballet terms. 3. A ballet character is splendid only when it reflects beauty of thought, feeling and deed. 4. In 1940 the Bolshoi and its filial presented 112 ballet performances. 5. Ulanova always seems to grasp and justify the ballet master's design. 6. With three ballet companies performing in Moscow, the task of the ballet critic in sorting impressions became a difficult one. 7. Great literary works are being adapted for the ballet stage. 8. Who heads the ballet company of the Bolshoi Theatre? 9. At first ballet producers and dancers were inclined to reject all that was old. 10. The "Baby Stork," a simple tale of Soviet children, is still part of the Soviet ballet repertoire. 11. In 1837 St. Petersburg ballet-goers witnessed the Russian debut of Maria Taglioni, while ballet-lovers in Mos cow were introduced to Yekaterina Sandovskaya, justlycalled the Russian Taglioni. Exercise V. a) Discuss the different meanings of the word dancing in the following sentences and supply synonyms where pos sible. b) Re-arrange the sentences to apply to the theatre by replacing dancing by its theatrical counterpart. 1. Her dancing leaves an impression of remarkable freshness and sincerity. 2. Dancing is not my profession, I have an art of my own. 3. There is no sign that dancing is losing its appeal for mankind.
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4. Other dancers of her age had far more stamina and brought far more sparkle and expressiveness to their dancing. 5. Inspiration has been a marked feature of the dancing of all the outstanding Russian ballerinas. 6. Probably she would have remained a poetic, rather cold dancer if she had not come to feel that dancing has meaning and a place in the scheme of things. 7. Not even some brilliant dancing could excuse the poverty of the choreography. 8. She is inferior to many of the young ballerinas both in acting and in dancing. Exercise VI. A. 1) Discuss the different meanings of the word dance. 2) In which sentences is dance a synonym for
performance,

ballet, and in which does it not allow of any such substitution? 1. She does both classic and character dances. 2. This is a ballet of the purely abstract interpretation of classic music in terms of classic dance. 3. Her dazzling dance gave a festive air to every produc tion in which she appeared. 4. She was downstairs already in the wings, waiting for the orchestra cue for her dance. 5. Struchkova's dance is musical, graceful and elegant. 6. In the USSR the closeness of the art of dance to the people has brought vitality and humour to the ballet. 7. The roses had been handed to her from the orchestra pit at the end of the dance of the Fee Dragee. 8. The great ballerina does not act or dance, she lives the dance. B. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying special attention to the italicized phrases: 1. Even the most fleeting glance or movement was an important link in Pavlova's performance, and defined the meaning of the succeding dance sequences.
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appearance,

dancing

or

2. The ballet is brought to life by a striking correlation of design, music, stage production and dance forms. 3. Using every dance convention, primitive, acrobatic, modern, and classic, the choreographer achieved a choreogra phic pattern of unforgettable beauty. 4. The composer's score of this ballet presented problems of dance orchestration. 5. The dancer sought to retain and convey all the subtle ties of style, all the peculiarities of the dance pattern of "Gi selle," which has a special charm just because it is so "oldfashioned." 6. A ballet character is above all a dance character. 7. The dance "melody" requires harmonious movement of all parts of the body. 8. Pantomime ballets, in which the dance served only as a link between mimic scenes, gave way to dance suites in which the dance became the main thing. 9. It was here, at the turn of the 19th century, that a new genre came into being, dance scenes suggested by folk festi vals, games, etc. 10. The ballet master had to alter some details of his dance conceptions to meet individual dancers' traits. Exercise VII. a) Translate the following text into Russian. b) Ask questions on the training of a future ballerina at the Moscow School of Ballet.
THE MOSCOW SCHOOL OF BALLET

How do you become a ballet star? It is better, of course, to begin young, but you can wait until you are nearly ten before you decide finally to become a ballet star. And to be one of the chosen 30 ten-year-olds out of a list of 500 applicants each year, all you need is to be slightly more than 100 per cent sound in wind and limb; just a little faster, lighter, and surer-footed than any other kid within sight; rather better shaped than a goddess, and having a sense of timing a fraction better than a metronome's. If you don't have top marks in your usual school subjects, you don't reach the first 500.
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After that, it's all plain sailing. At the Ballet School you continue your ordinary schooling with a few extra subjects like the theory of historic, classical and character dancing to keep your mind occupied. The rest is just playground-stuffhours of dance steps, breathing control, coordination of movement, bending and stretching and twisting and untwisting muscles you never suspected you had. If you always finish your spinach and hate the sight of rich pastries and creamy goodies, you will simply love the special dietary of the school's dining-room. You can't both eat your cake and have it. If the regular medical check-ups show any sign of strain on your constitution or your waistbelt, you say good-bye to ballet's life of ease and unearned public acclaim. The school hours are from nine to five, but the older students have frequent evening rehearsals, and also occasional public appearances which, I was assured, are an essential part of the psychological training. I should have said that even the eleven-year-olds were perfectly self-possessed. But it is worth noting that almost every Western visitor to the Soviet Union has been struck by the extraordinary lack of self-consciousness in Soviet children. To me, it is one of the most significant, and delightful, products of the Soviet way of life. Most of the larger cities and the capitals of the various Soviet Republics have their own ballet schoolsthe Leningrad school is older than, and at least as famous as, the Moscow one. The Moscow school caters mainly for the children of the capital. But it has close relations with the newer, non-Russian schools and does much advisory work. Many Uzbek, Tajik, Tartar and Armenian students, for instance, have graduated from the Moscow school and returned to their own republics, either as performers or teachers, or both. The People's Democracies, too, send their most promising young dancers to Moscow, and among the dozens I saw being put through their paces there were eight Albanians, four Koreans and a Bulgarian girl. A Korean girl gave us an Andalusian dance that would
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have brought shouts of "Ole!"* from any Spanish audience; and as another international item, five Russian lads danced a comic Bulgarian dance choreographed by a Tartar. One seventeen-year-old Moscow girl who danced a duet with a Lithuanian boy seemed to me to be nearly flawless in technique and beyond words in lightness and grace and expressiveness. I asked one of the teachers if he fancied her as a future top-liner. "We don't make prophecies like that," he said, "but you can take it from me that she is not only a fine dancer; she has the true ballet spirit." I imagine he meant that she's a real trouper. I was glad to have a glance at some of the aspiring and inspiring and perspiring 300 when they were "out of class," glad to see that they were at least as gay-spirited as their fellows in less exacting walks of life, may be rather more so. (After A. Johnstone) Exercise VIII. Supply the missing words: In the autumn of 1945 Ninette de Valois formed a new group, the Sadler's Wells Opera-Ballet, afterwards known as the Sadler's Wells Theatre Ballet. During the first months the troupe ... its own ballets, and also ... in the ballets of certain of the Sadler's Wells Opera works during the winter .... On April 8th the company made its first ... in a full evening of ... . From April until June they gave ... on Mondays and occasional Saturday afternoons; by the summer of 1946 ... had been increased to eight ... . That summer the company went on ... for the first time, and also ... in London ... the Open Air Theatre, Finsbury Park. In May that year the company went on tour for ten weeks, followed by a two-weeks' ... at Finsbury Park. Koroley was one of the best of Marie Rambert's younger dancers, appearing with the Ballet Rambert from 1937 until 1941. With the Rambert he distinguished himself in a
Expression of applause and enthusiasm used by Spaniards. 109

variety of character ..., but was outstanding ... the Faun in "L'Apres." Donald Britton is perhaps the most promising male ... in the company. His fine work indicates that he will shortly become a ... dancer. Anthony Burke ... with the company from time to time, his best ... being the Fiance in "La Tete Etrange." Burke has also been responsible for the ... of the "Vagabonds." Andree Howard, ... of so many works for the Ballet Rambert, has also created a new version of her La Tete Etrange (which she originally ... for the London Ballet in 1940). In the new company's ... Donald Britton was ... as the Country Boy, while June Brae distinguished herself with one of the most poignant ... she has ever given with the company.
{Theatre World, Oct. 1947)

Exercise IX. Render in English: . ? , , , 1 (- ), . , ! , , . : , . , . , - . , , , , , . , , , , , -.


1

the bar 110

. , .1 . , 2. . , , . . , , , , 3 , , , . , , , , , . , 4 .
( , 1, 197)

Exercise XI. Speak on: 1) Ulanova, the great Soviet dancer and dramatic actress. 2) Ulanova on the art of dancing. 3) The training of a dancer. 4) My favourite ballet.
1 2 3 4

lofty and inspired art the crests and troughs the ease, precision and perfection the training room

Lesson Twelve
THE CLASSIC CHINESE THEATRE A newcomer in the Chinese Theatre finds that what goes on around the play is more intriguing than the stage play itself, which he does not understand. But he can understand the inquisitive faces peering through the back curtain, and the quiet children draped on all sides of the stage in as many positions, or those young or old who push their ways in front of the wings and stand in rapt attention as unaware of the audience as the actors are of them. The musicians share the stage with the actors as do their guests and offspring. When they light their cigarettes or converse, the newcomer sees it as part of the play. The most impressive characters who divert the attention are the property men, the ubiquitous blue-gowned figures who quietly do their jobs as if they were invisible or transparent. They refresh the singer with a pot of tea; they toss the cushion to an about-to-kneel actor. A discarded sword is caught agilely, head-dress is adjusted, a chair is turned into a prison gate, a canopy properly placed, a curtain swung. Sometimes they are a part of the act, tossing flames into the air, or helping a "dead" actor to exit. The newcomer sees teapots framing the stage apron as strangely shaped footlights. He sees the clashing colours of the tied curtains and the Chinese character writing designing the front walls of the theatre as decoration. He sees everything but the play. But when he does begin to watch the play, when he inquires into the gesture of the actor, learns the importance of the painted faces and ordered significance of the costumes, then the surrounding distractions fade out and he is completely startled when a newer newcomer comments on those extraneous elements, for he has begun to take for granted, as everyone does, the arch of the proscenium. But never will the activities within the boundaries of the stage become a taken-for-granted matter, for each evening's attendance extends the scope of one's appreciation. In a single night one can be impressed by the variety of styles and stories that may span the centuries. One might
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see one play in which the pantomime is so realistic that it transcends any natural boundary; the washing of hands, the sewing of a shoe, or the flirtation of a newly-met couple is a language familiar to anyone. He probably would see a dramatic play: a defeated hero accompanying his actions with song or speech, with formal gestures stylized to the degree at which they become a "dance" trembling fingers at the chest, staggering steps taken on the knees, a complete somersault with a final position on the back for despair. This is true "expressionistic" acting, where the gestures take the place of the words in awakening the emotional responses of the audiences. He would experience a play of "action" in which the movement is the body of the play, the story being only the frame. He might see this first evening a white-costumed pink-and-white-faced young man elegantly expressing his prowess in terms of pure action, the designs and body tension, rhythm and abstract arrangements being of "dance" nature. The Chinese call it action and so it is, because it actively expresses a state of mind. It is also a pure dance because the form is so finished in structure as to be completely expressive of the concept which inspires the action. It can therefore be called "Dance-Action." Although the plays are generally divided into Civil and Military, the subdivisions are many, and are not, as ours are, categorized as "Comedy" or "Tragedy." In each classification there may be plays with sad or happy endings, but these emotions are not the central motivation of the plays. The fact that they are historical, legendary, mythical, seasonal, or festival, romantic, satirical, ethical, and sociological is the point. All may contain fanciful notions and mythological concepts. Each may use diverse acting styles: realistic, expressionistic or abstract. But all are constructed so that movement, speech and song, sound and music are fused into a balanced unity, resulting in a unique type of theatre called Classic Chinese.
(The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. XV, p. 2, Dec. 1956)

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EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. How do the audiences oi the Classic Chinese Theatre strike a foreign theatre-goer (newcomer)? In what way does their behaviour differ from that of our spectators? 2. What does the Classic Chinese Theatre offer the audi ence in a single night? What is the essence of a pantomime performance, of a dramatic play performance, of a play of "action" performance? 3. What is the scope of the Classic Chinese Theatre drama? What is the accepted classification of the plays? 4. What are the characteristic features of the Classic Chinese Theatre? Exercise II. Pick out of "The Classic Chinese Theatre" the sentences containing words formed from act, play, dance; translate the sentences into Russian and discuss the meanings of the words, paying special attention to the use of the article with the word action and to overlapping of meaning in the pairs: actacting, playplaying, dancedancing. Exercise III. Give Russian equivalents for the following: a newcomer in the Chinese theatre; clashing colours; true "expressionistic" acting; back curtain; in rapt attention; to span the centuries; to see as a part of the play; the Chinese creative mind; the arch of the proscenium; to be part of the act; the emotional responses of the audience; an about-to-kneel actor; a moment of great triumph; stage apron; dramatics; strangely shaped footlights; each evening's attendance; fanciful notions; variety of styles and stories; to inquire into the gesture of an actor; to be fused into a balanced unity; in a single night; a newer newcomer; in terms of. Exercise IV. Translate "The Classic Chinese Theatre" into Russian. Exercise V. Give possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. Each visit to the theatre widens the scope of one's appreciation. 114

2. Movement, speech and sound are merged into harmoni ous unity. 3. The young spectators crowded to the front of the wings. 4. The story is generally known in advance. 5. What goes on around the performance arouses the spec tator's curiosity more than the play itself. 6. The spectator sees it as part of the action. 7. The story is not the thing, it is the enacting of it which is. 8. In the Chinese theatre it is the duty of the property man to help a "dead" character to walk off. 9. He was impressed by the variety of styles and plays
presented.

10. True "expressionistic" action cannot but grip the audience emotionally. Exercise VI. Retell "The Classic Chinese Theatre." Exercise VII. Insert the missing words:
THE ELIZABETHAN THEATRE

Although plays of one sort and another had been ... for many generations, no permanent ... was erected in England until 1576. Elizabethan ... were accustomed ... on a variety of stages; in the great hall of a nobleman's house, or one of the Queen's palaces, in town halls and in yards, as well as their own . . . . The public ... for which most of Shakespeare's plays were written was a small and intimate affair. ... were usually circular or hexagonal, with three ... of galleries looking down upon the yard or pit, which was open to the sky. The stage jutted out into the yard so that the actors came forward into the midst of their ... . Over ... there was a roof, and on either side doors by which ... entered or disappeared. Over the back of ..., ran a gallery or upper stage which was used whenever an upper scene was needed, as when Romeo climbs up to Juliet's bedroom. The space beneath this upper stage was concealed from ... by ... which would be drawn back to reveal an inner stage, for such ... as the witches' cave in Macbeth, or Juliet's tomb. When it was necessary for the exact locality of a ... to be known, then Shakespeare indicated it in the dialogue;
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otherwise a simple ... or a garment was sufficient; a chair or stool showed an indoor scene, a man wearing riding-boots was a messenger, or the like. Such simplicity was on the whole an advantage; the... was not distracted by ... and Shakespeare was able to use as many scenes as he wished. ... passed by very quickly: ... of 2,500 lines of verse could be ... in two hours. Moreover since the actor was so close to his ... , the slightest subtlety of voice and ... was easily appreciated.
(From The Penguin Shakespeare Introduction)

Exercise VIII.

Read "A Glimpse of the Kazakh National Theatre" and discuss the following points:

1. How old is the Kazakh Theatre? What historical event brought the Kazakh National Theatre into being? What is the national artistic background against which the modern Kazakh Theatre has grown up? 2. Why is it natural for any young national theatre to draw its inspiration from the folk-lore and the heroics of the nation's past? 3. Does the history of the national theatres show that the first dramatic works of a young theatre are necessarily based on the people's folk song art, or may some other form of folk art serve as a source of inspiration? On what lines did the Kazakh National Theatre develop? 4. What kind of plays does the repertory of a National Theatre include besides plays based on heroic legend and folk song art? How does a young National Theatre profit by the achievements of world drama? 5. What embodiment does our Soviet life find in the rep ertories of the national theatres? How are contemporaneity and national traditions fused in the theatrical art of the Soviet Socialist Republics? Why do we call this art "nation al in form and socialist in content"? A GLIMPSE OF THE KAZAKH NATIONAL THEATRE There is nothing like folk art productions for giving us an insight into the national art of a people. I might newer have been able to assess the Kazakh theatre according
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to its merits had I not got my first glimpse of it through "Enlik and Kebek" a drama pervaded with Kazakh heroic legend. The Kazakh theatre is not yet forty years old, for it had no opportunity to develop before the October Revolution. In olden times this nomad people found the only outlet for their artistic urge in their national minstrels or akyns and their skilful handicraftsmen, who embodied exquisite art in household utensils, carpets and objects of apparel. In the songs of the minstrels the people poured out all the poetry of their soul. The akyns had as their audiences both young and old, men and women. The heroes of their poetry are dear to all the Kazakh people. Their lays, sung to the drawling accompaniment of folk instruments echoing the leisurely tread of camels and swelling to the immensity of the steppe which inspired them, were the mother's milk on which the Kazakhs' souls were reared. That is why the Kazakh can no t on ly sing th e so ng s of old, but can compose new ones of his own, extolling the expanses of his native steppes, the ardour of his steed, the beautiful eyes of his beloved. The best of these songs have been handed down from generation to generation improving and developing as they went and merging into a mighty flow of folk song art. It was natural that the first Kazakh dramatic works should be based on the heroes created by the people in their folk songs. And as these roles were played by the akyns, they were given the most vivid scenic interpretation. The audiences, too, were of the most responsive, for they consisted of children of that same Kazakh people, and they saw and heard on the stage what had already long been living in their imagination. And the spectators' fancy, surging ahead of the events of the song, fused with the creative power of the minstrels and became their inspiration. This was the kind of play I saw that evening in "Enl i k and Kebek," the Kazakh "Romeo and Juliet." In this poem about the tragic fate of two lovers, there is much to remind one of Shakespeare's great drama: the feud between two families, the ruthlessness of unbridled lust for vengeance,
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and even Fra Lorenzo in the person of the wise old hermit Abyz. Yet it is all original. Everything is Kazakh, and vividly national, from the variations in the theme to the characters of the personages. It derives its vitality mainly from the characters of its heroes the wise old Abyz, who rejoices like a child at a well-turned verse of his song or is silent and motionless when engrossed in his people's past; the young shepherd lad Zhopal, who is lyrical and touching in his devotion to Enlik and Kebek; the terrifying, implacable Espember, played with fiery temperament by an actor gifted with extraordinary power and expressiveness. Magnificent is the only word to describe Abyz and Zhopal in the closing scene. The wisdom of the old man and the ardour of the youth merge here in a common striving. And the whole is woven together with wonderful songs and music, the best the Kazakh people ever made. Indelible is the impression left on us by genuine works of art, and this again is proof that the significance of art in our lives is really immense. How much beauty we hoard in our memory! The characters of "Quiet Flows the Don," Chaikovsky's lyrical music, Shalyapin's powerful voice, Levitan's poetic landscapes, the Moscow Art Theatre's "Three Sisters" whom we love so much that it hurts, and the golden dragons on a Chinese vase. Like the Miserly Knight our memory clings to these treasures, now and again recording the impression of more and more new characters with which the lavish talent of our artists enriches us. The talent of the Kazakh people presented me with a new treasure in tha play "Enlik and Kebek." Exercise IX. Give an English rendering:
.

, , . , , , , . . , , , . 118

. , , - . , , , . , -, . , , , . , , . . . : , , , . , , . *, - . : , , , , , . , , , . , , , . , . . , . , . : , , . * libretto 119

. . . . , . , . , , .
(, 30 1957)

Exercise X. 1. Speak on a National Art and literature Festival of one of our Soviet Socialist Republics in Moscow (use articles from newspapers and magazines). 2. Speak on the interrelations of the national theatre art and national art traditions. 3. Describe a theatre of the Elizabethan time in England (use Ex. VII).

Lesson

Thirteen
THEATRE OF TRUTH

The Moscow Art Theatre was founded sixty years ago by Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko as a theatre of an entirely new kind whose purpose was to renovate contemporary art, to cleanse it of the unwholesome deposits of recent times, cliches, affected acting, mechanical, lifeless interpretation and false pathos. Unlike most theatres of its time, it based its repertory on drama packed with profound thought, the works of Tolstoy, Chekhov and Gorky feeing among its staple productions. The lofty aims which the theatre set itself required it to produce a new type of actor capable of conveying to the spectator all that the new trail-blazing literature* had brought to art and to life. The art of the producer, elevated to the task of subordinating all the different elements of the play to a single aim, appeared in its fulness for the first time in the practice of the Russian stage. The creators of the Art Theatre applied to the stage all the progressive humanist ideals of the time. During the bitter period of famine and destruction, V. I. Lenin said: "If there is one theatre which we must save and preserve at all costs, it is the Art Theatre!" Now that two trends in art that of realistic expression of life and that of cold, lifeless abstraction are loudly disputing in the world, we are faced with a highly responsible task: to safeguard and develop the great achievements of the masters of realistic art. This, the urgent task of our time, demands of our theatre workers passion, loyalty to principles, the ability to distinguish what is just a whim of fashion from lasting spiritual values promoting human progress, and the keenness to discern and preserve the great truth of art as Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko did all their life.
* trail-blazing literature , 121

OVER THE FOOTLIGHTS

Perhaps it is not such a bad thing to have waited a lifetime of theatre-going for the superlative. For one thing, there are numerous brilliant English productions to be recalled, star-studded renderings of Chekhov among them. We have seen the best we could, and now we see how it should have been done. The first thing that astonished us when the curtain rose on the opening performance of "Cherry Orchard" in the epoch-making Moscow Art Theatre's London season was that ignorance of the Russian language seemed no deprivation at all and that it would be a tragedy if any playgoers were dissuaded from visiting Sadler's Wells Theatre on this account. The acting of this company is so intuitive, so natural, that with a foreknowledge of the story of the play nothing seemed to be lost, the perfection of verbal intonation and gesture sufficing then for perfect understanding. In its sixty years, the Moscow Art Theatre has arrived at a technique of the drama by which all aspects of production (scenic and lighting as well as acting) work together as a harmonious whole towards the goal of a Naturalness, which, when seen, appears indeed to be the Inevitable. Remembering also that two full companies remain in Moscow, one can realize the magnitude of this achievement: this is not so much a Theatre as a Movement. The choice of Chekhov's "Cherry Orchard" as the first play of their London season was a happy one, for we have a soft spot for this charming and easily understood play. But in all humility it must be admitted that all the English productions we have seen, leading stars notwithstanding, have been by comparison clumsy and inept. By the time the curtain fell we had lost all sense of being in a theatre. This was an experience of l i f e itself and for many a long day we shall enthuse over the naturalness of it all. The way these actors created under our very eyes the personalities and the atmosphere, the swift change of mood, accomplished without our ever seeing the mechanics, and the leisurely tempo which more than anything conveys real life were obviously to them second nature. Even the 122

clothes they wore belonged to each character exclusively, and we can well believe, in spite of the many months of rehearsal and years of playing the same role, the authenticity of their claim that each performance of a role the actor gives is his first. Against the background of such an attitude to drama it is inevitable that, in a sense, there are no starring parts, and that was one of the chief impressions we carried away from the "Cherry Orchard." We are, for instance, so accustomed to a Madame Ranevskaya of "prima donna" qualities that Alia Tarasova surprised us with her homeliness. But her modest impact threw into proper proportion the other characters, whom we were able to recognize as old friends. Another kind of perfection was achieved in the production: the cherry trees, glowing white in the first act, and gaunt and bare in the last, were as living as all else in this inspired production.
(Theatre World, June 1958) EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. How did Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko understand the tasks facing their new theatre? 2. How did the founders of the new theatre view the producer's role in creating a theatrical production. 3. Why did Lenin consider it imperative to save and preserve the Art Theatre? 4. Why do you think that the English productions, although many of them were star-studded renderings of Chekhov, didn't know how to stage a Chekhov play before the Art Theatre showed them how to do it? 5. Why was ignorance of the Russian language not a hindrance to understanding the play, so long as the audi ences had a foreknowledge of the story? 6. What is the great quality of the Moscow Art Theatre Company's performance which the author of the article stresses? Why does naturalness make a production seem to be the inevitable, that is, the only kind of production possible? 123

7. What does the author mean when he says that each performance of a role that the Moscow Art Theatre actor gives is his first? 8. By what means is the correct atmosphere of the play created? 9. What, according to the author, was the chief impres sion spectators carried away from "Cherry Orchard"? 10. When the author says that there were no starring parts in the performance, does he mean that there were no stars, or rather that all the actors performed like stars? Exercise II. 1. Pick out of "Theatre of Truth" and "Over The Foot lights" all the adjectives used with: performance, acting, rendering, production, interpretation. Translate the phrases into Russian; make up sentences of your own using the Eng lish phrases. 2. Pick out of the same extracts all the phrases con taining star and words formed from star; discuss their mean ings and suggest synonymous phrases to replace them. Exercise HI. Give Russian equivalents for the following: a lifetime of theatre-going; the story of the play; an epochmaking season; the magnitude of the achievement; perfection of verbal intonation; to have a soft spot for; to enthuse over; the swift change of mood; to be second nature to; to convey real life; to throw into proper proportion; the authenticity of the claims; the leisurely tempo; the chief impression carried away from. Exercise IV. Find equivalents for the following words and phrases in the text "Over the Footlights": the best possible; unpretentious; for this reason; to confess without false pride; in a way; leading roles; to place the other characters in their true perspective; a generation of theatre-goers; productions starring numerous first-rate actors; each interpretation of a part; the only possible one; awkward and absurd; to be enthusiastic about something; a true-to-life interpretation; the feeling aroused in us; did not appear to be a disadvantage; previous acquaintance with the plot; to form a perfect team; faultless vocal rendering 124

(or expression); the greatness of an accomplishment; without any visible effort; to have a weakness for something or somebody. Exercise V. Retell "Over the Footlights" making use of the expressions from Exercise IV. Exercise VI. Make up a dialogue between a person who has seen the Moscow Art Theatre Company's performance of "Cherry Orchard" and one who has not, expressing opinions on the staging of the play and on the acting. Exercise VII. a) Pick out of "Danchenko Directs" all the phrases in cluding adverbs formed by means of the suffix -ly; discuss their meanings, their syntactical function and the closeness of their connection with the verb they modify. b) Pick out all the words formed from art, real, music, poet, lyric, and use them in sentences of your own. c) Translate "Danchenko Directs" into Russian. d) Describe Danchenko's artistic approach to Chekhov's plays.
DANCHENKO DIRECTS

Nemirovich-Danchenko was one of the best beloved of the world's theatre directors, known far beyond the province of the Moscow Art Theatre of which, with Stanislavsky, he was co-founder. He will be long remembered wherever unflagging devotion to the theatre, the highest ideals and remarkable achievement are treasured. Danchenko's notes on his approach to the production of Chekhov's timeless play are as important as ever not only for "The Three Sisters," but for all great plays. Danchenko was intimate with Chekhov and in close artistic harmony with him. There are plays, he said, which the theatre comprehends organically and instinctively. These are contemporary plays. Such was the case with our first production of "The Three Sisters," at a time when actors and producer alike were all essentially Chekhov-minded. Chekhov was a part of them; he lived within them. They shared
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his emotions and his preoccupations. It was, therefore, comparatively easy to find the atmosphere which constitutes the principal charm of the production. But to-day this play can by no stretch of the imagination be considered contemporary , and in working out its production the theatre must rely solely on art. What formerly came intuitively must now be determined consciously. The theatre must go forward both in its revelation and in its theatrical simplicity. The theatre is, therefore, confronted with the plain, one might say artistically honest, duty of treating this play as if it were new, with an entirely fresh artistic approach. Chekhov is lyrical. But the main thing is to comprehend and disclose the most profound of Chekhov's thoughts and not his lyricism, which will come of itself from the mood, circumstance and surrounding atmosphere. ..."The Three Sisters" is the play of a realistic poet, not just a realist, not a commonplace, but a poetic realist. Chekhov's poetry may be compared rather to a Chaikovsky musical production than to a drama of everyday life...; the most vivid and essential feature of this play is its musicality. If you miss the right intonation ever so slightly, everything is wrong, but when the intonation is musically correct, everything is right. Every act of Chekhov's plays has its own musical design. To use everyday language in Chekhov's plays would be wrong. His text is elevated and poetical. In its structure and resonance it is perhaps most closely akin to Pushkin. Though life in the play is prosaic and normal, the entire play has a poetic, musical quality not only in its language but in the emotional experiences of the characters. Even the characters that reflect the seamy, vulgar side of life are profoundly musical. In the course of our work on the play at the Moscow Art Theatre, Chekhov's stylistic features were revealed gradually. He has no heroes. His epoch was not heroic. Heroes of that period lived illegally. Not one of Chekhov's characters is really positive. There are no tragic types nor is anyone extraordinary. All his personages are simple but not vulgarly so. Moderation is one of the most precious qualities of Chekhov's style.
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Chekhov has his definite pauses. They, usually come where one scene fragment passes into another. In his plays reality and the theatrical merge. To grasp the style of a Chekhov play synthetically, one must first fall in love with it.
(Abridged from Theatre Arts, 1943)

Exercise VIII. A. Supply the missing words in "The Soviet Theatre" (Extract 2). B. 1) Discuss the various meanings of the word theatre in "The Soviet Theatre" and find synonyms for each of them in the text. 2) Pick out of "The Soviet Theatre" phrases containing the adjective theatrical as their first element, compare them with combinations theatre+noun (cf. Lesson IX, Exercise VI). Give derivatives of theatrical and use them in sentences of your own. 3) Pick out of the text the word drama and its derivatives; supply synonyms for them. Give other words formed from drama, and use them in sentences of your own. 4) Pick out of the text the noun acting with its attributes. Give the Russian counterparts of the phrases. 5) Give a precis of "The Soviet Theatre," stating the main points Priestley makes in his article.
THE SOVIET THEATRE

1. The Soviet Theatre is not perfect. It does not do everything better than any other theatre does. But taking both quantity and quality into consideration, it must be judged the best theatre in the world today. The Soviet people have every right to be proud of it. And we British, whose theatre is at present in a disgraceful condition, have much to learn here from our Soviet friends. Even when all allowance is made for the size of the Soviet Union, the sheer amount of theatrical activity is staggering. Figures convey little and perhaps the best way to suggest the extent of this activity is to declare that fine wellequipped theatres, with repertories of first-class plays,
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are as common in the Soviet Union as cinemas are here. And even trade union clubs and collective farms often have their own theatres. There are playhouses everywhere, from the Arctic to the deserts of Central Asia. As to quality, it must be remembered that this host of theatres is clean outside the sort of catchpenny policy that dominates most of our theatrical activity. They are presenting the best work their directors think themselves capable of producing. More masterpieces of world drama are shown on the Soviet stage Shakespeare, Calderon, Shaw, O'Neill, and so on than on the stages of Britain, U. S. A., France, Sweden and any other country you like, all put together. There are plenty of Soviet dramatists and a good yearly crop of new plays. But it is this production, week in and week out, of world masterpieces that is so impressive. 2. None of the Soviet theatres... on a commercial basis for profit. But that does not mean that they are all State theatres. Actually, very few of them are State theatres. Some are backed by local authorities, and many by trade unions and the like. The largest theatre in Moscow ... by the Red Army. But they are all alike in certain features. For instance, they are all true ... theatres, never ... the same ... night after night. Again each theatre has its own ... , usually a rather large .... Many of them ... operettas as well as straight plays. And the larger theatres not only do everything for themselves building and painting their own ..., designing and making their own ..., and so forth but also have their own... schools. Most of the Soviet theatres ... in their own playhouses from early autumn until summer, and then go on ... for a month or two. Seats are sold through trade union and other organisations and also at the box-offices. Prices are comparatively cheap, but most ... are sold out for every ..., so that theatrical ... is less of a gamble in the Soviet Union than it is elsewhere. Moreover, although large and lavish... are the rule rather than the exception, money is not wasted, as it is in London and New York by hastily improvised methods. By doing everything for themselves the Soviet theatres can make a little go a long way. 1 remember in Moscow, after seeing the first ... of a new play about Ivan the Terri-

ble which had magnificent... and gorgeous ..., being assured by the ..., the well-known artist Favorsky, that the actual cost of the ... had been very small. 3. Just as money is not wasted in the Soviet theatres, so time and effect are not wasted either. Directors, players, designers and technicians are all attached to a certain theatre, and can spend their time and energy getting on with their work, instead of wearing themselves out, as so many theatrical people do here, going round from manager to manager, agent to agent, looking for the right job. Moreover, the Soviet Theatre is so organized that experienced players and technicians help the less experienced ones. An actor attached to one of the famous theatres will spend some of his time directing an amateur group from one of the trade unions, and if his efforts are successful, then a new theatre may come into existence. Finally, Soviet theatrical workers have a feeling of confidence and security that must undoubtedly help them in their work. The quality of the actual productions naturally varies very considerably. Along its own line of smooth realism, the Moscow Art Theatre productions, are far oetter than anything I have seen in London, Paris or New-York. The finest Russian acting seems to be the character acting, which is superb. The "straight" acting of men is about on the same level as ours. The women seemed to me on the whole rather inferior to English and American actresses. The settings are nearly always good, and sometimes very original, and exciting. The lighting is better than our worst, but not, I thought, as good as our very best. Soviet directors are particularly good at handling crowd scenes, and Soviet dramatists are fond perhaps too fond of writing such scenes. These dramatists are doing good work, but are still apt to sprawl too much and not attend sufficiently to the details of construction. The success of the Soviet Theatre is frequently attributed not to Soviet organization but to some innate histrionic quality in the Russian character. I cannot accept this view. Russians have no more natural talent for the theatre than we have, and there was a great drama in England before Russia knew that such a thing existed. No, the difference is that in Soviet Russia the theatre occupies an honoured place in the community, and the production of plays
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there is a properly organized communal activity and not, as it is here, a chaotic scramble for easy money. The success of the Old Vic shows what we can do if we take one theatre away from the catchpenny policy. And we have only to do as the Soviet people have done, and then we could have a hundred Old Vics. I hope that this exhibition will not only show us what our Soviet friends have done in their theatre, but will also inspire us to follow their example.
(Speech delivered by J. B. Priestley at the opening of the Soviet Art Theatre Exhibition held in London in 1946)

Exercise IX. Speak on: 1) The Moscow Art Theatre. 2) Your favourite actors and actresses of the Moscow Art Theatre. 3) The Soviet theatre. 4) The differences between Soviet and British theatre organization and the advantages the repertory theatres have over temporary troupes such as the Tennent Company (make use of Lesson 3).

THE CINEMA

Lesson F o u r t e e n
FILM ACTING

...In the theatre, the spectator is stationary1 as he watches and listens to the spectacle moving before him. If an actor has to give emphasis to a particular gesture or expression he must draw the attention of the audience to himself by taking up a conspicuous position, or by striking a pose or making a movement or pause that will lead the other actors to look at him; and whatever he does must be performed so obviously that it cannot fail to be observed by the most distant members of his audience. His makeup, even his stage-whispers, must be exaggerated for the same purpose. In a film, none of this is necessary. The fundamental difference between the methods of the theatre and the film involves considerable differences between the technique of stage acting and that of f i l m acting. In the first place, the exaggeration and overstatement 8 which the stage actor has to employ become quite unnecessary in the film. On the contrary, because the camera can approach so close and give such an enlarged view of the least detail, it is restraint and understatement which are required. ("I had always believed," George Arliss tells us, "that for the movies acting must be exaggerated, but I saw in this one flash, that "restraint" was the chief thing that the actor had to learn in transferring his art from the stage to the screen.") All that is essential and effective on the stage, the wide sweep of gesture, the make-up, the declamatory style of speech, becomes false and ridiculous on the screen simply because it is out of place. "When we speak of the 'unnecessary staginess,' of a film actor's performance, we so term it not because staginess necessarily involves anything of itself wrong or unpleasant. We simply register an unpleasant sensation3 of incongruity, and therefore falseness, as though at the sight of a man striving to negotiate4 a nonexistent obstacle."*
Pudovkin, Film Acting, Newnes, London, 1937, p. 106.

A second difference is that whereas on the stage an actor's chief instrument of expression is his voice, and his movements are almost entirely an accompaniment to, and an extension of, what is said, in the f i l m he acts with the whole of himself. A glance, a movement of the hand., a slight shrug of the shoulders may be far more significant than anything said. This means that the f i l m actor must exercise a far higher degree of self-control. Falseness and insincerity are much more apparent in a screen performance than on the stage, where, as Robert Donat has testified, it is easier for the actor to disguise an imperfectly assimilated characterization. "In the theatre," he says, "it is the audience which receives; in the studio it is the camera, with this surprising difference that whereas one can get away with5 flippancy, sloppiness and insincerity in the theatre, infinite care must be exercised in front of the camera. In the theatre the broad methods necessary to reach topmost galleryite and lowermost pittite6 sometimes cover a multitude of sins." To make the same point in a slightly different way, whereas stage acting is to a considerable extent conventionalized and stylized, film acting is in the highest degree naturalistic, nothing is so effective on the screen as complete sincerity, provided always that it is tempered with restraint. {Art of the Film, by Ernest Lindgren)
NOTES

1. stationary not moving or changing position; cf. remain stationary remain in the same place 2. overstatement an exaggerated statement; an exag geration; cf. understatement=a statement which is exces sively restrained 3. we simply register art unpleasant sensation we merely feel unpleasantly affected 4. to negotiate an obstacle to show a certain skill in overcoming an obstacle; to get past or over smth. 5. to get away with smth. to do something with im punity, i. e. without ill effect for oneself
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6. galleryite a spectator in the lower gallery; pittitea spectator in the pit; cf. standing-roomite EXERCISES Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. What problems does Ernest Lindgren discuss in the chapter "Film Acting" of his book "Art of the Film"? 2. How does a stage actor draw the audience's atten tion when trying to emphasize a particular gesture or ex pression? Why is he obliged to do it so obviously? Why does an actor always wear make-up when on the stage? 3. Why is the exaggeration and overstatement which the stage actor has to employ quite unnecessary in the film? 4. What are the means of achieving emphasis on the screen? What is the chief thing that the stage actor has to learn when playing for the screen? 5. Why are things that are effective and essential on the stage out of place in the film? What sensation do we get when we see a film actor use the stage actor's technique on the screen? 6. What is the chief instrument of expression for an ac tor on the stage? Is it the same with the actor on the screen? Where does the difference between acting on the stage and acting in a film lie? 7. In which kind of performance, a screen performance or a stage performance, is falseness and insincerity more easily revealed? Where does the actor find it easier to dis guise an imperfect characterization, on the stage or on the screen? How does Robert Donat account for this and do you agree with him? 8. Why must an actor exercise a far higher degree of self control in front of the camera? 9. Why is stage acting conventionalized and stylized to a considerable extent? 10. What, in contrast to the conventionality and stylization of stage acting, is most effective on the screen? Exercise II. Give Russian equivalents for the following: the spectacle moving before him; to give emphasis to; 135

to take up a conspicuous position; to strike a pose; to be performed obviously; to give an enlarged view of the least detail; to act with the whole of oneself; the most distant members of the audience; the wide sweep of gesture; exaggeration and overstatement; restraint and understatement; staginess; instrument of expression; flippancy. Exercise III. Discuss the following points: 1. In what meanings is the word film used in "Film Act ing"? Find synonyms for the different meanings of this word. 2. What is the meaning of the word perform in "Film Acting"? Give a synonym for it. What other meanings of the word perform do you know? 3. What is the meaning of the word screen in "Film Act ing"? What is its theatrical counterpart? 4. Discuss the morphology of the nouns galleryite and pittite. 5. Give antonyms for the following: understatement, restraint, natural, in keeping with, naturalistic, to disguise. 6. Pick out of "Film Acting" all the words used a) to describe the essential features of stage-acting and film-acting; b) to characterize the results of a film-actor using the stage-actor's technique on the screen. Exercise IV. a) Arrange the following sentences into two groups according to the two different meanings of the word screen. b) Find the theatrical counterpart of each of the two mean ings of the word screen. Replace the word by its theatrical counterpart to make the sentences apply to the theatre wher ever possible, and make all the other necessary substitu tions in the wording. c) Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Nothing is so effective on the screen as complete sincerity. 2. That's the trouble with most spectators, they can't disassociate the actor from the role he plays on the screen. 3. A play, exactly recorded upon celluloid and project136

ed upon a screen with the actors deprived of their words that was the film of those days. 4. Julia had tried her luck on the pictures, but had achieved no success; her face, on the stage so mobile and expressive, for some reason lost on the screen. 5. It gave her a queer sensation to watch herself move and speak on the screen for the first time. 6. She had a feeling he wasn't watching the screen at all. 7. The public, seeing the films, identified themselves with the people on the screen. 8. These two stories are comedies written for the screen. 9. The f i l m succeeds in bringing to the screen a living picture of the despotic Queen Elizabeth. 10. "Lady Hamilton" is a picture in which Laurence Oli vier and Vivien Leigh, two of the British screen's great est artists, are teamed together. 11. You can see the growth of a plant from the seed to the flower accurately shown on the screen. 12. Anita Bjork, the first lady of the Swedish screen, has recently made two films. 13. This novel will be directed for the screen by Phi lippe Agostini. 14. Of course British comedy has learned much from the American screen. 15. The main thing is to find a way to transfer the novel to the screen without distorting it. Exercise V. a) Pick out of the review given below and "Film Acting" all the words belonging to cinema vocabulary and theatre vocabulary; arrange them in three groups: 1) words belonging to the cinema only; 2) words belonging to the theatre only; 3) words belonging to both cinema and theatre (consult the Vocabulary Notes). b) Ask questions on the review given below. c) Re-word the text of the review as if Kjshore Sahu's "Hamlet" were a stage production.

l$7

"FILMFARE" REVIEWS
KISHORE SAHU'S "HAMLET" A CREDITABLE RENDERING OF OLIVIER'S CLASSIC

Kishore Sahu's screen version of "Hamlet" received a warm welcome at its premiere on Friday, January 7 at Bombay's Metro Cinema. A popular subject on the stage, this great Shakespearean tragedy lends itself admirably to adaptation for the screen. The present version has closely followed the technique and treatment of Sir Laurence Olivier's brilliant production, which won universal acclaim. 1 The resemblance between the two, even in the sets, decor and costumes, is so pronounced3 that it is impossible at any stage for one to forget that this film is more or less based on the Olivier production. There are, however, minor changes and omission here and there, and three songs have been introduced. But the departures are so trifling that it is difficult to hide the immediate source of Sahu's effort. Sahu's "Hamlet" is a handsome production, highlighted 8 by a brilliant portrayal by Sahu in one of the most complex and yet coveted roles that the screen or the stage could offer an artist. It is an honour equally shared in the film by many another artist as well as those who were in charge of the various departments. As the tragic Prince of Denmark, Kishore Sahu has given a truly memorable performance and has breathed life into the character which dominates the story from the start to its bitter end. His delivery and gestures are superb. Mala Sinha's rendering of the difficult role of Ophelia is very good, her scenes with Sahu compare well with his, and there is a tone of promise in this her first major role on the Hindi screen. As the Queen, Venus Bannerji, makes a promising debut, giving a good account of herself in the bedroom scene. Nazir as Polonius is another who distinguishes himself in
acclaim here; recognition pronounced adj. definite, strongly marked, noticeable 3 highlight the most brilliant spot, event, or person; cf. the high* light of the season, of a play, etc.
1

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a part as familiar to audiences everywhere as any of the other roles. Shreenath as Horatio acquits himself creditably. As compared with these members of the cast, who enrich the histrionic 4 appeal of the film, Hiralal and Kamal Jit are distressingly poor. The music score is poor and hardly in keeping with the theme, and the inclusion of a modern rumba in one of the scanes is in utter bad taste. So, too, is indiscreet the use of the grave-diggers' song to provide comic relief. It calls for severe criticism. As mentioned earlier, the sets and decor, all too evidently inspired by Olivier's film, are superb, and the costuming of the characters is in the tradition of the best that has been seen on stage or screen. Kudos5 for the same should go mainly to John Regan, reputed English choreographer and producer, who had the benefit of an association with Laurence Olivier during the production of his "Hamlet" and was adviser to Sahu on costumes and property. Photography plays a key role in a film like this, and . . Kapadia, by his skilful use of the camera, has captured the mood and the atmosphere of impending doom which hangs over the play. Credit is also due to the editing, which has given the film its chief asset, crisp slickness 6 in the screen narration. Exercise VI. Find in "Film Acting" and "Filmfare Reviews" substitutes for the words and phrases italicized in the following sentences: 1. Unlike the stage-actor, the film-actor must employ a far higher degree of se'f-control. 2. To put it in other words, stage acting calls for overstate ment. 3. He drew the attention of the audience to himself by striking an attitude. 4. Whatever the actor does on the stage must be done con spicuously.
4

art

histrionicpertaining to actors or acting, to the theatre or theatre

kudoscoltoq. honour, credit, fame, glory 6 crisp slicknesssmoothness, brilliancy 139

5. The exaggeration an actor has to use on the stage becomes quite out of place on the screen. 6. Let's go to the cinema today. 7. The way he spoke his lines won him the admiration of the audience. 8. We merely feel unpleasantly affected. 9. Utmost care must be practised in front of the camera. 10. Insincerity is much more obvious in film acting than in stage acting. 11. There is a fundamental difference between the theatre and the film as far as acting is concerned. 12. The film was given a warm reception on the opening night. 13. The likeness between the two productions is so pro nounced that there can be no mistaking Olivier's influence. 14. The Italian picture "Cabiria's Nights" is a fine produc tion, with Masina's performance giving this f i l m its chief asset. 15. He managed to infuse the seemingly indifferent role with life. 16. Her first appearance on the screen looks highly promis ing. 17. The music score does not match the theme. 18. The production does credit to the director. 19. The f i l m makers managed to render the atmosphere permeating the play. Exercise VII. Translate into English: 1. , , . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. ?
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7. 1957 . 8. , , . 9. () . 10. , ? 11. . ? 12. . 13. , : . 14. , , . 15. . 16. , . 17. , . 18. , . Exercise VIII. Give an English rendering: . . * III . . , , . , , , .
a screen version of 141

, . . , , , . , , . , . , .* , , , , . , , . . : ,** , . , , . , , , , . , , .
( . , , , 6 . 1958 .) Exercise IX. Speak on:

1) The difference between f i l m acting and stage acting. 2) Laurence Olivier as Hamlet.
* the right to revenge ** on the screen ...; off the screen

Lesson F i f t e e n
THE PECULIARITIES OF FILM MATERIAL In the earliest years of its existence the film was no more than an interesting invention that made it possible to record movements, a faculty denied to simple photography. On the film, the appearances of all possible movements could be seized and fixed. The first films consisted of primitive attempts to f i x upon celluloid, as a novelty, the movements of a train, crowds passing by upon the street, a landscape seen from a railway-carriage window, and so forth. Thus, in the beginning the f i l m was, from its nature, only "living photography." The first attempts to relate cinematography in the world of art were naturally bound up with the theatre. Similarly, only as a novelty, like the shots of the railway-engine and the moving sea, primitive comic, or dramatic scenes played by actors began to be recorded. The f i l m public appeared. There grew up a whole series of relatively small, specialized theatres in which these primitive films were shown. The film now began to assume all the characteristics of an industry (and indeed a very profitable one). It was realized that many positives can be printed from a single negative and that by this means a reel of film can be multiplied like a book, and spread in many copies. Great possibilities began to open out. No longer was the f i l m regarded as a mere novelty. The first experiments in recording serious and significant material appeared. The relationships with the theatre could not, however, yet be dissolved, and it is easy to understand how once again the first steps of the film producer consisted in attempts to carry plays over on to celluloid. It seemed at that time to be especially interesting to endow the theatrical performancethe work of the actor whose art had hitherto 1 been but transitory, and real only in the moment of perception by the spectator with the quality of duration. The f i l m remained, as before, but living photography. Art did not enter into the work of him who made it. He only photographed the "art of the actor." Of a peculiar method for the film actor, of peculiar and special properties of film 143

technique in shooting the picture* for the director, there could as yet be no suspicion. How, then, did the f i l m director of that time work? At his disposal was a scenario, exactly resembling the play written for the theatre by the playwright. Only the words of the characters were missing, and these, as far as possible, were replaced by dumb show, and sometimes by long-winded2 titles. The director played the scene through in its exact theatrical sequence, he recorded the walkings to and fro, the entrances and exits of the actors. He took the scene thus played through as a whole, while the cameraman, always turning, fixed it as a whole upon the celluloid. The process of shooting could not be conceived of otherwise, for as the director's material served these same real persons-actors with whom one worked also in the theatre, the camera served only for the simple fixation of scenes already completely arranged and definitely planned. The pieces of film shot were stuck together in simple temporal sequence of the developing action, just as the act of a play is formed from scenes, and then were presented to the public as a picture. To sum up, the work of the film director differed in no wise from that of the theatrical producer. A play, exactly recorded upon celluloid and projected upon a screen, with the actors deprived of their wordsthat was the film of these early days.
(Pudovkin, Film Technique) NOTES

1. hitherto until now, until then 2. long-winded lengthy and dull, boring
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. What made the cinema in its early years a most in teresting invention catching the fancy of quite a number of people? 2. What were the first films like? 3. What kind of shots did the early film-makers take? 4. What made the first film-makers realize very soon that

the cinema was sure to become one of the most popular kinds of entertainment? Why were the first attempts to relate cinematography in the world of art naturally bound up with the theatre? 5. How did the public react to the new invention? When did a true film public appear? What made it necessary to build a whole series of specialized theatres to show films? 6. Why did great possibilities begin to open out and what made it possible for the film to assume all the charac teristics of an industry, and a profitable one, too? 7. What were the relations between the cinema and the theatre in the early days of the film? What did the film pro ducers of that time find most interesting and exciting? Did their attempts to establish close relationships with the theatre succeed? 8. Did the film-makers of those days realize that the film was a new medium calling for a peculiar method on the part of the film actor? 9. How did the film director of that time work? What was his task and what was the cameraman's? What did the camera serve for in those days? How were the shots assem bled? What were the early films adapted from plays like? Did the work of the film director differ in any way from that of the theatrical producer? Exercise II. a) Analyse the different meanings of the word film in "The Peculiarities of Film Material." b) Give synonyms wherever possible for the word film in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The fundamental difference between the methods of the theatre and the film involves considerable differences between the technique of stage acting and that of film acting. 2. No country contributed to the art of the film in its early days more than France. 3. Eisenstein was a passionate researcher into all as pects of the subject on which he was going to make a film. 4. Presented with the deep understanding of a genuine artist, these films of human nature are profoundly moving.
145

5. She thinks she's going to like acting for the films. 6. These films Lumiere developed himself at home in an ordinary bucket. 7. While Eisenstein had an innovator's approach to the medium of film, he also had great respect for the classical arts of literature and painting. 8. His love for his child is the light of his life, and the full climax of the film turns on this relationship. 9. America can spend more on films than Britain be cause her home market can bring her much larger profits. 10. Film, after all, is a medium in which we combine space, time, and juxtaposition. 11. The film is the medium best endowed to attract the largest numbers to see and understand our world. 12. A travelogue is a film of travels. 13. This film should appeal to all sections of picturegoers. 14. The shooting team had brought 80, 000 feet of colour film with them. 15. The new projector can be stopped at will to show stills without damaging the film. 16. The manufacturers supplied non-inflammable films. Exercise III. a) Translate the review given below into Russian. b) Arrange all the italicized words and phrases in two groups; Group I words belonging exclusively to cinema vocabulary, Group II belonging equally to the vocabu lary of the theatre, the ballet, etc. c) Re-word the review imagining that "Madh Bhare Nain" is a musical comedy played at a theatre; use words of Group II and think of theatrical counterparts for words belonging to Group I. Fortune Films' romantic comedy, "Madh Bhare Nain," was released at the Super and several other cinemas in Bombay last week. The picture, which has some beautiful Darjeeling* sequences, is a sober piece of filmic craft, designed fairly well to pro Darjeelingan Indian town in the Himalayas 146

vide light comedy. Among its highlights are good tunes and sparkling dialogue. The photography is excellent, especially the Darjeeling shots. The settings, decor and other technical aspects are above average. The choreography is artistically conceived and beautifully photographed. Though the picture appears rather slow moving in the opening scenes, it provides good refined entertainment. Exercise IV. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following: simple photography; living photography (see the "Pecu liarities of Film Material"); and the photography is excel lent (see Ex. III). Comment on the meaning of the word photography. 2. Comment on the meaning of the word sequence as it is used in the "Peculiarities of Film Material" and in Ex. I I I . Give the Russian equivalents for the following sentences and say in which of the following sentences se quence may be replaced by shot: a. The director played the scene through in its exact sequence, b. The pieces of film shot were stuck together in simple temporal sequence of the developing action, The picture has some beautiful Darjeeling sequences. 3. How does the specific meaning of the verb release as used in Ex. III reflect the main meaning of the verb: set free, let go? Exercise V. Translate the following words into English and use them to fill the blanks in the sentences below; give as many English counterparts of each word as you know: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . 1. They are going... these scenes in early spring. 2. In the early film the work of the... differed in no wise from that of the. . . .
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3. In the silent film ... helped the spectator to better understand the content of the film. 4. I like the film immensely. The photography is excel lent, especially the night street. . . . 5. The ... of the film has been prepared by Samsonov from a story by Chekhov. 6. "Pardesi" (Afanasy Nikitin) was premiered at the Naar Cinema and ... simultaneously at a number of theatres in Bombay. 7. In the closing... atmosphere is evoked through a vivid series of images. 8. The chief cameraman was getting his ... ready. 9. Cesare Zavatini, a... also published some articles on Italian neo-realism. 10. The picture is ... on July 28. 11. At his disposal was a... exactly resembling a play written for the theatre. 12. At about 12.45 the previous day's shots are screened in the projection theatre. The... and cameraman watch them intently. 13. Suppose the significance of the scene consists in the general course of the action, then it is taken simultaneous ly in a general view, the so-called long . . . . 14. After the director has accepted the screenplay, he goes over it with the . . . . 15. R. Karmen with a group o f . . . has been making a full-length film about India. 16. The same actors played through in their same ... the same scenes, which were but shorter. 17. One must never show a man on the ... and reproduce his words exactly synchronized with the movement of his lips. 18. The script was so episodic that the director had noth ing to build on, and the film inevitably became a series of isolated ... without any unifying basis. Exercise VI. a) Insert the missing words. b) Find in Ex, VI substitutes for the following: for specifically instructive purposes; to arouse response in and
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have interest or attraction for; have natural acting ability; to provide opportunity for the children to use their imagination. In Britain children's... were originally made with a specific didactic bias. And when they ..., it was discovered that they had no appeal for the young .... British ... realized that the emphasis should be o n . . . and not on instruction. Children's ... have universal appeal and many children have a natural aptitude for ... . But the themes of these... should, suit the preference of children themselves. Lastly, apart from aspects of education and entertainment,... is essentially a form of ..., and as such children's films should provide scope for the exercise of imagination. Exercise VII. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . 2. , , , . 3. ? 4. , . 5. , ' . 6. . 7. , . 8. , . 9. . 10. , , . 11. , .
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12. . 13. , . 14. (), . 15. . 16. . 17. . 18. . 19. . Exercise VIII. Speak on: 1. The difference between the way the first film's were made and the way films are made today. 2. The influence audiences may have on plays and which they cannot have on films.

Lesson S i x t e e n
THE DEBUT OF A FILM ACTRESS The camera tests were a success. Starr photographed excellently. "But I knew you would," Stephan assured her enthusiastically. "You have the right features. That's most important. Conventional prettiness 1 doesn't mean a thing on the screen. Yes, I think I always knew you would film well." They were standing talking at one end of the large improvised studios that had been hastily erected for the interior shots of "The Gentleman Pirate." It was in between two of the takes.2 A sceneaboard ship had just been shot, and now under the supervision of the carpenter they were getting the next scene ready. A busy hive of industry3 the studio was. The property man was assisting verbally in the reconstruction of the scene; the make-up man was moving amongst the actors examining their make-ups critically; the hair-dresser, a small plump woman in vivid scarlet, was patting into place the elegant waves in the leading woman's hair; the chief cameraman was getting his camera into the right focus while the sound engineer tinkered with the microphone boom.* Starr was already made up, though it was doubtful if Stephan would want her that day. All afternoon they had been taking and retaking a couple of scenes on the yacht. Rex couldn't get them to Stephen's satisfaction. Almost as though Stephan derived a grim satisfaction in making the great Rex Brandon go over and over a certain scene. Later that afternoon Stephan shot a scene in which Starr appeared. She was one of the guests on the steam yacht. She had only one line, but she felt the whole of the picture rested upon her slim shoulders. It was a terrific and terrifying moment the first time the huge arclights blazed down upon her. Her eyes felt dazzled, her face so hot she was sure all the grease paint5 was running. The microphone hanging from the boom almost immediately overhead alarmed her. She was positive she couldn't even remember that one solitary line! But queerly, the moment she actually started to speak, all her nervousness left her. She forgot where she was; she even forgot the blaze of those awful

dazzling lights. Almost before she realized it had begun, the shot was over. All that evening, all night in fact, Starr was on tenterhooks9 to know the result of that shot. She heard it was to be run through in the projection room about seven the next morning. She didn't dare go down to the studio until it was over, Stephan had said he wouldn't be wanting her that morning anyhow. Eight. Eight-fifteen. Eight-thirty. She couldn't swallow the coffee that was brought to her bedside. Wouldn't Stephen phone her after he had seen it? Surely, he would. At eight thirty-eight exactly the telephone beside her bed rang. It was the studio calling her, the girl at the hotel switchboard told her. "Tell me the worst at once, please, Stephan," she laughed nervously into the receiver. "It isn't Stephan," Rex's voice came back to her. "I hope you're not disappointed?" She was. So disappointed she could have screamed at him. She had to know the result of that shot. And then, in answer to her thoughts, "The shot's . ., Starr. You film excellently, and your voice comes out splendidly. I've just come from the projection room. If our worthy director isn't pleased, he should be."
NOTES

1. conventional prettiness what it is generally agreed to call prettiness 2. takes here: shots 3. a busy hive of industry the studio was the studio was as busy as a hive of bees 4. microphone boom ; 5. grease paint make-up 6. to be on tenterhooks to be in a state of anxiety or suspense
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. What was Stephan Desmond, a film actor or a film di rector? 2. Who offered Starr to try her luck on the pictures?
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3. What were the results of the camera tests? 4. What kind of part was she offered? 5. Why did Stephan Desmond make her that offer? Why did Starr film well? 6. What was the title of the picture directed by Stephan Desmond? 7. Where did the talk between Starr and Stephan take place? When did it take place? 8. What was the improvised studio erected for? 9. Why does the author say the studio was a busy hive of industry? (Tell in detail what was going on in the studio while Stephan and Starr were talking.) 10. What was Rex Brandon, a film actor or film director? 11. What had they been doing all afternoon? 12. Why had they to retake the same scenes over and over again? Was it because Stephan was an exacting director or because Rex was a bad actor? 13. When did Stephan shoot the scene in which Starr ap peared? Where did the scene take place? 14. What made Starr feel that the whole of the picture rested upon her? 15. Who gave the order for the shooting to start? 16. How did the shooting start? 17. Describe in detail what were Starr's feelings as the shot was being taken. 18. How did Starr's first experience in filming end? 19. How did Stephan and his cameraman learn the results of the shot? 20. Why didn't Starr dare to go to the projection room to be present at the run through? 21. Who was the first to tell her the result of the shot? 22. What made the shot a success? Exercise II. a) Give Russian equivalents for. she photographed excellently; the right features; to assure enthusiastically; to assist verbally; to tinker with; a microphone boom; vivid scarlet; conventional prettiness; to go over and over something; a terrific and terrifying moment; to be on tenterhooks; the girl at the hotel switch-board; the shot's . .
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b) Give English equivalents for: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise III. Find substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. "You have the right features, I'm sure you'll photo graph excellently," said the film director. 2. Conventional prettiness is of no importanceon the screen. 3. It was in between of two of the shots. 4. A busy hive of industry the studio was. 5. The hairdresser was adding a few finishing touches to the leading woman's hair-do. 6. The sound engineer was fussing about with the micro phone boom. 7. Starr had already her make-up on. 8. The director made the actors repeat the scene, but the actors failed to do the scene so as to satisfy him. 9. Her face was so hot that the make-up was beginning to run. 10. She was dying to know the result of the shot. 11. The camera tests are a success. 12. They were to shoot the scene in which Starr was play ing. 13. He knows a good film from a bad one. 14. She made her first appearance on the stage three years ago. Exercise IV. A. Retell "The Debut of a Film Actress." B. Use "The Debut of a Film Actress" to make up a dialogue. Exercise V. A. Pick out of "The Debut of a Film Actress" all the words belonging to the specific cinema vocabu^ lary used to denote the shooting of a scene in a studio; give their Russian counterparts. B. Pick out the words and phrases belonging to both the theatre and cinema vocabulary
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Exercise VI. a) Discuss the meanings of shot and shoot as used in "The Debut of a Film Actress." b) Use either the verb shoot or the nouns shot or shooting in the following sentences. (Look up the three words in the Vocabulary Notes). 1. The photography in the film is excellent, especially, the Leningrad ... 2. The film version of this novel is shortly ... in the Belgian Congo. 3. The director instructed his cameramen ... scenes of everyday London life. 4. The cameramen ... not to a script, but merely to a rather haphazardly drawn up list of topics. 5. Working with the oldest of equipment, ... on bad film, sometimes even on positive, the first Soviet docu mentary film-makers faced the perils of the front and provided the young Soviet Land with a record of the Civil War. 6. ... have already been taken in Kiev. The unit is now ... coastal scenes at Yalta. 7. Scenes from "Sisters" ... in Moscow. 8. We ... some of the scenes for the new picture in the Crimea. 9. The ballet "Romeo and Juliet" ... on location at Yalta in the Crimea. 10. The ... of the film is over. 11. Early in 1896 Louis Lumiere sent his enthusiastic as sistants around the world ... fresh materials. 12. The entire cast of the picture ... had assembled to start making up. 13. As many as 90 per cent of the ... in "Othello" were made on location. 14. Immediately after the first .... regular ... began. 15. This .is a scene which will live in our memories togeth er with the "dance of the leaves" in the final .... 16. He had an opportunity of ... the World Skating Con test in Oslo.
IS5

Exercise VII. 1. Compare the intransitive meanings of the verbs photograph and film. Which of these verbs has a more general meaning? Use the intransitive meanings of the verbs photograph and film in sentences of your own. 2. Comment on the morphology and the meaning of the words: cameraman, make-up man, property man, film man, clapper boy. Use these words in sentences of your own. Think of some other compounds of the -man and -boy types. 3. Pick out of Lesson Sixteen all the words and phrases used as predicate with the nouns scene and shot as subject or object. Exercise VIII. a) Translate the following sentences. b) Give synonyms for the verb film wherever possible. 1. The producer is back in Moscow now filming "Sisters." 2. I think I always knew you would film well. 3. The writer came to America when one of his novels was filmed. 4. Filming nature in its natural surroundings is an attempt to visualize a world before the advent of man. 5. Why didn't you advise me to go to the films earlier? But I hadn't seen how well you filmed. 6. Only one of the author's works has been filmed and with no great success. 7. Other actors who started filming that year were grad uates of the Moscow State Institute of Cinematography. 8. The first of these plays to be filmed is Meliere's "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme." 9. The late A. Chaudhuri, who was also a movie actor, wrote several humorous screen plays, which were filmed a few years ago. 10. You film excellently. 11. The English actor, Michael Redgrave, has been acting and filming in America for two years. 12. "Othello" has been filmed three times.
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Exercise IX. Insert the necessary words:


FILMING THE BOLSHOI

All night, after the evening ... the Bolshoi Ballet danced "Giselle" on the Covent Garden ... for ... . The whole performance was being ... in colour by Harmony Films, the company that made a record of the Salzberg performance of Mozart's "Don Giovanni" two years ago. Paul Czinner was delighted by the... shown by the whole.... Time and again even in the small hours of the morning, prima ... Ulanova would turn to ... Czinner at the end of ... and say: "That was not quite perfect. I think we will dance it again." Since the Bolshoi visit there have been ... at many... showing the earlier Ulanova films "Romeo and Juliet" and "Trio Ballet." "Giselle" should be ready for ... early in the New Year.
(Film and Filming, Dec. 1956)

Exercise X. Translate into English: 1. . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. , ? 5. . . 6. . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. , , . 11. , .


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12. . 13. . 14. "" . 15. . , . 16. . 17. . 18. 1956 . Exercise XI. Speak on: Shooting a film.

Lesson Seventeen
THE PREVIEW This morning there was to Be a preview of "The Gentleman Pirate" at the Gloriana Theatre. Starr realized, as she went down to the theatre, that she had never been more nervous in her life. "But that's ridiculous," she told herself. "Even if they do think I have done well, it's not going to do me any good. I promised Stephan I'd give it up, and I will." All the same she couldn't help feeling a little wistful about it. And she hoped, for her own personal satisfaction, the directors and critics would be pleased with her. Her pass admitted her to one of the boxes. Stephan had said he would join her there. He had to go out to the studio on business first. As she sat there waiting, her eyes swept the audience. She waved to several other members of the cast she recognized, noted the rows of critics, of exhibitors, saw several directors of the West-East Studios in an opposite box. It was thrilling, wasn't it? She had been to previews before, but none had ever been as exciting as this. Possibly because never before had she been in the picture. Just before the lights were lowered, Stephan slipped into the seat beside her. She saw immediately he was upset about something. "What's the matter, Stephan?" she asked quickly. He shrugged angrily"I've just come back from a directors' meeting. It appears I'm not to direct the next Rex Brandon picture, even though it's to be the biggest the studio has attempted yet. The job has been given to William Taylor. I bet Rex has been lodging complaints1 against me. He's just the sort of man to do a low-down2 trick like that through personal spite." "I'm sure you're mistaken, Stephan," Starr said quickly. "How do you know Rex had anything to do with it?" "I'd bet a thousand dollars he had," Stephan said bitterly. "Why else should they have made such a decision? I've always directed Rex's pictures. He's their most famous star, and I'm their most important director. And this picture, 'Lovable Rake' is to be the biggest and most spectacular thing the studio has yet attempted. Given it to William Taylor,
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have they? Why, he's never even been associated with Rex before. Still, if they want to ruin the picture it's their own lookout.3 But I don't think a sensible body of men would allow themselves to be influenced by a personal spite." Starr didn't reply immediately. She felt intensely miserable, all her excitement in the coming preview had gone. She felt flat, like a balloon suddenly pricked by a pin. "But, Stephan, how can you be so positive it was Rex's doing?" Starr asked at last. "Who else could have influenced them? I know he was furious with me for retaking so many of his scenes in the first picture. Too darn4 conceited to listen to a mere director!" The preview started. Starr watched the picture in a dull listless way. What she had imagined would be one of the most exciting mornings of her life was proving the most miserable. And as she watched she was forced to the conclusion that in some ways the picture wasn't as good as many other ones Stephan had directed. Rex wasn't good, either. In some of the scenes his manner, usually so natural, seemed curiously strained. As though all the spontaneity had been taken out of his acting. The words of those electricians rushed back to her: "yes ... he doesn't seem able to do a thing right. And he's not the sort of actor who improves under such treatment. He's always at his best the first time a shot's taken." Were they right? Had Stephan, without meaning to, managed to flatten Rex's interpretation of the part? And yet she was convinced Stephan had only tried to do his duty. Rex must know that. But had he, because of it, refused to act under Stephan's direction in the coming picture? She was brought out of these reflections with a start. There SHE was. A queer and uncanny sensation watching herself move and speak on the screen for the first time. She couldn't tell whether she was good or not. She wished Stephan would say something, something to reassure her. But he sat glum and silent. She had a feeling he wasn't watching the screen at all. An excited hum of conversation followed the final fade out. The lights were switched on, and people gathered in eager groups, chatting. She moved down with Stephan into their midst.
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NOTES

1. 2. 3. 4.

to lodge a complaint to make a complaint low-down base, dishonest it's their own lookout it's their own business too darn conceited too damn conceited
EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: in? 1. What was the title of the picture Starr was to appear

2. Had "The Gentleman Pirate" been released at the cinemas or was there only to be a preview of the picture on that memorable morning? 3. Why did Starr feel so nervous as she went to the theatre? 4. Where was Starr's seat? (Where did Starr sit?) 5. Whom did the audience of the preview consist of? Whom did Starr recognize in the audience? Whom did she wave to? 6. What made this preview so absolutely different from all the others for Starr? 7. When did Stephan join her in the box? What kind of meeting had he attended? What had he heard there? Why did the news upset him so much? 8. Who was to blame, in Stephen's opinion, for the change of directorship? Why did he think it was all Rex's doing? 9. Why was it always Stephan who was given Rex Bran don's pictures to direct? Did Stephan really think that Wil liam Taylor would ruin the picture or did he say so because his vanity was wounded? 10. Why did Starr watch the picture listlessly? 11. What did Starr think was wrong about the picture? 12. How did Rex usually act? What made his perform ance in "The Gentleman Pirate" flat, uninspired and cold? Could Stephen's retaking the scenes possibly have flattened Rex's interpretation of the part or were there some other reasons? 13. Had Rex always enjoyed acting under Stephan's di rection or had he begun to get dissatisfied with it?
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14. What brought Starr out of her reflections? What were her feelings when she saw herself appear on the screen? Could she tell whether she was good or not? 15. Why didn't Stephan say something to reassure her? Exercise II. a) Give English equivalents for: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; . b) Make up sentences of your own using all the equivalents but the last three. Exercise III. a) Write and then tell "The Preview" in the first person singular, using the model version of the first part of "The Preview" given below. b) Make up a dialogue between Starr and Desmond.
THE PREVIEW (Model Version)

Never in my life had I been so nervous going to the theatre. I knew it was ridiculous. After all, it wouldn't do me any good if they said I had done well. I had promised Stephan I ' d give it up, and I would too. All the same 1 had my doubts about it But still, I'd feel more satisfied if the directors and critics were pleased with me. I had a pass to one of the boxes. Stephan had said he would join me there. He had to go out to the studios on business first. Among the audience I recognized some other members of the cast and waved to them. There were rows of critics. In the box opposite me I saw several directors of the West-East Studios. How it thrilled me! But then I had never been in the picture before. Just before the lights were lowered Stephan slipped into the seat beside me. I saw immediately he was upset about something. When I asked him what was the matter he shrugged angrily.
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Exercise IV. 1. Pick out of Lesson 17 all the sentences containing words formed from director; discuss their meanings and translate them into Russian. 2. Translate extracts (a) and (b) and discuss the meaning of the words formed from producer and director. a) Dino de Laurentiis, the producer of "War and Peace," began working in Naples as a truck-driver. At 18 he decid ed to become an actor, hut soon became more interested in production. He produced his first film at 22 and a year later became Executive Producer for Lux Films. In 1950 he and Carlo Ponti formed a company and built their own studios. b) In this article, the director writes about his work. He describes the functions of a director from the first script treatment to the final cut of the finished picture. By the time the director starts shooting he will be thoroughly conversant with the script, knowing what he wants from the actors, and how sequences should be played. One of the essentials of the job of film directing is to be able to help an artist give an even performance although he, or she, may have to do the final dramatic scene on the first day and the first scenes in the finished film some weeks later. 3. Insert words formed from either direct or produce and give reasons for your choice: a) Asking me to set out in cold print the day-to-day routine of a ... is not unlike asking a painter to describe how he paints his picture. But painting, like ... ,is something one DOES, and how one does it is not easy to describe. Like a painter, a ... must be enthusiastic about his subject. Unless he can approach the film as something he really wants to do, it is unlikely that anyone else in the unit will be able to give it his or her best.
b) FILM ON THE LIFE OF JOSEPH CONRAD

Maxwell Setton, a British film ... , has recently returned from Poland, where he has had talks with representatives of the Polish Government on the question of a film he proposes..., based on the life of Joseph Conrad.
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While nothing definite is settled at the moment, it is anticipated that ... will start in September, probably in Warsaw. The screen play will be written by John Cresswell and Camille Honig. It is not yet known who will play the part of Conrad. Exercise V. a) Give synonyms to the compounds having screen as their first element in sentences 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 16 by changing the first element (cf. screen character film character). b) Give theatrical counterparts of: screen version, screen actor, screen career, screen character, screen acting, screen player. Use each of the pairs of compounds in sentences of your own. c) Translate all the sentences into Russian: 1. Who is responsible for the screen-play? Who will write the musical score? 2. The film "Interrupted Melody" is the screen version of the life of the famous soprano Marjorie Lawrence. 3. He was cheered as enthusiastically as one of the screen favourites. 4. This year, however, there has been a trend towards wide screen production. 5. The film is in Eastman colour and for a wide screen. 6. The noted screen and stage actor Cherkasov is to play the leading role. 7. Will she continue her screen career after she recovers from her illness or will she quit films? 8. Seldom has a film career been launched with so little screen time to an artist's credit. 9. "Carnival" is a screen comedy that is popular with all comedy lovers. 10. The picture is a great favourite with screen audiences. 11. There stands between the screen writer and the audi ence not only an intricate manufacturing process but also a producer, a director, an art director, a number of actors, a cameraman, a film editor, and a sound engineer. 12. This just shows how similar are your own and your screen character. 13. The film could have been a gem of screen humour. It might have given a new direction to British screen comedy.
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14. The young actress was given a screen test after she appeared in a variety show. 15. Anita Bjork, the first lady of the Swedish screen, is now back at work after a period of temporary retirement, which has seemed all too long for lovers of good screen acting. 16. He is one of the finest British screen players. Exercise VI. a) Practise in dialogue form. b) Tell the dialogue as a narrative. Masha. Kolja, there you are! And me waiting for you at the entrance! Haven't you got the tickets yet? Kolja. No, of course not. M. We are going to be late, you know. It's nine now. K. We won't be late at all. There are no more tickets for this show. M. Aren't there? What about the next one? K. They've still got tickets but it doesn't start till 10,50. M. That's awfully late, isn't it? Why not go to the Metropol? There are three halls there and shows start every thirty or forty minutes. K. "The Grasshopper" is only showing in the Blue Hall and I don't know when it begins. We may not get any tickets, either. You know what it's like at box-offices. M. I just don't know what to do. Perhaps we'll go to-morrow. K. I t ' l l be a different film to-morrow. To-day's the last day for "The Grasshopper." M. What a pity! I was so keen on seeing it. K- Yes, and the thing is they might take it off, and we'll never see it at all. M. What can we do? K- Well, make up your mind one way or the other. My turn is coming now. M. All right, let's go. What seats are available? K. (to the box-office girl) Excuse me, what seats have you got left? (to Masha) Only balcony ones ... M. It's awfully stuffy up there. K. But there's no room anywhere else. M. What row? K. (to the box-office girl) What row, please? (to Masha) Row 1. Shall we take them?
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M. All right then, but ask for seats in the middle. K. (to the box-office girl) Give me two, but in the middle, please. Thanks. Just a minute ... (to Masha) Have you got a rouble? M. Let me see. Yes, here you are. K. Thanks ... Let's go! We have an hour and a half to wait. What shall we do? M. No idea! Good Lord! We'll not get home before one o'clock again to-night. Exercise VII. Translate into English: ( ). ( ) . , , . .
( , 4, 1958, . 171)

, . . , - . , . . : . (), . (), . () . . Exercise VIII. Give an English rendering of:


.
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*. , , **, , - . , . . . , . , , .*** (*) . (**) , , . - , . . . 4- , . , .


( , 1958 )

Exercise IX. Speak on: 1) Going to the pictures. 2) My favourite film actress.
a check open-collared shirt, ** smoke billowed out ** rightly called a youth team (or unit (*) stage-craft faculty (*) camera-operator faculty

Lesson

Eighteen
BETWEEN THE ACTS

An outstanding new name, Sergei Samsonov, 27 year-old graduate of the Moscow Institute of Cinematography, and a pupil of Gerasimov, was introduced to Europe at the Venice Festival in 1955, where "The Cicada" won a Silver Lion.This adaptation of a Chekhov story, written and directed by Samsonov, is by far the most rewarding of the group of Chekhov films made during 1954-and 1955 to celebrate the centenary of the writer's birth. It is the bitter story of a light-headed, pleasure-loving woman married to a famous but unromantic doctor. She entertains a collection of fawning Petersburg artists and dilettantes and becomes involved in a disastrous affair with a fashionable painter. It is only upon the sudden death of her husband that she understands the essential emptiness, the rootless futility of her existence. Apart from creating the impeccable period background, beautifully observed and felt (the film is in Agfacolour, and the exteriors are again exquisite), Samsonov handles the narrative with a nicely judged subtlety and irony. He has caught the difficult tragi-comic Chekhovian balance to perfection, the film is both sophisticated and touching. Three episodes in particular the opening "soiree" with the artists, the tense, strained dinner party at which the husband is confronted by his wife's lover, and the closing sequence of his death (shot in sad, gaunt close-ups) testify to a personal talent of already considerable maturity. The casting is almost faultless and Ludmila Tselikovskaya as the wife and Sergei Bondarchuk as Dymov, the husband, give performances of remarkable depth. In contrast, "The Safety Match" is an enjoyable Chekhovian joke at the expense of the pompous tsarist police, rather too theatrical at times, but with an agreeable comic sense and again, a firmly authentic period atmosphere. The absurd denouement, in which the murdered landowner is discovered to be the happily tipsy prisoner of the Police Captain's lovesick wife, is presented with the sharp, sophisticated irony favoured by Chekhov and his contemporaries. Some subtly
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pointed, humorous, small-part playing effectively sustains the mood. The direction of Yudin is serviceable and competent, if a little deficient in pace.
(Sight and Sound, 1956)

THE GRASSHOPPER
Directed by S. Samsonov. Photography, F. Dobronravov, V. Monakhov; Script by S. Samsonov, Music, N. Kryukov. Adapted from a story by Anton Chekhov; Russian Contemporary Agfacolour. Dymov, Sergei Bondarchuk; Olga, Ludmila Tselikovskaya; Ryabovsky, V. Druzhnikov; Korostelev, F. Teterin.

The Grasshopper of the title is Olga, a tiresome, selfish, attractive woman. She is married to a shy, clever, young doctor who puts up with her flirtations patiently and with quiet affection. It is not so much with men that she flirts, although she has a disastrous affair with a fashionable and equally selfish painter; she flirts with the Arts, gently despises her husband for his philistinism while admiring his profile, and fills their house with a useless collection of fawning dilettantes. Tragically her husband overworks and needlessly contracts a fatal disease, leaving her alone and comprehending too late the futility and stupidity of her whole life. The Agfacolour requires some getting used to, but it comes into its own with the exquisite landscapes by the Volga, where the wife experiences her short-lived idyll with the artist. The whole piece is wonderfully photographed especially the overfurnished bourgeois drawing-room where the artists gather and the beautifully composed street scenes in St. Petersburg,, The editing is most assured and smoothwith sometimes the unforced speed of a Carol Reed filmat other times allowing the simple story to develop leisurely, giving full value to revealing close-ups. So many of the scenes are subtly observed that inevitably they stick in the memory. None of them give the impression of being deliberate set-pieces, superimposed on the narrative. There is a memorably tense and awkward dinner-party, where the bored lover cruelly taunts the wife in front of her husband and his best friend, another doctor. What a faultless period
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sense the Russians havequite superior to anything from Holywood. The acting is marvellous. Having seen Bondarchuk as Othello in the recent Yutkevitch version I am enormously impressed by his obvious versatility: it is impossible to believe this shy young doctor and that striving Othello are one and the same actor. As the wife, Tselikovskaya plays a Bette Davis part with comparable effect but half the apparent effort. V. Druzhnikov's Byronic appearance is perfect for the lover; and F. Teterin (looking astoundingly like Leo G. Carroll) is most moving in his breakdown on the death of his old friend. "The Grasshopper" was made to celebrate the centenary of Chekhov's birth. No writer can ever have been better served by a director. Chekhov's tragi-comic balance has never been caught with such judgement, sophistication, tenderness and maturity. The director is 27 years old. His name is Samsonov. Make a note of it, for this film is a minor masterpiece.
{Films and Filming, Jan. 1957) E X E R C I S E S

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. Which Soviet film won a Silver Lion at the Venice In ternational Film Festival in 1955? 2. Who adapted and directed "The Cicada"? 3. Where did Sergei Samsonov receive his professional training? Whose pupil is he? 4. On what occasion were "The Cicada" and other Chekhov films made in the Soviet Union? 5. How do the two reviewers assess the film? Do they agree in the appraisal they give it? 6. What are the merits of Sergei Samsonov's film accord ing to the two critics? 7. Do you share the reviewer's opinion that "The Cicada" is both a sophisticated and a touching film? What makes the picture a fine piece of art? 8. Which episodes particularly impressed the reviewers? Are they the very same episodes that moved you when you saw the picture? 9. Why does the closing sequence of Dymov's death impress the spectator so deeply? Is it in the closing sequence of Dymov's 170

death that the director's talent becomes fully revealed or do you think some other sequences in the film are more representative of his skill? 10. What do you think it was more difficult for the direc tor to achieve, the authentic period background or the unique tragi-comic Chekhovian balance? 11. Who plays the part of Dymov in "The Cicada"? Who plays opposite him? 12. What do you think of Bondarchuk as Dymov and Tselikovskaya as his wife? Whose performance do you like better? 13. What do you think of the casting in general? 14. Who made Chekhov's story "The Safety Match" into a film? 15. What makes "The Safety Match" an enjoyable picture? 16. Relate the denouement of the film "The Safety Match." 17. What do you think of Yudin's presentation of the story? What do you think of the acting in the film? Exercise II. a) Give one or two nouns corresponding to the following verbs; use the nouns in sentences of your own: direct (2), cast (2), play(2), judge (1), adapt (1), graduate (1), edit (1), photograph (1), celebrate (1), shoot (1). b) Give nouns corresponding to the following adjectives and use both the adjectives and the nouns in sentences of your own: subtle, perfect, mature, versatile, futile, sophisticated, theatrical, ironic, personal, absurd, authentic, competent, revealing, enjoyable, rewarding. c) In which compounds in the reviews is the word period included as the first component? In which compounds is the word piece the last component? Translate the com pounds into Russian and use them in sentences of your own. d) Which attributes are used to modify the noun close-up? e) Which are the two different sets of attributes used by the reviewers to modify the nouns woman and doctor? Which set of attributes reveals the inner qualities of the character more deeply? 171

f) Which synonyms does the author of the review "The Grasshopper" use instead of the words: strained, impeccable, understand, and pace employed by the author of the review "Between the Acts"? Exercise III. 1. Pick out all the words and compounds dealing with: a) the creating of a scenario, b) the shooting of a film, c) the acting, d) the directing, e) the producing of a film. 2. Pick out all the nouns, adjectives and adverbs with their modifiers characterizing the skill of any of the makers of a film, for example, cameraman, actor, etc. (cf. his obvious versatility, etc.) Exercise IV. Find possible substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. Sergei Bondarchuk's acting is unforgettable. 2. The young director's period sense is irreproachable: he has succeeded in establishing an authentic period atmos phere. 3. The final close-ups show an already astonishingly de veloped talent of considerable originality. 4. The closing episode is so subtly observed that it grips the audience. 5. The difficult tragi-comic Chekhovian balance is exact ly caught. 6. "The Safety Match" suffers from too much theatricality at times. 7. "The Grasshopper" was awarded a Silver Lion. 8. The film was made to mark the 100th anniversary of the writer's death. 9. The performances of some of the minor character parts help to keep up the mood. 10. The photography of the film is excellent, the outdoors and indoors being equally bright. 11. The screen story is by S. Gerasimov. 12. No writer can ever have had a better interpreter of his story on the screen.
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13. We were greatly impressed by his obvious many-sided ness. 14. The director shows a deep insight into the idea-content of Chekhov's story. 15. "The Safety Match" is a charming little piece with an agreeable comic sense directed against the tsarist police. 16. The director's talent becomes manifest (or comes out) in the sad and gaunt close-ups of Dymov's death.
Exercise V.

Re-word the review "Between The Acts" from: "This adaptation of a Chekhov story ..." to: "In contrast 'The Safety Match' ..." as if it were a review of a stage version of the story, replacing all the words and phrases belonging to the cinema vocabulary by the corresponding theatre words and expressions. Exercise VI. Insert the missing words: "The Cicada" ... again this morning. A minor Madam Bovary, married to a patient doctor, flirts with Petersburg's ... and in particular a ... painter. He throws her over after a while, and she returns to her Dymov. When he dies, after ... a disease contraced at work, she has a revelation of her own ..., the ... of her aspirations. S. Samsonov, who ... and ... the film, is 27 years old, a... of Gerasimov, a protege of Yutkevitch and already an astonishingly developed and ... talent. The Chekhov balance, irony and tenderness, pathos and absurdity, ... exactly ..., ... evocation irreproachable, with excellent Agfacolour; a finely cluttered bourgeois drawing-room, ... landscapes for the idyll, a beautiful Petersburg street ...; acting most ... . The colour film "Behind the Shop-window" is one of the ... of the Soviet .... The ... was written by A. Kapler. S. Samsonov, who ... the film, is well known for .the Venice Festival film last year, "The Cicada." Exercise VII. Translate "Between the Acts" and "The Grasshopper." Exercise VIII. a) Compare the two reviews lexically. b) Compare the two reviews stylistically and say which you prefer; give your reasons.
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Exercise IX. a) Arrange all the words or compounds formed from film in the sentences given below in two groups: 1) those having film as their first component; 2) those having film as their second component (e.g. film actor; colour film); compare the meanings of film in the two groups. b) Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. A number of comedy films are either completed or being completed. 2. Some Indian film experts helped R. Karmen in the final editing of his film on India. 3. The reception was held in honour of a well-known film producer. 4. The picture was given a poor reception by film-goers. 5. This is a snapshot of S. Bondarchuk and S. Yutkevitch, film director, between "takes" of their current motion pic ture. 6. The French film men visited the "Mosfilm" studios last week. 7. The cultural renaissance and the industrial development of India are the themes of two documentary films. 8. The first detachment of the shooting unit from Russia was met at the airport in Bombay by friends and well-wishers in the Indian film industry. 9. Sergei Eisenstein was the Russian film director whose theories of film making revolutionized film technique in the mid-1920's. 10. The foundation of film art is editing. 11. We had to hurry up for the film show. 12. Sight and Sound is a British film magazine. 13. Her father didn't want her to go in for a film career. 14. France has contributed as much to film criticism as she has to film making. 15. In film circles that article created quite a sensation. 16. The young composer's name is well known in the world of film music. 17. The main object of organizing the Indian film week in London is to awaken popular interest in films coming here from Indian studios.
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18. Eisenstein's early silent film had considerable influ ence upon the development of the documentary film. 19. These cultural films are to be shown before feature films. 20. Film production has become costly in Britain these days. 21. He was offered an opportunity of studying film art direction. 22. The first film-version of the story was a failure. 23. Coming originally from the stage, he made few conces sions to film acting technique. 24. Fairbanks started to go in for cowboy films like "Head ing South," and bandit films like "The Mark of Zorro." 25. Till the colour laboratory is built, they will process their colour films elsewhere. 26. Fairbanks' occasional athletic adventure films dur ing this period grew in popularity. c) Give theatrical counterparts to the following phrases wherever possible: 1. film men 9. a film director 2. a costume film 10. film circles 3. film audiences 11. film magazine 4. a film star 12. film criticism 5. a film production 13. film career 6. a film producer 14. film acting 7. film-goers 15. film actress 8. a comedy film Exercise X. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . , , , , . 2. , * , , . . , , . 175

3. () . 4. . , . 5. , . , . 6. , 1954 ., . 7. . 8. , . 9. , . 10. ? ? , , . 11. , , , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. . , , . 15. ( - ) . . .


176

IM

Exercise XI. Give an English rendering:


. . . , , 4- -, . , , , . . , . , , ... , , , . , , . . . , . , . " ", .


( , 4, 1958)

Exercise XII. 1. Speak on any of the Chekhov stories made into a film (except "The Grasshopper"). 2. Which of the Chekhov films do you find most satis fying and why? 3. Tell the content of Chekhov's story "The Grasshopper."

Lesson Nineteen
"DAVID COPPERFIELD' TELEVISED Dickens had wonderful imagination. What is more, he had the power of conveying his imagination to his reader. Few who read Dickens can be in any doubt as to the appearance, behaviour, and habits of his creations, or the scenes he so vividly describes. Any actor, actress or producer, therefore, courts severe criticism1 in trying to interpret Dickens on the stage or screen. It follows that it was almost inevitable that the new B.B.C. serialization of "David Copperfield" on the television screen would disappoint a great many Dickens lovers. Bringing to it the greatest tolerance,2 I think that in this serialization, both the production and, in most cases, the acting have failed dismally. Dickens wrote this great masterpiece in twenty-monthly parts. It is being presented on the screen in thirteen weekly instalments3 of half an hour each. Six and half hours in which to tell the great story to a huge public numbering millions is a finer opportunity than that enjoyed by any f i l m or stage or staged production. No longer can the excuse be made that twenty hours reading, or whatever time it takes one to read a book by Dickens, must be compressed to two hours on the stage or screen. Cutting and telescoping there had to be, admittedly, but surely that does not excuse all the eccentricities of this production Dora being made Mr. Spenlow's niece, Mr. Dick having dark hair, or the discrepancies between the age of David, Little Emily, and Uriah, or that Mr. Micawber, on the eve of going into prison for debt, should still be wearing a gold watch, that the boys at the blacking warehouse should steal a guinea (not half a guinea) lent to David by Mr. Micawber, or that all the Peggotty household should be present at the death of Barkis and no one in the old boat-house when Little Emily's flight was discovered, and so on. As a result, the last-named episode lost every vestige4 of its dramatic power. Dickens was a genius. He wrote a masterpiece in "David Copperfield." Then why spoil it? I have a feeling that the company were poorly served by their producer. They were certainly not inspired
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by him with the spirit of Dickens, which never made itself manifest on the screen in this version. I feel sure that I know what Dickens lovers are thinking about this production; but what are the people thinking who are having their first introduction to Dickens through this travesty 5 of a great classic? That is the important thing. Dickens is not speaking to those people, and none of them, after seeing this production, could be blamed for never wishing to open the book at a l l .
(The Dickensian Winter Number, January 1957)

"The Wild Duck" To Be Filmed For Television "The Wild Duck" is to be filmed for television before the company disperses, at the end of the London run on 18th February. This will mark the first appearance of Mr. Williams in a television play and he is delighted at the prospect of being able to make a TV debut under such favourable conditions. In television, actors normally have far too little time to rehearse, and the actual performance becomes something of an ordeal, because, in any case, acting before a television camera is more trying than playing before an audience with a prompter in the wings just in case of necessity. This admirable John Clemens policy of making a telerecording of a play after the London run means that the cast will have already been playing in public for well over two months before they think about facing the camera. "The Wild Duck" will be carefully adapted to television requirements, so that the viewer will see something far more than crude photographic shots of the stage production. As the characterizations will naturally be unaltered, the cast will benefit from the intimate knowledge of the play acquired during the London run. Television, in the opinion of Mr. Williams, should not be regarded as an enemy of the living theatre. As far as his personal experience goes, his appearance as Dickens turned out to be one of the most striking programmes seen during the Christmas holiday, which means that thousands of people will be likely to go to the theatre to see him whenever he presents another Dickens season. It so happens that television
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is the ideal medium for short story reading, if so loose a term dare be applied to the masterly acting and timing which Mr. Williams brings to bear upon the work of Dickens. Speaking more generally, this actor thinks television can help to train people in readiness for going to the theatre, especially people living in country districts, for whom theatregoing is still something of a novelty. Watching plays on television accustoms them to listening to the spoken word, which is the first essential of play-going. It gets them used to hearing long words, particularly if they are people with little or no time to devote to reading.
(Theatre World, February 1956)
NOTES

1. to court severe criticism to expose oneself to criti cism; cf. to court defeat, disaster, etc. 2. to bring it to the greatest tolerance to be as lenient, indulgent as possible 3. instalment one of several parts appearing at inter vals 4. vestige trace or remains; cf. There is not a vestige of truth in his words. 5. travesty a ridiculous imitation; something unlike and inferior to the genuine article EXERCISES Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. When was the new television film "David Copperfield" shown to the British public? Why does the reviewer term it a serialization of "David Copperfield" on the screen? In how ma ny instalments was the television version of "David Copper field" presented on the screen? In what form did Dickens write the novel? 2. Did the television version of "David Copperfield" cov er the whole of the book or had there to be a lot of cutting? Why is cutting inevitable when a big novel is televised or made into a film? 3. Did the producer of "David Copperfield" preserve the
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dramatic power of Dickens' book? Did he remain faithful to the text or are there discrepancies between the television film and the novel? Name some of them. 4. Did the leading actors manage to re-create on the screen the appearance, behaviour and habits of the characters and the scenes Dickens so vividly describes in his masterpiece? If they failed, what was the reason? By whom were they poor ly served, and how? 5. Why does any producer trying to interpret a great work of literature on the screen or the stage take upon himself a most responsible task? What are the problems facing the pro ducer undertaking the task of filming or televising a great novel? What should a producer seek to achieve in screening or televising a great novel? 6. What appraisal does the reviewer give the adaptation of Dickens' great novel? Why is any producer sure to find it very hard to interpret Dickens on the stage or on the screen? Why did the television version of "David Copperfield" dis appoint most of Dickens lovers? 7. What happens if no careful adapting to television re quirements is made while televising a stage production? 8. Why is television an ideal medium for short story reading? 9. What does watching a play on television accustom peo ple to? 10. What is the first essential of play-going? 11. Why is acting before a television camera more trying than playing before a living audience? 12. Why are the characterizations of a stage production not altered when the production is televised? Exercise II. Pick out of "'David Copperfield' Televised" and "'The Wild Duck' To be Filmed For Television" all the words and phrases referring to: a) television (e.g. televise); b) television and cinema (e.g. camera); c) television, cinema, and theatre (e.g. actor); d) theatre only (e.g. theatre-going) and arrange them in four groups accordingly. Exercise HI. Retell "'David Copperfield' Televised" and "'The Wild Duck' To Be Filmed For Television."

Exercise IV. Insert the missing words: The genuine ... gains more satisfaction from working in the theatre. In a television ... he is expected to create a complex ... in a matter of three weeks, before playing it for an isolated ... in front of the ... . In the theatre he has a similar rehearsal period but only after the first public ... does the most interesting work begin. Then the real joy of... starts. Only when he ... before a living ... can the actor have definite proof of his success or failure. Only by the ... from the auditorium can he judge whether or not his ... carries conviction. If the ... find it wanting, he can make subtle changes and ... until it is as near perfection as possible. In the ... studio he is divorced from his ... of millions who are scattered all over the country, and when he hears critical ... after the performance, it is all over and too late to do anything about improving it.
(Theatre World, November 1955)

Exercise V. a) Give Russian equivalents for the italicized words and phrases. b) Discuss the pro- and anti-TV points and give your rea sons for joining one or the other camp. c) Make up a dialogue between a service engineer called in to repair a TV set and the owner of the TV set. d) Speak on the difference in the work of a television an nouncer and a radio announcer. Whatever reasons some people may give for keeping television out of their homes it's plain enough that increasing numbers find the home screen irresistible. The small anti-TV camp puts up several reasons for its coldshouldering of the home screen. "I'm waiting until television is developed, I'm waiting for colour TV to become a domestic service," say some. "Viewing takes up too much time," say other TV opponents. This idea certainly appears to be borne out by the fanatical everynight viewing of the new viewer. Plenty of prophecies have already been made about the influence television may have on home life. Some generalizations predict that television will
turn us into a race of stay-at-homes. It will replace theatregoing, cinemagoing, sportsgoing. It will make book-read182

111

ing a drab bore and kill the hobbies of young and old. It will keep young people at home in the evening and children will sit glued to the screen when they should be in bed or doing school homework. During the first months of viewing the exaggerated prediction may seem credible. For there must be few households indeed who do not at first become enslaved to the lure of the home screen. Everything transmitted must be seen, and consequently all other family occupations are abandoned so long as the programmes are on. We are only human, and we do not want to feel we are missing any part of the new experience television can bring. This human weakness has, however, the unfortunate effect of blunting our discrimination in programme selection and our judgement of what we see. The television programmes are not intended to be watched by everybody all the time. The deepest enjoyment of viewing comes after the period of incessant viewing, which can last for several months, or even a year or more, is over. Programmes are carefully selected with discrimination and the screen is left blank at other times. When this stage is reached viewers can also express criticism helpful to the television people in making progress with what is, after all, a completely new medium of entertainment and enlightment. They can then detect what! things television can do supremely well and what things it ought never to attempt. For every home the television adventure begins with the selection of a set, at the radio shop (store). Once the set is delivered at the house, a considerable domestic argument usually arises about where to place it. The main need is to put the set where viewing will be most comfortable. The modern television screen is bright enough to give good entertainment under subdued lightning, it is in fact bright enough to allow summer afternoon viewing in a shady corner of a room. At all times the golden rule should be: "Do not poke about inside the television receiver. If the normal controls fail to produce bright, properly focused and steady pictures, call in a service engineer to survey trickier internals of the set."
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The aerial is far more important to a television set than it is to the sound-radio receiver. In almost all cases it is vital if the best kind of reception is to be enjoyed. The exception is the receiver used within one or two miles from a television transmitter. * * * The television announcer is the voice of the Television Service, and yet, at the same time, needs to make the best of the intimacy of television viewing by appearing as a friendly person on the home screen. It is not the matter of always being chirpy and gaythat would be likely to get on viewers' nerves anyway. It is the balance between the formal and the informal that the announcer must try to achieve. All the announcements for the television announcer are made by a special department some hours before transmissions begin. In television, unlike sound radio, announcers must learn their announce script. Exercise VI. a) Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases and use them in sentences of your own: ; (); ; ; ; ; ; (); ; ; ; (.-.) ; () ; , ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ( .-. ); ; . b) Make up a vocabulary sheet including as many words and expressions as possible pertaining to television. Exercise VII. a) Practise in dialogue form. b) Retell the contents of the dialogue in the narrative. 184

CHARLES. Mary, don't you think we ought to get a TV set, every one of our friends has got one. MARY. Charles, you must be mad. I wouldn't own a TV set if they gave me one. How people can sit around hour after hour watching things in a box is beyond me. CHARLES. But Mary, the kids are dreaming to have a TV set at home. Look, John is again away from home, he's watching over at the Davidsons', there's no keeping him away from it. Of the two evils we've got to choose the lesser: if we get a TV set at home, the children will do. the watching with us, and we'll have a chance to select the proper programmes for them; not all the programmes are meant for children to watch. MARY. Charles, television is a dreadful thing forthechild. It's not the first time we've discussed the matter. And is it the children who are to decide whether we should have television in the house or not? I thoroughly dislike television; it won't do the children any good to have a TV set at home. They'll be spending too much time watching, it will keep them in when they should be out of doors; they will sit glued to the screen when they should be in bed or doing their homework. CHARLES. You sound too pessimistic, Mary. The children will have to learn how to live with TV to get exercise and fresh air and plenty of sleep, and ... do their homework. MARY. I don't think television is a blessing. You should speak to Mrs Davidson. She's having a lot of trouble with her son. He does not read a book or do anything. Everything transmitted must be seen and all other occupations are abandoned so long as the programmes are on. If you're going to buy a television set, please don't let the children look at it. CHARLES. Mary dear, I do want us to have television at home. Why should we miss all the entertainment television can afford. It rests with us to see to it that watching TV does not become a scourge. MARY. I see it's not the children but their father who is longing to have TV at home. Well, do as you like. But I warn you: if watching takes too much time and keeps the children from their duties, the TV set will have to go. That's my last word. (A year later) /85

MARY. Is there anything good on TV, Charles? CHARLES. I don't know. The set's been broken for two days, and nobody seems to miss it, so I just haven't called the repair man. MARY. Well, I have had the repair man in. I thought there might be something worth seeing in the next week or so. I t ' d be a pity to miss it. CHARLES. Don't you think we ought to go to bed? It's after 12. When the set's on there isn't any quiet. MARY. Let's see the end of the late show. I saw the picture when 1 was at school, but 1 can't remember how it finishes. CHARLES. Not tonight, dear. I ' m too tired. MARY. Just this time, Charles. I promise you we'll never stay up to watch late into the night. CHARLES. Of course, if you really want me to join you, I can't possibly refuse you. (An hour later) CHARLES. That was a programme worth seeing. It was a real treat to see Vivien Leigh appear in that role. And then we probably had better seats in our living room than most people at the theatre. What I like about TV watching at home is that you do not have to walk out of it when it's over. Oh, how late it is. Good night dear. Exercise VIII. A. Translate the following questions into English and answer them making use of Exercise VI: 1. , ? 2. ? 3. ? 4. , ? ( ). 5. , - ? ( .)
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II

. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. , , , . 2. , ? 3. , ? 4. ; . , . 5. . 6. , . 7. , . 8. . . 9. . 10. , . Exercise IX. Give an English rendering of: : . . * . , ** , . . ? , ? . , . . , . . .
* effective? way of sprearlinc; our ideas *"' way of setting in touch with, way of reaching 187

, . .* , , , , , , , , . , . . , , . , 4* . . , , . . . . , , , . , . : . : , , . , , , . , .
(. , 7.5.1959)

Exercise X. Speak on: 1. Televising a piece of literature. 2. TV comes into my home.


* spiritual relations ** receptive to art

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Lesson Twenty
MOSCOW INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL
For Humanism in the Cinema, for Peace and Friendship among Nations. (Motto oj the Moscow Film Festival)

Moscow 1959. This summer, an international film festival was held in Moscow. Entries came from forty-eight countries and included feature films, documentaries and animated cartoons, each in its own genre and style and each conveying its own message. The films were screened in the cinema hall of the House of Writers and in the biggest cinemas in Moscow. The Film Festival was a major event in the cultural life of Moscow and thousands upon thousands of people took this opportunity of seeing the best recent film productions from various countries and forming their opinion of the play of the actors and the art of directors and cameramen. Besides films from countries like France, Britain and Italy, there were entries from countries which are novices in this field, such as People's China, Korea, Pakistan and Viet Nam. But the productions of these "novices" showed great maturity and high artistic value. Gold medals were awarded for the Viet Nam documentary "The Building of the Hing Hai Canal," and the Pakistan film "The Dawn of Day;" silver medals went to the excellent young Mongolian actress Purovin Tsevelsurin for the best acting of a woman's role, to the Chinese film "An Old Soldier's New Story" for the best technical achievement and to the Korean Un Mhak for the best cameraman's work. The yardstick by which cinema art was measured at the Moscow Festival was its humanism. Man, his inner world and his whole life presented from a Lofty humane standpoint, has become dominant in the best modern films. It was no hazard that made the jury, composed of some of the biggest figures in cinematography, award the Grand Gold Medal to the Soviet f i l m "The Fate of a Man." The French director Christian Jacques, who was a member of the jury, gave the following appraisal of this film:
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"The film 'The Fate of a Man' is excellent. It is difficult to find other words to describe it. One cannot analyse the individual performances or the work of the director or the cameraman, for the picture is excellent in all respects. It has enormous vigour and delicacy, it is full of purity and hope. "A man is caught in the storm of war and loses everything. Black clouds surround him, and yet he finds strength to bear up with it all; he finds strength to adopt a child, a destitute, helpless creature, a grain of sand at the mercy of the whirlwind of war... All the great events and the feelings aroused are depicted with taste, tact and restraint. I wish to draw attention particularly to the extraordinary performance of the boy. Even if the film had no other merits, the child scenes, so subtle, profound and lifelike, so full of tragic vigourthese scenes alone would win Bondarchuk the reputation of a great director." At the solemn closing of the Festival ovations greeted the announcement that the Prize of Cinematographers had been awarded to the splendid Italian actress Giulietta Masina for her interpretation of the main role in "Cabiria's Nights," a film which captivated the audiences by its humanism. The stress laid on humanism at the Moscow Film Festival produced that atmosphere of constructive friendship which distinguished this festival from previous ones in Venice and Cannes. Meetings of producers and exhibitors and the discussion of the business side of the cinema were relegated to the background by get-togethers of film creators, and showings of films were followed by meetings of their makers with the audiences. Directors, actors and actresses, and cameramen told the spectators about their work and exchanged with them impressions on the Festival. They were applauded unstintingly, for the spectators saw them not only as movie makers, but as spokesmen of their countries. The Moscow International Film Festival showed that its motto, "For Humanism in the Cinema, for Peace and Friendship among Nations," was prompted by life itself and voiced the aspirations of hundreds of millions of ordinary people.

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EXERCISES

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. When was an International Film Festival first held in Moscow? Where had previous f i l m festivals taken place? 2. How many countries submitted entries? Can you name some of the countries and the films which they entered? 3. Name the genres to which the films belonged. Give exam ples of the different genres if possible. 4. What do we mean when we say that a film has a message to convey? What messages do Soviet films convey? What is the message of the film "The Fate of a Man"? 5. Was the Moscow Film Festival an important event in the cultural life of the Soviet capital? Did many people see the films entered for the Festival? Where were the films shown? Did you see any of those films? Which ones? 6. Name some countries in which cinematography is an old art and some in which it is new. Could the f i l m workers of People's China, Pakistan and Viet Nam who entered films for the Festival really be called novices? What prizes were awarded to films from those countries? 7. What is the yardstick by which films were judged by at the Moscow Festival? Who is the dominant figure in progres sive films? Name some Soviet films and progressive films made in other countries in which ordinary people are the dominant or central figures. 8. Why did the jury award the Grand Gold Medal to the Soviet film "The Fate' of a Man"? Was it by hazard or was there some profound reason for it? 9. Name one of the members of the jury. Do you know the names of any Soviet f i l m workers who were on the jury? 10. Do you agree with the appraisal of "The Fate of a Man," given by Christian Jacques? Which scenes or episodes did you like best? Can you name any individual performances which made the film a success? 11. Which qualities of Bondarchuk's productions win him the reputation of a great director? 12. In which film did Giulietta Masina appear at the Festi val? Which prize was she awarded? Why did that film capti vate the audiences?
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13. What distinguished the Moscow Festival from previous festivals held in Cannes and Venice? 14. What is a f i l m producer? Which side of the cinema is he interested in? Was this side of cinematography in the fore ground in Moscow? What relegated it to the background? 15. What was the main idea expressed in the motto of the Moscow Film Festival? What atmosphere did this idea pro duce? Is the idea of humanism always stressed in real art? 16. Are get-togethers of art workers and the people fre quent in the Soviet Union? Are such get-togethers necessary if art is to be progressive? Were the meetings of f i l m creators and spectators a success? 17. What prompted the motto of the Moscow Film Festi val? What did that motto voice? Exercise II. Give English equivalents for the following: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise III. A. Consult the Vocabulary Notes (location, interior, exterior, studio) and translate the extract into Russian: Watching the parade of pictures day by day, one could not fail to be impressed by the increasing amount of locations compared with studio interiors. The films that refused to be studio-bound have freshness and vitality as a result. One of the strongest points of Sergei Yutkevitch's "Othello" was the effective use of exteriors. They helped to establish character and period, giving the director an immediate advantage over the difficulty of having to translate the British classic to the Russian tongue. The other Soviet prize-winner "Magdana's Little Donkey," was almost wholly made on lo192

cation. I thought it the best of the Soviet entries, a very fine short-story picture indeed. B. Translate the following words and phrases into English and use them to fill the blanks in the sentences given below: , ; ; ; ; (); (); ; ; . 1. Kamala Nehru Park, Gateway of India, and Victoria Terminus in Bombay constituted the major ... for the film "Bhai Bhai." 2. Some of the scenes that were shot on ... were far from being satisfactory. 3. After ... has been completed the director and his unit start . . . . 4. If there are sequences that have to be shot on ... the director will suggest suitable places. 5. The director usually makes two or three pre-production trips to the . . . . These excursions are known as sighting trips. 6. The greater part of the ... were shot on ... in the Cau casus. 7. The ... was to take place at the "Mosfilm" .... 8. He picked up the receiver and asked to be connected with ... where the picture was being shot. 9. The photography of the film is pleasing, the ... are, however, less bright than the ... . 10. They stood talking at one end of the large improvised ... that had been hastily erected for the ... shot. Find substitutes for the italicized words and phrases: 1. The first International Film Festival took place in Venice in 1932. 2. Forty-eight countries entered their recent film produc tions for the Festival. 3. The films coming from different countries were shown in a special cinema.
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Exercise IV.

4. The Grand Gold Medal went to the Soviet film "The Fate of a Man." 5. The biggest figures in world cinematography were on the jury. 6 The young Mongolian actress won a silver medal for the best interpretation of a woman's part. 7. After the screening of the film there was a reception given in honour of the Soviet film-makers. 8. The majority of the exterior shots are excellent. 9. Pinewood Studios were used for construction sets and interiors. 10. Who wrote the screen play? 11. The exterior scenes were shot on location in France. 12. The whole film is beautifully photographed, the indoors are as good as the outdoors. 13. Korea is a country in which cinematography is a new art. 14. Why did the film "Cabiria's Nights" grip the audi ences? 15. "Magdana's Little Donkey" was almost wholly made on location. 16. Yalta with its environments was the location site for the film. 17. When all the outdoors were completed the director started making indoors. 18. These sequences have to be shot on location. Exercise V. a) Analyse the different meanings of the word cinema. b) Say in which of the sentences the word cinema is syn onymous to 1) the film, films; 2) cinema house, picture house; 3) movies, (moving) pictures, screen. In which sentences is the word cinema not synonymous to any of the three? c) Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Television will never supplant cinema. 2. Cinemas in most of the towns remained closed for about a week during the cinema workers' strike. 3. George Sadul is a prolific writer on the cinema. 4. She did not enjoy her evening at the cinema as much as she had expected.
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6. For forty years now the power of the cinema over the public has been recognized. 6. The cinema's possibilities are unlimited. 7. If you go to the cinema twice a week (and many mil lions do) you will see two feature films a week, or about a hundred a year. 8. This film is on at practically all the cinemas in town. 9. The cinema is the medium best endowed to attract the largest numbers to see and understand our world. 10. The cinema can and does directly affect the philosophy of its vast audiences. 11. In Britain about 30 million seats are sold each week in public cinemas. 12. The Soviet theatre and cinema are second to none in their contribution to the culture of our time. 13. I 've just been to the cinema, and had a jolly good time. 14. The cinema is not only a source of amusement: it is being used extensively now as a valuable help to education. 15. Too much going to the cinema is getting you out of the way of reading. 16. At the cinema, I sat next to Father. 17. The cinema was five years old when Louis Lumiere gave it an impetus. 18. Since the beginning of cinema no less than 70 films have been made on the subject of Shakespeare's plays. 19. There have been queues at many cinemas snowing the picture "Sisters" for almost a month now. 20. The Bolshoi Ballet danced "Giselle" on the Covent Garden stagefor the cinema. Exercise VI. Say in which sentences showing and screening on the one hand, and filming and shooting on the other may be substituted one for the other. Give your reasons why the remaining cases do not allow of such substitution. Suggest some other words or phrases to paraphrase the four italicized words. showing and screening 1. The final showing should on no account be before eight o'clock.
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2. I hate hanging around in town for up to three hours waiting for the eight o'clock showing. 3. When Sir Laurence Olivier's "Richard III" had its first showing in America on television, it was estimated that the audience for that one performance exceeded the num ber of people who, until then, had seen the play since it was first performed nearly four hundred years ago. 4. The film should be ready for showing in May. 5. One morning of the festival was taken up by a screen ing of two films, a Polish one and a French one. 6. Amongst the audience at the first screening of Lumiere's films sat a certain Georges Melier. 7. For nearly two years Lumiere had crowds from the five continents rushing to his screenings. 8. The Japanese films based on stories which have an inter national appeal are carefully sub-titled, and then they are offered for an initial screening to foreign distributors. 9. Japanese producers present sub-titled versions for screening abroad. 10. It is extremely difficult to obtain commercial screen ing for foreign films in U.S. cinemas owing to language difficulty. 11. On present plans the film "Giselle" will first be re leased in the West End, the screening to take place in a few weeks time. filming and shooting 1. He made friends with Sergei Samsonov, the director of the film, during the filming of "The Grasshopper." 2. One great difficulty about filming comedy stories is the scarcity of standard books of comedy written by well known authors. 3. It was with extreme difficulty that I could succeed in filming the necessary sequences. 4. ln filming "Rainbow" Donskoy worked with children of five, six and seven. 5. Filming nature in its natural surroundings was a great joy. 6. In filming the French Photographic Society's Con gress Lumiere found himself the originator of newsreels.
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7. At last the casting was done and we launched on our programme of filming. 8. The actual shooting was a joy because of the equipment available and the high skill of the technicians. 9. As the leading actress did not like to be watched during the shooting of the film, I had no chance to see her at work. 10. Shooting is due to start in the coming month with an entirely unprofessional cast. 11. The producer said he was going to explore the possibil ities of shooting the picture in cooperation with the film makers o\ the country where the scene was laid. 12. Shooting of the film had been held up due to the leading actor's illness. 13. Kamala Nehru Park, Gateway of India, and Victoria Terminus in Bombay constituted the major locations for the cameramen unit during its six day shooting in the city. 14. There was no shooting on February 4 as the artists were not available. 15. By the time the director starts shooting he must be thoroughly conversant with the script. Exercise VII. Insert the missing words: Shakespeare's plays are currently enjoying a vogue among Soviet ... .Quite recently I was able to see Sergei Yutkevitch's "Othello," a rich and daring ... of Shakespeare's tragedy for . . . . The tightly edited text concentrates largely on the relationship between Othello and Iago (two splendid ... by Sergei Bondarchuk and Andrei Popov) and their ... together possess a strange elemental tension rarely stressed in Western . . . . The unorthodox ... of the key scenes conveys an emotional intensity, infinitely more varied and subtle than was the case in Welles' interpretation. Yutkevitch's ... to the play will inevitably ... controversy, although it seems likely that this "Othello" will definitely influence any future attempts to ally Shakespeare with ... . SCREEN ULANOVA Film ... throughout the world are to see Russia's famed ballerina Galina Ulanova, for a film ... in Britain during the
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visit of the Bolshoi ballet ... is being distributed by the Rank Organization. The f i l m is in Eastman colour and a wide ... . It was ... by Paul Czinner for Harmony Film and ... during two allnight special sessions. The first was at Covent Garden on ... of the Royal Performance-. The second followed several days later ... the Davis Theatre, Croydon. Ulanova ... in the film in the ... of Giselle in a nearly complete ... of that ballet; and there are... from "Faust," from "Swan Lake," and other famed . . . . Director Czinner used an ingenious method which involved ... with up to 11 cameras at once.
(Film and Filming, August 1957)

Exercise VIII. A. Translate into English: 1. 48 . 2. ? 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. . 11. () . 12. . 13. ? 14. .
198

15. . 16. . 17. . 18. . 19. . 20. , . 21. . 22. , , - . . Give an English rendering:

XI ( . , . ). , , . .* : .** , . . , , . . .*** , , , ,
* to tell of her impressions of the Festival ** "On the Threshold of Life" *** the spectators didn't seem to be the same 199

. , , , .* , , . , . . , , .** , , . , , .
( , 1958)

Exercise IX. 1. Speak on The Moscow International Film Festival. 2. Tell of Bondarchuk, the leading actor in two Soviet films which won prizes at International Film Festivals.
* the audience stirred with excitement ** success had gone to our heads

Lesson Twenty-One
" R," 1926
For those who wish to idealize the restricted art of the silent filmcut off in its prime by the devastating intrusion of sound"Mother" is as good an example as any of the high degree of imaginative expression which could be achieved by the moving picture alone, aided now and then by a rare explanatory title or an odd line of dialogue. This film holds its own against time, a beautiful museum-piece belonging to a phase which could perhaps be called the pre-Renaissance of the cinema. Critics usually classify the work of Eisenstein and Pudovkin by means of one of those neat formulas of contrast which may well show only part of the truth. Thorold Dickinson explains the nature of this contrast as follows: "While Eisenstein's films provoked discussion and respect (or the reverse), their direct appeal was to the intelligence first and only through the intelligence to the emotions.They were connoisseur's pieces in the main. But Pudovkin's films appealed directly to the emotions of the mass audience and only secondly to their intellect. They were passionately clear and simple. To Pudovkin the most important element is the story. His attitude to his subject is personal and emotional, not detached or intellectual. In these silent films he used mixed casts of actors and non-actors, the latter to bring verisimilitude in those parts where realism was more necessary than the ability to act." (Soviet Cinema, p. 34) Both these distinguished artists reveal (in Eisenstein's case unhappily only in the past) an excitement in their work which communicates itself to an audience in what was once an electrifying manner. I well remember the emotion with which I first saw films like "Potemkin," "October," and "Mother" some twenty years agoa kind of artistic awe that had no conscious connexion with the social system which these films were designed to advocate. It was an excitement entirely derived from the artistic form they exemplified. After seeing a hundred ordinary films, these seemed to have a music of pure art within them. I cannot see the best of them to-day
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without experiencing once more something of these same feelings such films as these trail clouds of glory, though their formal qualities, once so advanced to our admiring eyes, seem to belong now to some golden medieval period. While Eisenstein was normally directly concerned in his films with the emotions arising out of the great mass-movements of Russian Revolutionary history, Pudovkin's interest centred on the feelings of people who had to play their individual and often painful part in these conflicts. He was and s t i l l is an actor himselfhe plays the officer who interrogated the mother in this film. His books on Film Editing and Film Acting show his desire to make full use of the actor's powers within the framework of the principles of formal montage, which were the essence of Russian film treatment during the later period of the silent cinema. He writes: "The actor should be as close to the editing as the director. He should feel that he can lean upon him at every stage of the work. Editing should be precious to him, as shaping of his performance into the ensemble is precious to the stage actor, and he should be similarly eager and anxious for its success and the final linkage of every element of his work into the whole." (Film Acting, p. 84) He showed great respect for the long tradition of naturalistic acting founded by Stanislavsky in the early days of the Moscow Art Theatre. The form of acting used in "Mother" is stylized for the purpose of underlining each emotion; expressions are frequently "held" on the screen so that their depth and significance are emphasized and re-emphasized, especially in the beautiful performance of Baranovskaya in the leading role. This acting technique is reaffirmed by the rhythmic methods of montage used by Pudovkin. Pudovkin is unique, however, in applying them so intimately to the expression of individual feeling in his characters. Paul Rotha in The Film Till Now (1930) comments on Pudovkin's methods of analysing a situation for its dramatic contents, and then reconstructing it afresh on the screen: "In "Mother," we discovered the scientific method of the decomposition of a scene into its ingredients, the choice of the most powerful and suggestive, and the rebuilding of the scene by filmic representation on the screen. In this respect, I recall 202

the sequence of suspense at the gate of the factory; the gradual assembly of the workers; the feeling of uncertainty as to what was to happen. This was the result of an extraordinarily clever construction of shots and of camera set-ups in order to achieve one highly emotional effect. It may, perhaps, appear the simplest of methods, the basis of all filmic representation, but it needs the creative skill of a Pudovkin to extract such dramatic force from a scene. I recall, also, the scene with the falling of the clock; the discovery of the hidden firearms under the floorboards; the trial, with the judges drawing horses on their blotting pads; the coming of spring; the escape from the prison, and the final crescendo ending of the cavalry charge. It is impossible to describe the emotional effect of this film. Without hesitation, I place it amongst the finest works in the history of the cinema." (The Film Till Now, New Edition, pp. 234-5).
EXE R C I S E S

(Roger Manvell, The Film and the Public)

Exercise I. Answer the following questions: 1. In what year was Gorki's novel "Mother" first made into a film? Was the first screen version of Gorki's novel a silent film or a sound film? Who directed the film? Who wrote the screen play? Who played the part of the Mother? Who played opposite Vera Baranovskaya? Did Pudovkin do only the direct ing or did he take some role in the picture? If so, which role did he play? 2. When was Gorki's novel filmed (screened) again? Is the second "Mother" a sound version of the early silent film made in 1926 or is it an entirely new production? Who directed the sound film and who plays the part of the Mother in it? 3. What was Pudovkin's view of the actor's contribution to the making of a film? Why did he think it imperative (abso lutely necessary) that the actor should be as close to the edit ing as the director? Did Pudovkin put forward his principles only on a theoretical level or did he adopt them for his work with the actors? What kind of casts did he use in his silent films? Why did he arrange for non-actors to appear in his films? 4. What was the acting technique of the players appearing
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in the silent film "Mother" like? What was Pudovkin's purpose in demanding stylized acting from his cast and what methods of montage did he use to support that kind of acting? 5. Has Pudovkin's film "Mother" dated or does it hold its own against time? What assessment does Roger Manvell give the film? What to his mind ensured the success of the picture? 6. How does Paul Rotha appraise "Mother" in "The Film Till Now"? How does Paul Rotha account for the film occu pying such a prominent place in the history of world cinema? What made Pudovkin's film "Mother" appeal so strongly to the mass audience? Exercise II. Translate "Mother" into Russian. Exercise III. Summarize the main points made by R. Manvell in his review of "Mother," using the following words and expressions: to appeal to; to have appeal for; the mass audience; the most important element in the story; one's attitude to the subject; to use mixed casts of actors and non-actors; to communicate oneself to an audience; distinguished artist; to well remember the emotions; interest centred on; to be concerned with; to make the full use of the actor's powers; to be close to the editing; the shaping of the actor's performance into the ensemble; to emphasize; to be unique; the rebuilding of a scene by filmic representation; a clever construction of shots; the emotional effect; to extract dramatic force from; to place the film amongst the finest works. Exercise IV. A. Discuss the different meanings of the words: picture, film, movie in the sentences in (a), (b), and (c); translate the sentences into Russian: a) 1. That's the best picture I've seen this year. 2. The actress had tried her luck on the pictures, but had achieved no success. 3. Those were the two pictures I liked best. 4. Shall we go to the theatre Or to the pictures tonight?
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b) 1. The main object of organizing the Indian Film Week in London was to awaken popular interest in films coming from India. 2. After many years in films, Lilian Gish returned to the stage in 1930. 3. The book established the author's reputation as an out standing historian of the film. 4. He seems set on seeing her leave films for good. 5. Sholokhov's story "The Fate of a Man" has been made into a film. c) 1. The trouble with our movies is that they don't recognize a good man when they've got one. 2. You think there's really a place for me in the movies? 3. An outstanding development in the world of entertain ment during 1955 was interchange of talent and techniques between movies and television. 4. A moving picture is often called a movie. 5. Let's go to the movies tonight. B. Substitute synonyms for the italicized words: 1. The mavie-makers reversed their original stand of dis couraging their players from appearing on television. 2. During the first nine months of 1955 the Italian movieindustry had produced 98 films including co-productions with other countries. 3. Film after all is a medium in which we combine space, time, and juxtaposition. 4. All over the world the cinema has been recognized as one of the best media of instruction. 5. The importance of film in the modern world can hardly be overemphasized. 6. The f i l m had no appeal for the ordinary film-goer. 7. The best Italian motion picture of the year was "Umberto D." 8. The picture was scheduled for all-India release on March 30. 9. A sense of frustration in Holywood made the famous star quit films. 10. I thought you were going to like acting for the films.
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11. How often do you go to the movies'? 12. Picture-goers prefer the informality of dropping in to pictures when they are free. 13. Someone had to make the pictures: someone had to act in them. 14. We wish all our readers good cinema-going in the New Year. 15. This film was found to have tremendous appeal for cinema-goers. 16. No one could be better qualified than George Sadul to write about the French cinema. 17. His apprenticeship, in fact, covered every department of the cinema industry. 18. Soviet cinematographers have always attached much importance to the art of documentary. Exercise V. a) Fill in the missing words (use the word film, its deri vatives or compounds including the stem film). b) Give synonyms to the words introduced wherever possi ble. Roger Manvell's book "The Film and the Public" is divided in five parts. The first is a condensed history of the cinema from Friese-Green and Melier right up to the present day cinemascope and 3-D.* The second part is a most valuable stretch of 80 pages, as it contains reviews of 23 ... from various countries. These are model reviews and fine examples of the art of ... appreciation. By reading them, ... who go indiscriminately can learn what to look for in ... and why. The third part deals with the economic aspects of the industry in America and the U.K. as well as reflections on the roles of directors and producers. The fourth part is a miscellany of short articles on such varied subjects as star systems, state control, puritanism, children's ..., specialist cinema and so on. The last part is on television and the .... In the supplement there is a note on the British ... Insti tute by its director, Denis Foreman. And then there are 30 pages of listslists of books on ..., list of studies on indi vidual ....... ; and a chronological list of ..., ... and stars.
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There are books and books no doubt on the ..., but most of them are by specialists and fanatics. Rarely do we come across books on the... written for the ordinary ... in a popular way, dealing with multifarious aspects of the ... . Dr. Manvell has done it again really. It is left to the ... to read it and to benefit from it. It is only when ... read books of this type that they will cease to go to the bad and indifferent ... and the ... will begin to produce worth while .... (Indian Documentary, v. 2, No. 3, Jan. Mar. 1957) Exercise VI. Insert the missing words: WORKING WITH CHILDREN In ... "Rainbow" I worked with children of five, six, and seven, and once they clearly understood the task before them they were very exacting in their .... In selecting the child for Alyosha Peshkov in the "Childhood" of Gorki my assistants ... nearly four thousand boys. The requirements included clever and expressive eyes, a good smile and, last but not least, the ability to understand and reproduce. Alyosha Lyarsky, 12, was ... . He became deeply and consciously engrossed in the ... of Maxim Gorki as a child. And under the influence of ... of the great writer the boy's feelings became more sensitive and his perception of nature sharper. He was not a very loving child but he became particularly attracted to People's ... Varvara Massalitinova who played ... of Akulina Ivanovna, Gorki's grandmother. I took particular interest in working with Igor Smirnov, a very ... pupil of a ballet school, who took the part of the little crippled boy in Gorki's story (Strasti-Mordasti) included in this film. I was overcome by his ... intuition, truthful and sincere ... of emotion. Work with the children who played in "Rainbow" left particularly pleasant memories. ... of Volodya Nikolayev as Misha was replete with profound emotion. The boy's father was at the front and the boy dreamed of the day when his father would see his acting ..., but one day news was received at the ... that his father had been killed. Volodya no longer
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merely played the part of Misha, he was himself a child mortally offended by the enemy invasion. At present I am working on a ... devoted to the ... of a Russian schoolteacher from her youth to old age at the present time. Here I have come up against a new problem. Some of the child actors ... three generationsfather, child and grandchild. Exercise VII. A. Summarize the extract given below.
EISENSTEIN'S METHOD HAS MUCH TO TEACH FILM DIRECTORS

Sergei Eisenstein was a distinguished f i l m director and theorist. His theories of film making revolutionized f i l m technique in the mid-1920's. Eisenstein was a great observer of the cinematic elements to be discovered and extracted from the scene of life. He was also a passionate researcher into all aspects of the subject on which he was going to make a film. Research was not a matter of pedantry with Eisenstein, but an effective means of discovering all the elements involved in a given subject. The most effective fragments of actuality could then be selected and arranged in a dramatic and cinematic manner in order to create a convincing impression. His scenarios, which he wrote himself, were generally sketchy. Even the most detailed were far from the standard type of "shooting" script. But his accumulation of general knowledge about his subject allowed him to fulfil his desire for improvisation, yet the improvising always remained within the framework of style he devised for any given film. Some of the most effective moments in "Potemkin," for example, the stone lion which appears to rise up and roar, were "shot" on the spur of the moment. Even in "Ivan the Terrible" a number of scenes were introduced which were never thought of at the scenario stage. It was Eisenstein's habit to accumulate information on a subject for a long timeusually about three monthsbefore he did any work on a scenario. He would read many books
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and go to see things in a seemingly casual way. Then one day he would start work on his scenario and work almost without a break for two or three days, by which time he had finished the scenario. Despite his objectivity and stress-upon factual research, Eisenstein believed in translating subjective emotion into terms of art. At one session with his students he instructed them how to use their own feelings and experience. He said: "You must be infatuated by the ideas and emotions contained within your subject. Without emotion you can create nothing. Your infatuation is the power to produce a creative explosion. But an explosion of emotion is not enough. Feelings must be given a definite direction. Then you must try to find the form which will express the first vivid impressions which moved your whole being... Sometimes you remember those things which made an impression many years ago: therefore, you must gather your emotional experiesces. The ordinary man will say 'The sunset is beautiful,' but the artist will store the memory away." While Eisenstein had an innovator's approach to the medium of film, he also had a great respect for the classical arts of literature and painting. He had in mind the structure of classical Greek drama when he wrote his scenario for "Potemkin." In the case of the pictorial composition for scenes in "General Line," he employed certain ideas of composition which he adopted from his study of the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. It was Eisenstein's idea that every film directorand student desiring to become a directorshould be something of an artist. They should be able to sketch the kinds of scenes they wanted and even produce a design for the type of sets they required because, as Eisenstein pointed out, few art directors and builders of film sets have any great sense of cinema. They are seldom fully aware of film technique and therefore tend to design static sets that restrict the possibilities of camera angles. Eisenstein was much aware of the dramatic value of dancing. He photographed many of the dramatic dances of the Mexican Indians. He even employed a dancea Cossack danceto signify a moment of triumph in "October." By the inclusion of this dance at exactly the right moment he
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created an astonishing impression of energy being released. It is one of Eisenstein's most dramatic effects. Eisenstein's technique and theories of cinema were experimental. He taught them to his students. He hoped that others would take his ideas and experiment with them further.
(From The Screen, 1957)

B. a) Translate the following words and phrases into English: , , , , , , ( ), , , , , , . b) Insert the words translated above as required by the meaning: Eisenstein's early ........ "Potemkin" (1925), "October" (1927) and "General Line" (1929) exerted a considerable in fluence upon the development of the ........., especially in Eng land, where in 1929 Eisenstein gave a series of lectures which were attended by nearly all those people who subsequently en hanced the ... of British . . . . Eisenstein's later ... "Alexander Nevsky" undoubtedly influenced Laurence Olivier's ... of the Battle of Agincourt in "Henry V." Apart from his films, Eisenstein was one of the two ......... to write books about his ideas of........ (the late VsevolodPudovkin, was the other). Eisenstein's two text books, Film Sense and Film Form are read all over the world by those who aspire to make better films. Eisenstein more than perhaps any other ... concerned himself with the pictorial value of each . . . . His composition of images is enhanced by the exceptional quality of the work of his ... Eduard Tisse. It is probably the force of Eisenstein's pictorial effects and the excellence of Tisse's .........which has halted the sense of dating of Eisenstein's ... . When a Russian ........ of "Potemkin"... in 1954, British ... claimed that the film appeared as powerful as when it was originally released in 1926.
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) Discuss the following points: 1. What were the characteristic traits of Eisenstein the film director? What advice did he give his students, the fu ture film makers, on the art of film making? 2. How did Eisenstein work on his scenarios? What pre ceded the actual writing of the script? What made Eisenstein's improvisation impressive? What effect did the factual research he did before he started work on the scenario have on the making of the film? 3. What was Eisenstein's view on classical painting and its possible contribution to the art of film making? What made him believe that every film director should be something of an artist? What was his attitude to the art of dancing and the film director's possibilities of profiting by the dramatic value of dancing? 4. Which are Eisenstein's most outstanding silent films? How did they influence the development of world cinema? 5. How can you account for Eisenstein's films holding their own against time? Exercise VIII. Give an English rendering: , . . , , . , : , , . . , . . , . . , , . , , , 211

, , , . , , , . , . Exercise IX. Speak on: 1) Pudovkin and the art of the film. 2) Gorki's "Mother" on the screen, the silent f i l m and the sound film. 3) Working with children-actors. 4) Eisenstein, outstanding Soviet film director.