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A. The word men (me\n) is always used in conjunction with de in the correlative sense in each of these occurrences of the word. B. Men is a particle of affirmation, or we could classify it as emphatic or intensifying. C. It is a weakened form of men (mhvn) and is found in Homer, inscriptions, papryi and the LXX. D. It is one of the most common particles in classical Greek but its usage declines sharply in post-classical times. E. It calls attention to some word or idea in a sentence and sometimes is set within a parallel contrast. F. It was used with other particles introducing a concessive clause, followed by another clause with an adversative particle while the contrast was emphasized in the second clause, often with de meaning but. G. In classical Greek, it is used partly to express certainty. H. On the part of the speaker or writer and more commonly to point out that the word or clause with which it stands is correlative to another word or clause that is to follow, the latter word or clause being introduced by de (dev). I. Liddel and Scott list the following classical usages (page 1101-1102): 1. Used absolutely to express certainty, a. Not followed by correlative de, indeed, of a truth, (1) synonymous with men (mhvn), as appears from the Epic dialect and Ionic form h mhvn in protestations and oaths (where Attic used h mhvn). (2) An answering clause with de is sometimes implied; to give force to assertions made by a person respecting himself wherein opposition to other persons is implied. (3) With the demonstrative pronoun generally to emphasize the preceding word. (4) Men is used alone in questions, when the answer is assumed. b. Men followed by de in the correlative clause or clauses, on the one hand, on the other hand; commonly in classical Greek, less frequently in later Greek (rare in NT). (1) Mende (or when the correlative clause is negative, men.., oude.. to mark opposition, Homer, etc.-The opposed clauses commonly stand together, but are frequently separated by clauses, parenthetic or explanatory (2) To connect a series of clauses containing different matter, though with no opposition (3) The principal word is frequently repeated. (4) One of the correlative clauses is sometimes independent, while the other takes the part. Or some other dependent form. (5) Men and de frequently oppose two clauses, whereof one is subordinate to the other in meaning or emphasis (6) Men is not always answered by de but frequently by other equivalent particles as alla, temporal particles, when the opposition is emphatic, de is sometimes strengthened, men is sometimes answered by a copulative particle. 2. Men before other particles. a. Where each particle retains its force. (1) men ara, men gar in Homer there is frequently no second clause (2) men ge when a general statement is explained in detail; (3) men de frequently to express positive certainty; especially as a conclusion, in closing statement, used in answers to convey full assent, to deny positively (4) men oun. b. Where the particles combine so as to form a new sense (1) men ge, at all events, at any rate; (2) men oun is frequently used with a corresponding de, so that each particle retains its force, also absolutely, so then, especially in replies sometimes in strong affirmation, also to substitute a new statement so as to correct a preceding statement, nay rather; (3) by men te, if de te follows, the two clauses are more closely combined than by tete; (4) men toi in Homer always occurs in speeches, where toi can be regarded as the dative of the pronoun; with a conjunctive force, yet, nevertheless and sometimes stands for de answering to men; as an adverb in strong protestations; in eager or possitive assent, of course; with a negative to give emphasis to a question; sometimes to express impatience; with imperative to enforce the command; kai men kai is used to add a point to be notedand of course.

Position of men. a. Like de is usually stands as the second word in a sentence. (1) But when the sentence begins with words common to its subordinate clauses, men stands second in the first of these clauses. (2) It also attaches itself to words which mark opposition. (3) It generally stands between the article and noun, or the preposition and its case: but if special stress is laid on the noun, this is sometimes neglected. b. Men is frequently repeated. (1) When besides the opposition of two main clauses, a subordinate opposition is introduced into the first. (2) In apodosi with the demonstrative pronoun or adverb. (3) Men used absolutely frequently followed by a correlative men. c. Sometime it is omitted. J. Bauer, Gingrich and Danker have compiled the following information in their research (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, pages 502-503): 1. Used correlatively with other particles a. Introducing a concessive clause, followed by another clause with an adversative particle: to be surebut, on the one handon the other hand, though in many cases the translation will not fit this scheme; rather, the contrast is to be emphasized in the second clause, often with but. b. Without any real concessive sense on the part of men but adversative force in de, so that men need not be translated at all c. Sometimes the combination mende does not emphasize a contrast, but separates one thought from another in a series, so that they may be easily distinguished 2. Frequently men is found in anacolutha a. When the contrast can be supplied from the context, and therefore can be omitted as obvious-men serves to emphasize the subject in clauses which contain a report made by the speaker concerning his own state of being, especially, intellectual or emotional. b. Sometimes the contrast is actually expressed, but not in adversative form. c. We notice anacoluthon in enumerations, either if they are broken off or if they are continued in some manner that is irregular in form d. Men followed by kai is an inexact usage e. Men oun denotes continuation K. The New Thayers Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (page 397) states, A weakened form of mhvn, and hence properly a particle of affirmation: truly, certainly, surely, indeed,-its affirmative force being weakened, yet retained most in Ionic, Epic and Herodotus, and not wholly lost in Attic and Hellenistic writers. Owing to this its original meaning it adds force to the terms and phrases with which it is connected, and thus contrasts them with or distinguishes them from others. Accordingly it takes on the character of a concessive and very often of a merely distinctive particle, which stands related to a following de or other adversative conjunction, either expressed or understood, and in a sentence composed of several members is so placed as to point out the first member, to which a second, marked by an adversative particle, is added or opposed. L. They list the following usages and meanings (pages 397-398): 1. Examples in which the particle men is followed in another member by an adversative particle expressed. Of these examples there are two kinds. a. Those in which men has a concessive force and de (or alla) introduces a restriction, correction, or amplification of what has been said in the former member, indeedbut, yet, on the other hand. b. Those in which men loses its concessive force and serves only to distinguish, but de retains its adversative power; and this happens chiefly when what has already been included in the words immediately preceding is separated into parts, so that the adversative particle contrasts that which the writer especially desires to contrast. c. Mende serve only to distribute a sentence into clauses. 2. Examples in which men is followed neither by de nor by any other adversative particle a. The antithesis is evident from the context b. The antithetic idea is brought out by a different turn of the sentence c. The writer, in using men, perhaps had in mind a second member to be introduced by de, but was drawn away from his intention by explanatory additions relating to the first member. d. Men oun where men is confirmatory of the matter in hand, and oun marks an inference or transition.


e. Men solitarium has a concessive and restrictive force, indeed, verily. M. Dana and Mantey write concerning the particle men and its usage in the NT, Its most common usage is to help differentiate the word or clause with which it occurs from that which follows. When it is used with the article, the expression may be translated as a pronoun. At other times it is purely emphatic, but is usually associated with other emphatic particles. At such times the translation in fact is about as good as any (A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament page 261). N. K. H. Pridik makes the following regarding the particle, he writes, The intensifying particle men, originally a prepositive but used normally as a postpositive, has the function in the NT and its world-as also predominately in classical Greek-of setting the stage for a strong or weak contrast (most often with de), and thus it contributes toward linking individual words or clauses. The correlation of men and de corresponds to Englishcertainlybut; however the particles often play a role through emphatic position or oral accentuation so that men but not de remains untranslated (Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, volume 2, page 406). O. Louw and Nida list the following meanings for the particle in the NT (Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semanitc Domains volume 2): 1. A marker of linkage in discourse and, so but often left untranslated (page 811). 2. Marker of relatively weak emphasis then, indeed or frequently not translated but possibly reflected in the word order (page 811). P. Moulton states, a particle serving to indicate that the term or clause with which it is used stands distinguished from another, usually in the sequel, and then mostly with de correspondent (The Analytical Greek Lexicon Revised, page 263). Q. A. T. Robertson classifies this word as a intensifying or emphatic particle and states, The original sense of the word is affirmative meaning surely, indeed, in truthIn of itself does mean or imply antithesisThe original use was simply emphatic confirmation of single words, usually the weightiest word in the sentenceIt may have a concessive or restrictive force (A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research, pages 1150-1153). R. He also states that of all the particles that it is employed with de is the most frequent in the NT as in the Attic Greek (ibid. page 1152).