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ENERGETICS TODAY

PART I

2008

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2008

UNIT 1. Thermodynamics
Grammar: The infinitive

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect priority to have made

Perfect Continuous

simultaneousness ac ti v e Pa ssi ve to make to be making

to have been making


-

to be made

to have been made

Language work

1.Learn the following international words: process, system, equilibrium, gas, moment, cylinder, theory, theoretical, experience, economizer, intensification. 2.Choose the sentences with the infinitive expressing: a) simultaneousness of action; b) priority of action. Translate into Russian. 1. They will do these exercises. 2. Does he know this teacher? 3. We can translate this article without a dictionary. 4. He wants to write an article. 5.1 remember to have met this man some years ago. 6. To translate this article was not an easy thing to do. 7. The problem was to get there in time. 8. The best way to master English is to read much. 9. The experiment to be carried on was described in the text-book. 10. Can the work have been done in such a short time? 11. The students to take part in this expedition have not come yet. 12. There was no chance to get a ticket for this train. 13. He was the first to solve this problem. 14. In the past people used to think the earth was flat.

3. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the infinitive. 1. This is a tool to be used in our experiment. 2. The pyrometer is a device to measure the temperature of melted metals. 3. The article to translated was given to him. 4. Lomonosov was the first to develop the ldw of conservation of matter and momentum. 5. Our country was the first to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes. 6. Who will be the first to answer? 7. The generator, is a device to turn mechanical energy into electric one. 8. Thermodynamics was used to advantage for research of different processes. READING Text 1 Read and Translate into Russian PRINCIPAL CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS Thermodynamics as the science of energy and energy conversion shaped in the 19th century due to invention and application of the steam engine in which the heat produced on fuel combustion was converted into work. The name "thermodynamics" is the combination of two Greek words: "therme" - heat and "dynamis" - force of work. Later, thermodynamics was used to carry out for investigation of various processes of conversion of different forms of energy. Thermodynamics is based on two experimentally established laws. It has been adopted to divide the science of thermodynamics into general thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics and "engineering* thermodynamics. General thermodynamics studies the fundamental laws and their corollaries. Chemical thermodynamics deals with the application of these laws to chemical processes (reactions), and engineering thermodynamics analyzes the conversion of heat into work (and vice versa) and substantiates the theory of heat engines. A colfection of material bodies which can exchange energy in the form of heat and work both with one another and with the surroimdmgs is termed a thermodynamic system. When considering an isolated thermodynamic system, it should be noted that the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) of its constituent bodies may be different. Owing to differences in temperature, pressure or other parameters, various processes can take place in a system which tend to bring the system to an equilibrium. If the state of a system is not changed in time, this is what is

called an equilibrium system. As a rule, an equilibrium state can be characterized by a single value of temperature, pressure, etc. Let us consider a system in equilibrium, say, a gas present in the cylinder of a piston compressor. Since the gas is in an equilibrium state, it has the same temperature and the same pressure all over the volume of the cylinder. As the gas is compressed, its pressure and temperature increase, i.e. a thermodynamic process occurs, which changes the state of the gas. If in this process the temperature and pressure of the gas at any moment are the same all over the cylinder, the gas will be in an equilibrium state at any 1moment of time and the process will also be an equilibrium process.
Focused practice

1. Answer the questions: 1.Is thermodynamics a science? 2.When was it shaped? 3.What is thermodynamics based on? 4.What does general thermodynamics study? 5.What is a thermodynamic system? 6.What can one call as parameters of a thermodynamic system? 7.What does an equilibrium system mean? 2.Discuss a thermodynamic system. 3.Speak on using the laws of thermodynamics. 4.Retell the text. Language study 1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type. 2. Fill in the blanks with the words one or for. 1. London is ... of the largest city in the world. 2. ... must remember that it is not easy to learn English. 3. As ... general thermodynamics it studies the fundamental laws. 4. The steam is used .:. many purposes including the production of electricity. 5. In 1819 an Italian physicist Volta returned back to Como ... he wanted to spend the rest of his life there. 6. This is a more interesting problem than that ... .7. ... should know the chemical properties of the atom. 8. We produce steel ... it is necessary ... the development of our industry. 9. The energy of the atom is used ... peaceful purposes in our country.

1He will do it in time. 5

Text 2 Read and understand METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER Heat transfer together with thermodynamics constitutes the theoretical basis of heat engineering. By the first law of thermodynamics, the internal energy of a body can be spent or filled in two forms: as work or as heat. Heat is transferred spontaneously from a hotter body to a colder one or from a hotter to a colder portion of a body (the second law of thermodynamics). This is familiar to us from everyday experience. The process of heat transfer occurs in many industrial plants and apparatus and is observed in various natural phenomena, wherever there is a temperature difference. Heat transfer processes occur , virtually in all main units of steam- turbine power plants. In a boiler plant, heat transfer takes place from hot gases to water, steam-water mixture and steam in economizers, furnace water walls and radiant and convective superheaters. In the air heater of boiler, furnace gases give off their heat to. cold air to be used for fuel drying and combustion. Economizers, furnace water walls, superheaters and airheaters of boilers are massive heat exchangers with a developed heating surface. It should then be clear that intensification of heat transfer is extremely important for increasing the efficiency of a boiler and a steam- turbine plant as a whole. The condenser of a steam turbine is also a large apparatus in which heat is transferred from condensing steam to circulating water. Intensification of heat transfer in turbine condensers is an urgent engineering problem. It is well known that circulating water at power stations is cooled in enormous tall structures called cooling towers. Cooling is effected here through contact with cold atmospheric air. In this case too, heat transfer processes are of decisive importance. High heat flows ex'ift in nuclear rcactors, where fuel elements which evolve heat are cooled by water or liquid metals. . High heat flows also exist in heat exchangers, evaporators and steam superheaters of nuclear steam-generating plants. Focused practice 1.Put five questions to this text. 2.Translate into English. 1. - . 2. - . 3. , . 4. . 5. , 6

, . 6. . 7. , . 8. , . 3. Retell the text: "Methods of heat transfer". SPEAKING Dialogue Business meeting Petrov: How long are you going to stay in Moscow, Mr. Brown? Brown: It depends on our talks, Mr. Petrov. We've studied your offer arid your draft contract for the delivery of electric equipment very carefully. Petrov: What do you think of it? Brown: The equipment suits us, and we need it very much. We want to place a big order.

Petrov: Glad to hear that, Mr. Brown.Brown: But your prices are too high for us. Could you reduce them a bit? Petrov: I'm afraid, we can't. The fact is that our equipment is in great demand. But we can think it over and see what we can do. Brown: Thank you, Mr. Petrov. Language study 1.Learn the dialogue by heart. 2.Act the dialogue. Writing 1. Write a narrative (10-12 sentences): "A thermodynamic system". UNIT 2. Heat Grammar: The subjective infinitive construction. The objective infinitive construction. 1.She seems to know English well. - , The subjective infinitive . construction 2.The invention proved to be very interesting. . The objective 1.We expect her to come tomorrow. - infinitive construction , . 2.They knew me to be right. - , . Language work 1.Read and translate the following words which were used in the previous texts. thermodynamics, science, application, investigation, corollary, pressure, density, equilibrium, piston, replenish, draft contract, superheater. 2.Choose the sentences with a) the subjective infinitive construction; b) the objective infinitive construction. Translate them into Russian. 1. Science is known to affect the lives of people. 2. Molecular biology is supposed to dominate other sciences. 3. He is said to have graduated from Oxford University. 4. Coal is said to be a valuable fuel. 5. The data arc assumed to correlate with the present theory. 6. Lomonosov's theory is considered to be the foundation for the present-day theory of heat. 7. I would not like my son to become a scientist. 8.Would you like them to have a good time? 9. They didn't expect us to be back so soon. 10. They asked the firm to deliver the equipment urgently. 8

READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian THE CALORIC THEORY OF HEAT To-day heat is known to be a form of energy, but about a century ago heat was considered to be a kind of a weightless substance which was neither created, nor destroyed. This substance called "caloric" was believed to pass from a hotter body.to a colder one, eventually both of them coming to the same temperature. To explain that phenomenon was easy: a hot body, it was supposed, contains more of the heat fluid, i. e. caloric, than a cold one; and this fluid flows from hot to cold. Again, people knew that it takes more caloric to raise the temperature of a pound of water, 10 than a pound of iron. In fact, the caloric theory of heat, as it was called, accounted for almost everything that was known about heat at that time, except one important phenomenon, namely: the production of heat due to friction. However, numerous laboratory experiments demonstrated that each time, when mechanical energy was expended as a result of friction, a corresponding amount of heat was produced. In spite of that inability to explain the production of heat by friction, the caloric theory of heat seemed to be the only acceptable theory. Our great scientist arid poet Lomonosov was among the first to find and state that heat phenomena were due to the motion of molecules. That statement of his resulted from many carefully performed laboratory experiments, from study and observation. Lomonosov's theory laid the foundation for the present-day molecularkinetic theory of heat. As was often the case; he left his contemporaries far behind and his statement was finally proved long after his death. The caloric theory of heat is known to have existed almost up to the middle of the 19th century. The unit of heat is called a therm or a calorie; the latter term appears to come from the Latin word "calor" which means heat. A calorie is defined as the amount of heat required, at a pressure of one atmosphere, to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade. Focused practice 1. Answer the following questions. 1.How did the scientists of the past explain heat? 2.Who determined the heat rightly? . 3.What kind of theory did Lomonosov create? 4.How do we call the unit of heat? 5.How is a calorie defined? 1. 9 Discuss the problems of

heat. 2. Speak on heat using the words from the above text. Language study 1.Translate these sentences into Russian.

2.1. , - . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. . 6. , . 7. XX . 8. , . 9. , - . 3.Form six sentences combining suitable parts of the sentences given in columns I and II. 4.Lomonosov laid. 4. more heat than the iron. 5.The aluminium gives up. 5. cooled in cooling towers. 6.Scientists developed. 6. the base of molecular-kinetic theory of heat. 3. In each of the following sentences there is one mistake. Find it and correct it. 1.Where now I live there is a large garden. 2.She use to work in a plant that makes a boiler. 3.It isn't true that is always raining in Moscow. 4.Who did tell you about this picture? 5.I looking forward to hearing from her soon. 6.There are more boys then girls in our institute. 7.They often used go to the institute on foot. 8.I finish to do my homework late last night. 9. Which photos would you like to be look? Text 2 Read and translate into Russian

SPECIFIC HEAT
If we mix a number of substances that have different temperatures, they will 10

come to a common temperature between that of the hottest substance and the coldest. The mixture being properly insulated, the amount of heat lost by the hotter substances must be equal to that gained by the colder ones. Suppose you take a piece of iron and a piece of aluminium of equal weight and heat both the iron and the aluminium to the same temperature of 100 C. Placing both on a piece of ice, you will observe that the aluminium melts more ice than the iron does. The aluminium gives up more calories than the iron though both were cooled from 100 down to 0C, the temperature of the ice. More calories are also required to heat the aluminium to 100 than to heat the iron. Experiments show that equal weights of different materials require different quantities of heat to raise their temperatures 1 C. To describe these facts, we say that aluminium has a greater specific heat than iron. The quantity of heat measured in calories which will raise the temperature of 1 gr. of a substance 1C is called the specific heat of that substance. In other words, the specific heat of any substance is defined as the number of calories that is required to raise :'ne temperature of one gram of the substance one degree Centigrade. As the specific heat of aluminium is 0.2, 0.2 cal will raise the temperature of one gram of aluminium 1C. A piece of aluminium requires almost twice as much heat as an equal weight of iron for the same temperature rise. Having absorbed twice as much heat, the aluminium when it is cooled can also give up twice as much heat as the iron. Other conditions being equal, iron heats up faster than aluminium. Water has a higher specific heat than most other common substances, the specific heat of iron being approximately one-ninth that of water. Focused practice 1. Put five questions to this text. 1. Translate these sentences paying attention to the words in bold type. 1. My friend left for London for he is going to work there for 2 months. 2. As for the power spent in producing lightning flashes it is but 1/10,000 of the power got by mankind from the sun. 3. She speaks of nothing but her exams. 4. The Fahrenheit scale is used in England, but it isn't used in Russia. 5. A thermometer is used for measuring temperature. 6. It is necessary for him to work hard at English. 7. The scientists have been trying to solve this problem for many years. 8. Mankind needs much electricity for the latter is used both in our homes and in industry. SPEAKING Dialogue What is heat? Q: What is heat? What do the terms "hot" and "cold" really mean? A: Scientists have worked for a long time to find answers to these questions. They developed many different kinds of theory. But they were wrong. At present we know heat is a form of energy. And M. Lomonosov was the 11

first to state that heat phenomena were due to molecular motion. Q: What does this theory suppose? A: Let's start at the beginning. All substances are made of little particles called molecules. They are so minute that a single drop of water, for example, contains millions of them. Every molecular is moving about colliding with other molecules, pushing them and changing a direction. Q: What do you mean? A: You see, here is an example. When we begin to heat water, it starts to be hot, because the molecules begin to move faster and faster. Then you switch off the fire. The water becomes colder, because the molecules slow down their moving. Focused practice 1.Retell the dialogue using the reported speech. 2.Act the dialogue. 3.Fill in the blanks with prepositions, if necessary. Many people associate computers v;.. the world ..'. science and mathematics. But,they are also a great help-.'., scholars Mother subjects. It is now possible^ 3..a scholar to find a book or an article he needs. You tell . the computer what you are interested in and it produces any microfishe you need ifi seconds. Another example. When you drive a car long distance you have two problems: to keep the car.^Tjp constant speed and watch that you don't run^? the car^-.'.'you. Engineers are now experimenting^. .V a system that has a computer control these two problems. The car's computer keeps ^f the speed constant. ftA the same time the distance .?. your car and any other car ... you is measured light transmitted forwards. The beam meets the rear reflectors .:~J the car in front and it is reflected back which enables to measure the distance. This information is fed the computer that adjusts its speed. Writing 1. Write a narrative (10-12 sentences): Heat. UNIT 3. Power engineering Grammar: The subjective infinitive construction. The objective infinitive construction Language work I. Translate the following sentences. 1. The river is supposed to flow in this direction. 2. Dickens's childhood is known to have been very difficult. 3. He didn't seem to notice me. 4. The Victoria Fall is said to be very beautiful. 5. He was 12 thought to have been a good driver. 6. I

didn't expect them to give me a lift.7. He didn't notice the boys to begin fighting. 8. We saw him going alone down the street. 9.1 don't mind telling you another story. 10. Do you mind if we go on watching TV? 11. I wonder what makes him work so hard. 12. Nothing makes him fly by air. 2. Give all the meaning of the following English words using a dictionary. application, modern, general, familiar, to produce, natural, power. READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian POWER INDUSTRY OF THE FUTURE The field of laser2 applications is expanding so rapidly, and into such unexpected areas, that any answer to this question would inevitably become obsolete in a very short time. Let us point out only a few uses of the laser. The laser beam's ability to hold a straight line, for instance, has been used for a long time on a large scale in adjustment of complex optical systems, in marking directions for geodesy, mining and high-rise construction, in land surveying, agriculture and for other purposes. Without the laser beam, there could be no optical electronics or optronics, which computer specialists see as a highly promising direction for making highperformance and smallsize computers. Optical electronic instruments for recording, storing and processing information use a laser beam. We have succeeded in designing a new information carrier which can be used for multiple recording of light signals, similar to the magnetic tape recording. In the past decade laser thermonuclear fusion (LTF) has become one of the most promising directions in the area of controlled nuclear fusion. The idea of LTF was first formulated in 1962, and in 1968 we observed the first generation of neutrons in thermonuclear fusion reactions taking place in laser-heated plasma. The theoretical research which we conducted at that time showed that the rate of thermonuclear fusion reactions in the target exposed It to a laser beam should grow with an increase in the target density, and it was therefore suggested first to compress the thermonuclear fuel in LTF scheme. Lasers allow light energy to be focused over very small surfaces, and to obtain high temperatures and pressures in the surface layer of the target. In the mid-70s scientists in Russia developed an LTF method in which thinwalled capsular targets filled with thermonuclear fuel were compressed and subjected to spherical radiation with a laser. This method gained worldwide recognition as the most promising and cost efficient. That the theoretical conclusions lying at the heart of this model are correct has been completely confirmed in recent years by experiments at the "Dolphin", the world's most powerful LTF installation, at
'it means light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

2 , - . 2. , 13

a nuclear plasma laboratory. Focused practice 1. Answer the questions: 1.Where do we use laser? 2.What is laser? 3.Can we use laser for recording light signal? 4.What does laser thermonuclear fusion mean? 5.Can we obtain high temperature and pressure with the help of laser? 6.Who developed an LTF method? 7.When was it done? 2. Speak on the problem of fuel. 1.Discuss the future ofpower industry. 2.Retell the text. Language study 1. Make up Jive sentences using the infinitive constructions according to the models given below. Model: 1. The plant is expected to increase its production. . 2. We asked him to sign this document 2. Translate the following sentences using the infinitive constructions. . 3. , , . 4. , . 5. , , . 6. -, . 7. . Text 2 Read and translate into Russian CRYOGENICS Superconductivity was discovered in 1911. But for years scientists could not find practical application for superconductivity. The trouble was that superconductive metals went back to their normal state, that is, they lost their superconductivity in the presence of quite a moderate magnetic field. But later in 1961 it was found that a brittle alloy of niobium and tin lost all resistance at 18 degrees above absolute zero and retained this superconductivity even in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Experimental wires made of niobium and titanium could cariy a current of 1,000 amperes. Superconductors are being used in electrical machinery. A direct current motor 14

of 5,000 h.p. is driving water-cooling pumps at the power station. Superconductive wires are known to be used in the coils of the motor. The wires are refrigerated with liquid helium. The cryogenic motor is lighter than a conventional one and may be the prototype of deep freeze motors which will replace big electric motors. Superconductive magnets are known to produce the most intense magnetic fields that we know. Nuclear physicists who operate giant accelerators or atom smashers heed such magnets. As long as the refrigerators work and cool the magnet, the electricity circulating inside such a magnet could store additional electrical power.

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A 100-kilowatt transformer cooled by liquid hydrogen has been built. So cryogenics is leaving the laboratory for practical engineering projects. There are great prospects for it in generating and transmitting power. At very low temperatures the resistance of some metals disappears and they become superconductors.Focused practicc 1.Put five questions to this text. 2.Speak on cryogenics. 3.Discuss the future of superconductivity. 4.Retell the text. Language study 1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type. 1.Static charges are supposed to be at the rest. 2. We know some liquids to conduct current without any changes to themselves. 3. The electrolytes are known to change greatly when the current flows through them. 4. Alternating current changes its direction many times a second. 5. We can charge dissimilar objects by rubbing them. 6. When water boils there is a gradual change of water into gas. 2.Translate the following questions and answer them. 1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4. ? 5. ? 6. ? 7. ? 8. ? 9. ? SPEAKING Dialogue Electronics S: We have had a happy chance to see your achievements in power engineering. I must say you've made much progress in this field. Kentown: Glad to hear that. 16

S: control

Mr. Kentown, we have seen the model 801 electronic

system in operation. Do you sell it? Kentown: Certainly. It is an up-to-date model. This system is a great success in the world market. So I'm not surprised you got interested in it. S: 1 was impressed greatly by its efficient performance and its design. Kentown: The electronic control system meets the highest world standards. Focused practice 1. 2. Writing 1. Write a narrative (10-12 sentences): "Superconductivity". UNIT 4. Computer in engineering Participle I Grammar: The participle. Participle II Perfect Participle priority ()
-

Learn this dialogue by heart. Act the dialogue.

Activ e Passi ve

simultaneousness () saying

having said

being said

said

having been said

Language work I. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the participle.1. The man giving a lecture showed a lot of diagrams. 2. The book taken by me at the library proved to be interesting. 3. The books written by Agatha Christie are read with great interest all over the world. 4. The students translating this article at the exam used dictionaries. 5. The students are discussing the article written by your friend. 6. The article published in today's newspaper is devoted to the computer's problems. 7. The engineers spoken about it yesterday are now repairing a cooling tower. 8. Being ill I could not go to a lecture. 9. The captain watched the steamer being unloaded. 10. Having translated this article the student gave it to the teacher. 11. The article being translated is about the application of cryogenics. 17

2. Learn to recognize these international words. radio, computer, civilization, lamp, machine, college, energy, fact, vacuum, refrigerator, technology. READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian HOW COMPUTERS WORK Computers are becoming increasingly important in industry, including power engineering, and in scientific development. Two types of computers, analogue and digital, have established themselves. Analogue computers are more specialized in their application because they arc analogues of known-physical phenomena. Their "computation" is instantaneous and they are therefore most useful in controlling processes (e. g. the flight of a rocket). The second main type of computer is the digital computer. Such computers arc simply electrical machines which do arithmetics very quickly. They have evolved directly from desk calculating machines and use no more complicated operations than addition and subtraction. All other operations, such as multiplication, division, integration and so on, are achieved by the use of special sequences of additions or subtractions. Fortunately, it is not necessary for potential users of digital computers to know exactly how the computers work. Modified forms of algebra have been devised for writing instructions and these "codes" or "programme languages" are easy to learn. Expert programmers have written "compilers" which translate such codes into "machine instructions". Machine instructions are a series of orders to the computer machine, instructing it to add or subtract specified numbers in a set sequence and to print the final results. But it must be clearly understood that computers cannot "think". They are capable only of providing information upon which human judgements can be made. Furthermore the basic assumptions underlying all calculations also have to be specified in advance by human judgement. It must be emphasized, therefore, that computers, or for that matter, any modern technological development, are not substitutes for human beings but aid for man's activities. They have no supernatural qualities in themselves and are only as effective as the men who control them. Focused practice. 1. Answer the questions: 1.What is a computer? 2.How many types of computers are there? 18

3.Is it necessary for users of computers to know how the computers operate? 4.Who writes programs for the computers? 5.What do machine instructions mean? 6.What are the languages of computers? 7.Can computers think as human beings do? 2.Speak on the types of computers. 3.Discuss the programs for the computers. 4.Retell the text.
Language study

1. Translate the following sentences. 1. A digital computer is simply an electrical machine, doing arithmetic very quickly. 2. Expert programmers write compilers translating special codes into machine instructions. 3. The basic assumptions underlying all calculations are specified in advance by a man. 4. The computers, doing calculations have no supernatural qualities. 5. Russian researchers and engineers tackling digital systems have found help in the principals of living nature. 6. Any one using a computer does without having any detailed knowledge of its inner construction. 7. Any digital television operates by splitting the continuous analogue signal into a series of separate pulses. 8. Only two of the ten symbols, having been invented in the ancient East are used in the digital systems. 9. Information received by the human eye is much more detailed than one appearing on the TV screen. 10. Calculation showed that only a fraction of the information received by the eye could be transmitted to the brain of a human being, through the optic nerve. 2. Translate the following sentences using the participle. 1. , . 2. . 3. , . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , , . 8. , . Text 2 Read and translate into Russian DIGITAL TELEVISION 19

The so-called analogue systems of television are to be superseded by digital systems in the near future. Using this new system, experts have managed to encode and compress flows of visual information to the extent that the requirement in the carrying capacity of communication channels has been cut by nearly 86 per cent. Digital TV, however, does have its disadvantages. The main one is the tremendous scope of information to be transmitted. And it must be done at the rate of 216 million pulses per second. But this is not the limit if the image is to be sharpened. This great plenty of information is rather difficult and extremely expensive to transmit over great distances by the technical means available today. Russian researchers tackling this problem have found help in the principles they observed in living nature. The efforts of several Russian researchers in this field are recognized all over the world. The equipment produced in our country for adaptive bionic encoding processes converts the flow of pulses in such a way that only 34 million out of the original 216 million pulses are left to be transmitted each second. Curiously, in designing the equipment used has been made of what both living nature and painting techniques can offer. Art experts have known for a long time that works by great masters may depict any scenes and at the same time have great aesthetic value and be attractive to other painters. It is not the scenes that do the trick but the brushwork that conveys the image the painter has created. The arrangement of colours and shades in such paintings can differ from the original distribution of the light on the painter's retina. What happens is a considerable compression of information without affecting the expressiveness of the image. But then, the aim of television is to transmit not just arrangement of shades and colours but visual images. By formalizing and describing the techniques of old masters in terms of mathematics electronics experts have succeeded in better organizing the information flows in digital television. Focused practice 1.Put five questions to this text. 2.Speak on cable TV. 3.Discuss the advantages of digital TV. 4.Retell the text. Language study 1. Put all the possible questions to the following sentences. 1.The electric motor finds wide application in our everyday life. 2.The aim of television is to transmit visual images. 3.Experts managed to encode flows of visual information.

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SPEAKING Dialogue At the exhibition Ann: Have you been to the exhibition? Paul: Yes, I have. I went to see it yesterday. Ann: Is it really worth seeing? Paul: Yes, it is, indeed. Ann: What exhibits are on display? Paul: All kinds of computers and computer systems, modern hardware and software. Ann: What is the main point of the exhibition? Paul: It is difficult to say. It depends. I was impressed by the electronic catalogues of some Museums, digital modeling of waves and an advanced thermograph computer. Focused practice 1.Retell the dialogue using the reported speech. 2.Act the dialogue.

UNIT 5. Cleaning water of power plants Grammar: The absolute participle construction. 1.Chemical sources of current having a limited application, the great quantities of electric energy today are generated from various forms of mechanical energy. , . 2.The experiment having been finished, the students left the laboratory. , . Language work I. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Absolute Participle Construction. 2. Learn to recognize the following international words. industry, ton, crane, laboratory,. electricity, theatre, mass, nation, potential.

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READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian COOLING WATER TREATMENT Effective operation of cooling-water treatment systems continues to attract attention to the control of scaling, fouling and corrosion. Though these faults have not changed in nature,over recent years, such problems encountered have intensified considerably. Depletion and degradation of water sources and environmental concerns have seen the driving forces for change. Responses to the challenge include a continuing move to recirculating systems featuring cooling towers, higher-cycle operation of existing cooling-tower systems and improvements in treatment chemicals, technology and controls. Cooling-tower design has experienced a variety of changes, many of which impact water-treatment programs. Noteworthy among mechanical changes is the increasing use of film-type cooling-tower fill. While the relatively open splash fill in common use creates little concern for fouling film-pack fill has much narrower passages for more intimate contact with water. This design improves heat-transfer capability, but is more susceptible to fouling deposits - with biofouling the most common culprit. By restricting the flow of cooling water, fouling causes rapid reduction of cooling efficiency. Biofouling requires more concentrated control of biological growth, which is assisted by devices such as a system of eductors arranged in a cooling-tower basin. It provides continuous basin scavenging to prevent buildup of troublesome solids and consequent bacterial growth./ Improvements have been made in monitoring and control of cooling- water chemistry with the use of tracers in conjunction with inhibitors greatly expanding the performance of both chemical feed and control techniques. Special computer programs for data accumulation, review, and analysis - especially expert systems improve system maintenance and help identify control-system anomalies. Advances in monitoring equipment and techniques have increased the accuracy of systems used to control cooling-water chemistry. Today's technology helps track corrosion, deposition, and biological buildup, uses microprocessor-based systems to optimize chemical-treatment control, and introduces computerized diagnostic methods for data acquisition and storage and equipment troubleshooting Focused practice 1. Answer the questions: 1.What do cooling-water treatment systems depend on? 2.Have sealing and other faults changed over recent years? 3.What have been the driving forces for changes? 4.Has cooling-tower design improved heat transfering? 22

5.What purposes are computer programs used for? 6.Does cooling-water treatment help to decide the problems of pollution? 2.Speak on cooling water. 3.Retell the text. Language study 1. Find the sentences with the Absolute participle construction and translate them. 3,Form one sentence of each pair using the Absolute participle construction. 1. There are many different sources of energy. Coal is the most important of them. 2. Atomic energy is developed in a reactor in the form of heat. We can get both heat and electricity. 3. Atoms split in the reactor. Heat is developed. 4. The ice breaker "Lenin" is the world's first one it is being followed by the others. 4.Fill in the blanks with prepositions. 1. Economic realities lead ... extensive reduction ... manpower. 2. A new device is keyed ... the corrosive effects ... bacteria. 3. Electricity plays an important part ... our life. 4. While heated, part ... the energy ... motion ... the coffee molecules is given ... those ... the spoon. 5. He often went ... bed ... night. 6. Only a little part ... solar energy is used directly ... present. 7. This power station was put... operation some years ago. 8. It is necessary to provide an easy path ... which electrons can be conducted ... the earth. Text 2 Read and translate into Russian CORROSION IN HEATING SYSTEMS Corrosion in steam heating systems, particularly in that part of the system that carries condensate, is a rather complex problem. It is well established tjhatpure water alone causes little or no corrosion of iron, and it is, therefore, apparent that when corrosion takes place in a heating system it is due to the presence of materials which are dissolved in the condensate and which react with the metal surfaces .vOxygen and carbon dioxide are the principal compounds which are found in condensates, and both of these gases being quite soluble in water are, when present, responsible for corrosive action. Although it is quite a simple matter to eliminate oxygen in,the boiler water, it is rather a( difficult procedure to cope with carboh dioxide due to the common 23

occurrence of carbonates and their subsequent breakdown under boiler water temperatures. In the absence of carbon dioxide and in the presence of dissolved oxygen, corrosive action would take place in return lines due to the accelerating effect of oxygen in the corrosion cycle. This may result in general corrosion but usually localized action develops with the formation of pitted areas. Localized corrosion is due to the formation of small anodic areas where iron goes into solution and larger cathodic areas where the metal surface is protected. |(The formation of anodic areas may be due to dissimilar metals in contact, slag inclusions or stresses in the metal, such as at threaded joints. action of oxygen in accelerating this type of corrosion is due to the depolarizing action when it combines with the protective film of hydrogen which normally collects on the cathodic areas. Means are available for controlling corrosion in return systems due to the presence of carbon dioxide, and oxygen contamination of the steam can be prevented by feedwater deaeration or by chemical absorption of oxygen in the boiler water. The elimination of carbon dioxide from steam is a difficult matter, and' where carbon dioxide alone is present active corrosion may occur in condensate lines unless precautionary measures are taken by providing suitable treatment and test control. Focused practice /. Put five questions to this text. 2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type. 1. Mankind today needs more electricity. 2. You needn't see the doctor. 3. The oil needs in industry are increasing day by day. 4. There is no need to use a dictionary. 5. What do you need a kerosine lamp for? 6. Heat turns ice into water. 7. The sun, in its turn, turns ice into water. 8. The turbines are turned by gas , steam and water. 9. In their turn, the turbines turn generators. 10. It was my turn to read. 11. Turn the radio on, please. 12. Turn TV off if it is possible. 13. One can turn wind energy into electric energy. SPEAKING Dialogue Control display system Turnball: I'd like to discuss with you some details of our transaction. Our customers have studied all the technical characteristics of your cooling control system. As a result they have concluded that, this system meets our requirements. Shalin: I'm glad to hear. It is up to world standards and is in great demand on the world market. Turnball: Our company would like to buy it. So the first thing I'd like to clarify is the prices. Shalin: Don't you find them acceptable? 24

Turnball: On the whole we do, but the prices for item 3 and 9 are a bit high. Shalin: If you don't mind we can discuss them tomorrow morning. Focused practice 1.Retell the dialogue in reported speech. 2.Act the dialogue. Writing 2. Write a narrative:" Corrosion ". UNIT 6. Controlling systems Grammar: The gerund. Indefinite simultaneousness reading Perfect priority having read

Active

Passive

being read

having been read

Language work 1. Learn to recognize the following international words. atmospheric, principle, communication, channel, distance, information, display, electronics. 2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the gerund. 1. Smoking is not allowed in this institute. 2. George earns his living by selling washing machines. 3. Learning English is rather difficult. 4.Seeing is believing. 5. Computers are capable only of providing information. 6. The scientists have succeeded in designing a new information system. 7. The engineers could achieve a considerable compression of information without affecting the expressiveness of the TV image. READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM , The subject of automatic control deals with systems which use feedback. Their mode of operation is essentially as follows. The quantity which it is desired to control is measured by a suitable instrument. There are two systems, such as serVomechanisms and process control 25

systems. There is clearly no fundamental difference in principle between them, but the components or "hardware" may be quite different. In thjs text^.. -o" we shall deal with both types of system with an attempt at a unified approach. ' ^ ' In process control systems there will be disturbances entering the system, such as changes in ambient temperature or changes in fuel quality. In servomechanisms, on the other hand, disturbances may be relatively unimportant. That we desire it to have may be continually changing as for example when a gun is required to follow a moving target. .^-!^ The performance of a servomechanism is Messed in terms of the magnitude of the error signal produced under operating condition. The ^ particular function of the error magnitude depends on the type of input signal to be applied. Thus, if the system is to operate with a sinusoidal l^V^ input signal, then the peak magnitude of error signal will be a useful error measure. For a system subjected to a continuously varying random signal, the mean square amplitude of the error signal, termed the error power, is a convenient criterion of performance. The best control^sj^tem is that which minimises the appropriate error measure. The aim of the designer is to minimise this error measure by correct ice of system parameters. In particular, when the general form of t he ., system is specified, the proper values should be assigned to the adjustable- parameters such as gain of Amplifiers'"and amount of stabilisation. A system in which the adjustable parameters are set so as to minimise the error measure is termed optimum. In general, the error measure can be expressed in terms of the input signal and the fixed and adjustable parameters of the system. For simple systems, the optima setting for each adjustable parameter can be derived from this expression. If this system is linear, the optimum settings are independent of the amplitude of the applied signal, and depend only on the frequency spectrum of the input and error measure used to defiile optimum performance. Focuscd practice I. Answer the questions: 1.What systems does Automatic control deal with? 2.What is the desirable quantity measured by? 3.How many systems are there? 4.Is there any difference between such systems? 5.How does a servomechanism operate? 6.What is the aim of the designer? 7.Which system do we call optimum? 2.Speak on control systems. 26

3.Discuss the problem of feedback ,4. Retell the text. Language study 1. Complete the following sentences using the gerund. Model: When will you begin (to read)...? When will you begin reading this magazine? 1.Excuse me for (to interrupt) ...? 2. Do you like (to swim) ...? 3. They went to the theatre instead of (to watch TV) ...? 4. My friend did not want (to become) ... 5. The lightning conductor is used for (to protect) ...6. This is a device for (to produce) ... 7. Thunderstorms have long stopped (to be a problem) ... 8. These means are available for (to control corrosion)... 2.Translate the following sentences using the gerund. 1. - . 2. . 3.

27

28, , . 4. . , . 6. , . 3. Match up A and : A.1. At any rate; 2. at great expense; 3. at once; 4. as soon as; 5. by no means; 6. at the edge of; 7. of one's own; 8. in full. B.1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ;. 8. . Text 2 Read and translate into Russian ACTUATORS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS As many installed valves are not accessible during operation they are often controlled by'remote actuators, which must meet the same reliability requirements as the valves. The fact that two independent actuating systems are required for valves only rarely confirms the reliability of the actuators. The so called "fall safe" system, in which the shut-off device is moved to its normal position if the power fails, is used more frequently. This system can be incorporated most easily in pneumatic actuators with closing or opening springs. Attention should also be drawn to the special requirements in connection with operation at high temperatures or high relative air humidity. The radiation-resistance of the insulation must also meet certain requirements. Following the development of suitable electrical actuators, the latter are no longer installed behind protective concrete walls. Most of these actuators are jiow mounted directly on the valves, thus eliminating defects caused by interposed transmission elements. All light water reactors incorporate a number ot valves which must be opened or closed very quickly in certain operating cases or emergencies. The necessary actuation times often cannot be achieved by electrical actuators. In addition, high actuating forces are required on account of the high working pressures and the fact that the nominal width of the valves is sometimes very high. The main steam line isolation valves in some water reactors, in which very short closing times (0.6 to 10s), high pressure differentials (pressure of the main steam line) and very large nominal widths (500 to 700mm depending on the reactor size) may occur at the same time, can be mentioned as an example in this context. Furthermore, the pressure loss in these valves should be very small. Focused practice 28

1.Put five questions to this text. 2.Speak on nuclear reactors . 3.Discuss a future of riuclear energy. 4.Retell the text. Language study 1. Put questions to the words in bold type. 1.A collection of material bodies can exchange energy in the form of heat. 2. Heat transfer together with thermodynamics constitutes the theoretical basis of heat engineering. 3. The caloric theory couldn't explain the production of heat due to friction. 4. The scientists developed many different kinds of heat theory. 5. The fouling of water causes rapid reduction of cooling efficiency. 6. This design improves heat transfer capability. 7. Dirty water causes corrosion. 8. Today's technology helps track corrosion. 2.Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type.

29

SPEAKING Dialogue Back in the office Mclay: Oh, Mr. Serov, you're back. Are you pleasant with what you've seen here? Serov: Yes. I consider your plant technically very advanced. Mclay: I'm glad to hear it. We reequipped our hydroelectric power plant last summer. Frankly speaking it's now the last word in technology. The level of automation has increased and the output of energy now is considerably higher. Serov: I would like to see the whole plant. Would it be very difficult to arrange? Mclay: Sorry but it can't be done today. One runner and two reactor turbines are under repair now. The repairs will take only two days. You are welcome to come any day after the repairs have been finished. Focused practice /. Learn the dialogue by heart and retell it. 2. Act the dialogue. Writing 1. Write a narrative valves in nuclear reactors. UNIT 7. Energy in the modern world Grammar: The Gerundial Construction 1.Mendeleev's having established a periodic law of nature has entered his name into the history book of the world science. . 2.The history of radioactivity begins with Henry Bequerel's having reported his discovery of rays of unknown nature. , . Language work 1.Give all the meanings of these English words, using a dictionary. modern, standard, reason, application, applicant, general, scale. 2.Translate the following sentences pay ing attention to the gerundial construction. 1. No single method of getting rid of radioactive waste can be recommended 30

as being the most reliable.'2. The possibility of there being life on Mars is very doubtful. 3. The appreciation of this discovery is often attributed to Mendel's having been a modest monk living in Moravia. 4. The results of the experiment depended on his having applied the proper technique. 5. Unfortunately the idea of scientists' being responsible for all troubles of the present day situation is quite popular. 6. Sometimes it is said that science is defined as a practice of the scientist's satisfying his curiosity at the expense of the government. 7. Franklin's having worked in the field of electricity is known in the world. READING Text 1 Read and translate into Russian TOWARDS THE OCEAN OF ENERGY To ensure the faultless supply of energy, man has created the most sophisticated machines, built coal mines and drilled oil and gas wells. But one fine day the treasure-troves of nature will be depleted and all this will become unnecessary. What will remain? Atomic power stations? But uranium is also a mineral and its reserves are limited. On the other hand, inside the Sun hundreds of millions of tons of hydrogen are fusing every second, releasing a vast amount of energy in the process. The scientists asked whether this process could not be reproduced on the Earth. To make their task easier, scientists did not choose hydrogen for synthesis, but its isotopes and started building the foundation of new power engineering. However, the approaches to it turned out to be extremely complicated. Gradually the most acceptable trends appeared, giving physicists a hope. One of them (known for its Russian abbreviation as Tokamak) was realized in an installation with a core shaped like a toroid (resembling a hollow ringshaped roll). The electric current heats the trfr* mixture of deuterium with tritium, which fills the cavity of the toroid, while the magnetic field compresses the mixture, preventing it from touching the walls ^d thus not allowing the plasma to be cooled. The concept of a doughnut with a magnetic coil has received the recognition of scientists in Britain, the USA, France, Japan and other countries. More than 70 of these installations are in operation in the world today. But our knowledge of the physics of plasma was insufficient. The workers of the Kurchatov Institute under the guidance of academician L. Artsimovich (1909-1975) started a long and difficult drive for knowledge on the plasma. As a result of long and hard work, the theory of thermonuclear plasma took shape and was experimentally corroborated, notably, on one of the largest installations - Tokamak - 10. Physicists will soon have at their disposal a plasma with thermonuclear parameters. Russian scientists hope to receive plasma with a temperature of 100 million degrees on Tokamak - 15. 31

Focused practice I. Answer the questions: 1. What has man done to ensure 2. 3. the supply of

energy? What did the scientists do? Which installation for developing thermonuclear reaction on Earth Which concepts have received the recognition in the USA, Japan Who developed the theory of thermonuclear toroidal plasma? What is Tokamak?

did Russian physicists create? 4.

and other countries? 5.

6. 1.Speak on the plasma. 2.Discuss the ways of using plasma. 3.Retell the text. . Language study

1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the gerundial construction. 1.Did you know about his being sent to the power station? 2. I don't remember my having told him about this device. 3. The professor was told about different experiments being carried on in this laboratory. 4. His having been sent to the plant was known to everybody. 5. We know about several new devices being under work in this workshop. 6. Your having been to Dubai was known to everybody. 7. The students were told about the new achievements having been made in the field of new power engineering. 8. The magnetic field compresses the mixture, preventing it from touching the walls of the chamber and thus not allowing the plasma to be cooled. 9. Hundreds of millions of tons of hydrogen are fusing every second inside the sun releasing a vast amount of energy in the process. 2.Complete the following sentences using the gerund.

32

Model: His friend went home instead of... His friend went home instead of going to a hospital. 1. The student couldn't read English magazines without ... 2. He went to bed after ... 3. My friend went to the office without ... 4. When the professor came into the room the students stopped ... 5. Have you started ...? 6. The engineer spoke of... 7. You should turn the light off before ... ^4. Translate into English using the words and expressions of this unit. 1. , , . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , , , . 7. , , . Text 2 * Read and translate into Russian EUROPEAN WIND ENERGY Wind energy expansion is a very encouraging indicator of what the future holds. This statement is right not just because the end of the last century witnessed the greatest increase in capacity for a single year, but due to the promising signs that point to a continuing forward movement through the last years and beyond. It can be stressed that on a country by country basis, the distribution of wind energy was, very uneven. Of the 471 MW, 65% was installed in Germany, moving it past Denmark as the European leader in installed wind power capacity. Denmark,^the UK and Holland all show respectable growth, with Denmark experiencing an annual increase in growth for the first time in three years. Some critics ask how projects at such low rates can be materialised. ' $ However, if one takes into account the fact that some of these projects are to be built in areas of extremely favourable1 conditions, it is not difficult to imagine their low costs. It is clear that the UK, with Europe's greatest wind potential, can be an important contributor to wind development, looking for the installation of up to 100 MW of capacity. Thus, the Association of Danish Wind Turbine Manufacturers looked into the future in order to determine potential growth. They

33

forecast that the total world energy market will continue to grow in the short term by 750 MW/year and accelerate to 1200 MW/year. These figures are based on "low scenario" predictions7~\ , Despite uncertainties in some markets, it is an indisputable fact that wind turbines are being sold on mor^ markets than ever before. This is in itself a healthy indication of the industry and what the future might hold. As the demand for wind turbines increases, so too does the pool of" reliable - ^ suppliers. When the world market reaches 1000-1500 MW/year, incentives for larger economic interests for further development will be in place. This situation will in its turn stimulate even more growth. It is noteworthy that this second phase of rapid growth, which started in the 90'es of the last century is taking place during a period of declining fossil fuels prices. Focused practice 1.Put five questions to this text. 2.Speak on wind energy at all. 3.Discuss the problem of wind energy in Russia. 4.Retell the text. Language study 1. a) Fill in the blanks with prepositions, b) Retell the story. One day when Thomas Edison was waiting ... a station he noticed a small boy playing ... the track. The boy didn't see an approaching train. Edison ran out and grabbed the child just ... time. The child's father thanked him and offered to teach him to be a telegraph operator. Edison agreed ... this ... the age ...21 he left the telegraph office and devoted all his time ... being an inventor. SPEAKING Dialogue Soil pollution Ivanchenko: As I know you are busy doing research in the field of soil pollution. There is a lot of problems of common interest for us to discuss. Johnson: Well, I study the problem of persticides and their influence on farmland, animals and birds. The situation is very critical now because they are very dangerous. Ivanchenko: Yes, certain. I also study the biological consequences of soil pollution. Persticides kill insects, which provide food for 34

birds. So their population decreases. Johnson: In the long run it leads to ecological imbalance. People, animals, birds accumulate poisonous and harmful substances. The use of some chemical and wastes of some power plants lead to destruction of forests. Focused practice 1.Learn the dialogue by heart. 2.Act the above dialogue. 3.Make up a short dialogue on the basis of the text "Towards the ocean of energy ". VOCABULARY Unit 1

35

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Advantage Combustion Condenser Constituent Convert Convective Cooling tower Corollary Draft contract Evolve Furnace gas Heat exchanger Superheater Surroundings Tend Transfer Virtually Unit 2

, , , () , ,

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Acceptable Account for Account Destroy Caloric Due to.,. Friction Fluid Give up Motion Substance Unit 3

1. 2.

Adjustment Atom smasher

, , - - - 36

3.Carry a current 4.Current 5.Cryogenic conductor 6.Cryogenics

7.Head 8.Obsolete 9.Store 10.Target

Unit 4

1.Compiler 2.Computation 3.Convey 4.Encode 5.Increasingly 6.Instantaneous 7.Profusion 8.Retina 9.Subtraction 10.Supercede 11.Visual -

, . , , , , Unit 5

1.Assist 2.Acquisition 3.Build up 4.Culprit 5.Depletion 6.Eductor 7.Encounter 8.Enhance 9.Feature 10.Fill 11.Fouling 12.Hinge 13.Inhibitor 14.Scaling 15.Scavenge -

, () , , ,

37

Se ali ng
18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Splash

Susceptible Therm Tracer Threaded joint Treatment

, () , Unit 6 , , , , , , , , 38

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Actuating system Actuation Actuator Adjustable Ambient Appropriate Assess Assign Disturbance Eliminate Fall safe system Feedback Interpose Linear Mode Optimum settings Random Shut-off Suitable

20. 21. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Target Valve Unit 7 Cavity Doughnut Faultless Fuse Incentive Notably Painstaking Prevent in front 17.

, , , , , , ... EXERCISES

Translate into Russian:

N1

1.When a beam is subjected to bending, internal stresses are set up. 2.The meteors of a shower are moving in parallel directions through space with the same speed. 3.Freezing points as well as boiling points are affected by external pressure. 4.The magnetron is a vacuum tube whose current is influenced by a magnetic field. 5.In the common radio tubes electrons are thrown off from the cathode when it is heated. 6.When a battery is being charged, a certain number of amper hours will be added to the battery. 7.Another subject in Radio Astronomy concerns the reception of radio waves which are being generated by some processes in outer space. 8.In an amplitude-modulated broadcast transmitter during a moment when no music or speech is being broadcast, the antenna sends out its radio signal at a constant intensity or amplitude. 9.Radioactive isotopes offer an excellent method of treatment for many diseases, and are already being widely used for treatment by medical establishments. 10.Electrical circuits were dealt with in Chapter I and this chapter will be confined principally to magnetic circuits^, 11.11. When a body or structure is subiected to external loads, internal forces are created by the corresponding elastic deformation of the body or structure which oppose the external forces and thereby maintain equilibrium. 12.12. The danger of a Whirling propeller is universally recognized, and 39

regulations have been carefully prepared to minimize this hazard. _. 13. The vertical and horizontal lobes on a kite balloon arc sometimes referred to as stabilizers. 14.In one type of air-speed indicator there is a difference of pressure between the two sides of the diaphragm, which is caused to move, and this movement is transferred to an indicator dial on a clock face which is calibrated so as to read in miles per hour. 15.Certain corrections that are needed with both the air-speed indicator and the altimeter are given by a computer, which has been specially designed to allow for certain physical changes in the atmosphere, 16.Atmospheric pressur^ which, l^sjlue to the weight of the air, is measured by the neigt ac^otumn<of .^ ^L - ""1""1-' ^ 17.The air is warmed by the sun, not directly by the sun's rays but due to the fact that the earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, converts this into heat, and then transfers this heat to the air by convection . 1 8 . Thcsejnol^cules are acted on both by forces of cohesion exerted on them by other molecules of the liquid and by forces of adhesion exerted by the molecules of the wall.

N2 Translate into Russian: 1.When there are no forces pulling or pushing a body that body must always be in equilibrium. 2.The individual Forces acting on ao airplane in flight are generally replaced by the resultant force, 3. When rubbing a glass rod with a piece of silk, you develop a large difference of potential. 4.Two bodies being placed in contact with each other, the temperature of the hot body falls, while that of the cold one rises. 5.Class A insulation is the most common in industrial equipment, class and class being used rather seldom. 6.When inspecting relays great precaution should be taken not to touch the relay itself but only to watch its operation. 7.The critical point is that point on the course which under existing, conditions is equally distant from the point of departure and desired destination. 8.Having defined two units of power, the horsepower and the kilowatt, we may use these to define two new units of work, the horsepower-hour and the kilowatt-hour. 9.An altimeter contains a vacuum box of corrugated metal, one side of the 40

box being fixed, while the other side presses against a spring bar which is able through a system of levers to move the indicator needle. 10.In order to make calculations of power when using alternating current, some definite current and voltage values must be chosen. 11.Operating characteristics of high-vacuum tubes are usually given in graphical form, the plate-characteristic curves being the most common.

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Members of the delegations were given the opportunity to acquaint themselves with the scicntific research being, carried on in the Soviet Unionin the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and with functioning nuclear reactors and accelerators of elementary particles. 4.The great majority of transformers are built with iron cores, the outstanding exception being air-core transformers for use at high frequencies beyond the audio range. 5.Owing to wind effects, an aircraft traveling on a course of, say, 0.40 is not necessarily traveling over the ground in that direction, becausc it may be blown sideways and drift away from the course. N3 ' Translate into Russian: 1.When subjected to alternating magnetization, the loop is traversed once for every cycle of the current, and so the energy wasted per second is proportional to the frequency. 2.The gas mixture produced by the carburettor is of no value unless it is ignited, and gas ignited quickly produces more force if first compressed. 3.Relays, if improperly designed or cared for, may give iar more trouble than any other part of the electrical and radio circuits. 4.The forces of wing ribs applied to the spar are concentrated. 5.This process is carried out until the small cylinder is brought up to its proper pressure as determined by a gauge. 6.The booster is usually a coil which has a vibrating contactor and produces high voltage when connected to a battery. 7.The voltage induced in a winding located in a magnetic field was investigated experimentally by Faraday. 8.If the network has several voltage sources, each branch current is composed of several component currents, each component produced by one of the individual voltage sources. 9.When poles of two fixed magnets are placed together the magnets may move apart, when released, but the energy.represented is a return of part of the energy originally required to bring them together. 10.The work of an air-speed indicator is based on the difference between the pressure exerted by moving air and the pressure which is at a standstill. 11.When reading a map an airman must be able to interpret the map from the landsman's point of view; he must understand the conventional signs that are the special knowledge of the seaman; and he must recognize those things as they appear to him when seen from an aircraft travelling at high speed through great range of altitude. 12.The charged particles gradually pick up speed, revolving in a closed curve along a circular vacuum chamber in the magnetic field of a giant electromagnet. 42

13.The motor designed according to the scheme discussed above, the speed of rotation of the armature is proportional to the rate at which energy passes through the meter to the consumer. N4 Translate into Russian: 1.Pulling a rubber band increases its length. 2.The second effect of increasing the magnet current is to increase the field strength at every point. 3.The rheostat is usually equipped with one switch designed for changing the length of the resistance wire through which the current must pass. 4.Representing the electric field by means of these lines helps us to picture the forces between the charged bodies. 6. On entering the lens the rays are bent toward the normal as before and on leaving they are bent away from the principal axis. 6.Measuring the temperature of the dew point is the most accurate method of determining relative humidity. 7.The usual method of altering the frequency is to include in the oscillator circuit a variable condenser. 8.Radar is used in finding the position of a target with respect to a fixed point on the ground. 9.There are two common methods for measuring angular velocity. 10.We discussed motion of rotation about a fixed axis without inquiring into the "causes" of the motion. 11.When a helical spring is stretched, the actual distortion of the wire is a combination of stretching, bending and torsion. 12.The second question in the choice of a lubricating device is its size. 13.Most of nuclear reactors are installations usually consisting of the following elementary parts: a moderator, heat-removing means, and a hermetic structure in which a chain reaction can be maintained. List of abbreviations

43

a.c. A.D. a.m. amp arr B.C. BST BTU c/s cps d.c. Dep. e.m.f. Fahr(F)

ft
hp in lb Lb per sq. in. Kw Kv Mc/s Mph MT Per annum Per capita (of population) p.m. R Rpm SI t TIT yd X-rays oz MW MV W V pes e-gEtc. i.e. Visa versia

Alternating current Anno domini, in the year of Our Lord Ante meridiem ampere Arrival time Before Christ British summer time British thermal unit Centigrade Cycle per second Cycle per second Direct current Departure time Electromotive force , Fahrenheit Foot, feet Horse power inch pound kilowatt kilovolt Million cycle per second. Mile per hour mountain

Post meridium Revolution per minute International System of Units temperature Turbine inlet temperature yard ounce megawatt megavolt watt volt pieces Example gratia Et cetera Id. est On the contrary, the other way round

SUPPLEMENTARY READING MICROWAVE POWER During the past years we have become accustomed to using electrical 44

devices fed from a direct current power supply or from one with an alternating current, normally with a frequency of 50 or 60 cycles per second (c/s). But it is not necessarily the best form of power best suited to all these uses. Indeed power at much higher frequencies may be preferable for many applications. Such power is used in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are electromagnetic radiation with frequencies ranging from about 3 million to 300,000 million cycles per second (Mc/s). Three families of electron tube (valve) are suitable for power generation at microwave frequencies: the negative grid tubes, the klystrons and the magnetrons. Power can be transmitted in many ways. If the power is carried by an electric current, a conductor must be provided to transport the flow of electrons, the usual conductor being a metal cable. But electromagnetic radiation requires no conductive medium; light reaches the Earth from the most distant parts of the universe and microwaves can similarly travel through a vacuum or even through an insulating material, providing the material is 'transparent' to electromagnetic radiation of that wavelength. But simply to use a microwave source to pump power out aimlessly is wasteful: either a carefully designed aerial or a waveguide must be used to channel the power in the desired direction. Power from an aerial spreads out in the shape of a cone, however, and to keep power concentrated at microwave frequencies a waveguide is used. Many industrial processes involve heat. Heat can be applied in three basic ways: conduction, convection and radiation. The first two of these are familiar enough. Radiation heating is less familiar; it allows materials to be heated in a controlled atmosphere or in a vacuum. Microwave heating is simply radiation heating at microwave wavelengths. At infrared or optical wavelengths a hot source usually emits radiation which is absorbed in the surface of the material being processed and carried into the interior by conduction. At microwave wavelengths the picture is different. First, the wavelength is comparable in size to the material dimensions, being of the order of millimetres to metres, so the radiation is usually coupled to the material by a transmission line or resonant cavity, rather than an aerial. Second, most microwave systems are highly coherent sources of power that are not 'hot' in the usual sense of the word. Third, microwaves heat the whole bulk of the material not only by conduction but also by direct molecular agitation. Almost every processing industry is now using microwave heat. One unusual application is to produce plasmas. When a gas such as hydrogen is subjected to a microwave field any free electrons are accelerated to energies high enough to ionize the gas atoms. If a sufficient percentage of electrons reach this energy more electrons will be produced by this process than are removed by all processes, and the gas will break down and form a plasma.

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COMMUNICATION BY LASER The invention of the laser provided a way out. The principle on which the laser is based can be traced back as far as 1917, when Albert Einstein showed that 'stimulated', or controlled, radiation could be obtained from an atom under certain conditions. The crucial difference between conventional light sources and a laser lies in the extent to which the emission of surplus energy can be controlled. Einstein showed that when an atom or a molecule has somehow had its energy status raised, the release of this stored energy can be controlled by subjecting the atom or molecule to a small electromagnetic field of the proper frequency. (In contrast the emission of a hot wire occurs spontaneously.) The controlled release of energy by the foregoing technique is called stimulated emission; the weak field doing the stimulation is enhanced by the energy of the stimulated radiation. The number of possible frequencies emitted by a laser can also be restricted by selectively feeding power into a few specific changes in the electronic configuration of the emitting atoms. It means that an emitting atom in a laser behaves ideally when it is suspended relatively far from its neighbouring atoms. This isolation occurs naturally in a gas. By introducing energy that is capable of raising the energy status of the isolated atoms only, the stimulated emission is kept to a narrow spectral band. A laser can be made to act as an electrical oscillator by adding two reflectors at the ends of the tube to form a resonant cavity. The light oscillating between the two mirrors at 473 cycles per second is built up by additional stimulated emissions until it uses up all the excited electrons; some of the energy in the cavity is then released through one of the end mirrors, which is partially transparent. The output of such a laser is concentrated at a single frequency, with a maximum deviation from the fundamental frequency of only a few thousand cycles per second. As in the case of the laser amplifier, the output of this laser oscillator is spatially coherent. The two properties of monochromaticity and spatial coherence make the laser a potentially useful oscillator for intercity communication systems. What is more, the spatial coherence of a laser beam makes possible highly directional transmission unattainable by conventional radio techniques. An essential component of any long-distance communication stem is a modulator. In order to modulate the light output of a laser the light waves must be capable of being varied in synchronism with the broad band radiowave produced by combining many individual telephone, television and radio signals.

SPACE EXPLORATION Space research began in October 1957 when the first soviet artificial Earth Satellite was launched into outer space. In 1959 Luna-2 reached the Moon's 46

surface. On April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin made the first manned flight on board Vostok spaceship. Some later other countries began their space programs. The USA launched many satellites and manned ships. They sent their astronauts to the Moon and constructed the first space shuttle. With the help of Russia and the USA many countries, including Japan, India, Brazil, Vietnam, Cuba, Afghanistan and others send their cosmonauts as members of international space crews. Some of them launched their own satellites. It should be noticed that since Yuri Gagarin flight Russian space science and engineering have come a long way. According to the US and European experts Russia takes the leading position in almost all space exploration. Russia has launched more that 2,300 space vehicles designed to perform various functions. Unmanned satellites have been of great significance in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space. They help us learn more about the relations between processes occurring on the sun and near the earth and study the structure of the upper atmosphere. These satellites are provided with scientific equipment for space navigation of civil aviation and ships, as well as exploration of the World Ocean, the earth's surface and its natural resources. Russia is known to carry out many orbital manned flights involving over 60 cosmonauts, many of them having flown several times. Russian cosmonauts hold the record for the longest time in space (L. Kizim has worked 375 days) and for continuous stay in space (V. Titov and M. Manarov 365 days, i.e. a year). The knowledge of Russian doctors and researchers about the medical and psychological consequences of longterm space flight far exceed that of American scientists. Two space stations, Salyut and Mir made contribution into researching outer space. The creation of a new, more sophisticated, efficient space lab aboard the Mir station is a good example of the scientific and technological progress under way in Russia's space industry. New metal alloys, composite materials and more effective means of communication were used. This space station was equipped with an astronomical observatory module named Kwant. With the twin Vega space probes being successfully launched in 1986, Russian scientists conducted studies of Halley's comet and gathered impressive scientific data about Venus. Vega 1 and Vega 2 carrying more than 30 research instruments passed within 10,000 kilometers of the comet's heart, transmitted high-quality pictures to the Earth and revealed for the first time the dimensions and dynamics of its ten-mile-long nucleus. The speed of approaching the comet was equal to 78 km/sec. It should be pointed out that the study of Halley's comet was conducted on the basis of extensive cooperation of scientists. Scientists from nine countries, including the U.S, joined the Vega project. As for the Mir station, after fulfilling its tasks and targets this station was replaced by the International Space Station (ISS), the most complex and expensive structure that has over been launched into outer space. The Russians and Americans are main partners in this international 47

enterprise. The three-person multi-national crews are alternately composed of two Americans and one Russian followed by a Russian majority. Later a six or sevenperson crews will occupy the station. Some astronauts may stay on the ISS up to 187 days, but there are no plans yet for longer missions. The official life expectancy of the station itself is 10 years, but it should last much longer. The ISS may be the world's most ambitious engineering project in history, but it could not have been realized without previous extensive experience in operating the Russian Mir space station. Mir was a great achievement. Russia learned how to build and maintain complex structures in space. Mir also gave citizens of more than a dozen countries their first opportunity to explore space. It should be noted that Mir has proved to be the perfect training ground for the ISS. What is the purpose of the ISS? It is a political program as well as a science program. This program is no longer only about conducting scientific investigations in the absence of gravity, or about learning how to build a massive project weighing 400 tons in orbit, or about establishing the base for a future trip to Mars. The ISS is more than merely the next great adventure of the space age. It is also about promoting international cooperation and creating thousands of peacetime jobs for highly skilled workers and engineers. The implementation of the broad international program would require more than $40 billion. Some space experts would like to attract commercial users such as, biotechnology companies in order that the cost of the station should be lowered. And some specialists have even suggested that the station be used for advertising and Hollywood filmmaking. Now several non- cosmonaut men have made their flight on the station on commercial basis. A BRITISH ASTRONAUT One afternoon in the summer of 1989, a 27-year-old food technologist called Helen Sharman was listening to the radio. She heard an unusual position being advertised: 'Astronaut wanted - no previous experience necessary.' Quickly she wrote down the phone number and the next day sent off her application. Sharman was one of 13,000 hopefuls who applied to become Britain's first astronaut when the British government agreed to cooperate with the Russians in the Juno space mission. Applicants for the Juno Project had to take tough psychological and physical tests. They needed to be scientifically trained, had to speak a foreign language and had to be able to deal with difficult situations without panicking. A strong digestive system was also vital. Sharman was a highly trained scientist, could speak several languages and was well-known for her ability to remain calm. Obviously, physical fitness was also important and although Sharman often played squash and regularly went cycling and swimming, she now admits that she was no great athlete when she applied. One of the most interesting parts of her preparations was a set of tests which simulated weightlessness because in space there's almost no gravity, so the movement of food through the stomach is entirely dependent on muscle power. 48

To Sharman's surprise, her application was successful and six months later she was in Russia beginning 18 months of training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Centre. Helen Sharman proved to be ideal. 'Actually, it's extremely difficult to do this on earth' explains Sharman, 'because to weigh absolutely nothing you have to be positioned between two planets so that the force of their gravity is pulling you in opposite directions' The nearest it is possible to get to these conditions on Earth is in a plane that is flying in enormous loops. 'We used huge freighter aircraft. When the plane gets the top and starts to fall, you fall with it, so you feel as it you arc weight less. Each experiment only lasted about 23 seconds - not very long, otherwise it would hit the ground. 'Once she was aboard the space shuttle, Sharman found it easy to get used to weightlessness, despite a little initial discomfort.Another important part of Sharman's preparation included learning about the technical aspects of space travel. There were only three people in the spacecraft, and they are all needed to be able to operate it. And the Russians wanted to make sure Helen could operate all the systems she would need to survive on her in an emergency On 18 May 1991, Sharman boarded the Soyuz spacecraft in the Kazakhstan Desert with two Russian cosmonauts. Once it was in space, the craft was going at a speed of 29,000 km/h. It clocked with the Mir Space station two day later. She says living up there was not as frightening as it sounds. 'Eating wasn't too difficult. We sucked coffee and tea out of tubes and ate a lot of tinned food' The onboard lavatory was an interesting piece of environmentally correct technology amazingly a proportion of the waste matter produced was recycled. In space Sharman carried out experiments on various materials to be used for new drugs and electronics. The results were brought back to earth for analysis by the Russians. Although she would like to go back into space, these days Sharman is happy enough working as a part-time consultant to a company making satellites. The rest of her time she spends trying to persuade schoolchildren to take up a career in science and technology.

AN EXPENSIVE ERROR American Scientists lost a $125 million spacecraft as it approached Mars some years ago essentially because they confused feet and pounds with meters and kilograms. The fact was that engineers at Lockheed Martin Corp., which had built the spacecraft, specified certain measurements about the spacecraft s thrust in pounds, an English unit, but that NASA scientists thought the information was a metric measurement known as newtons. The resulting miscalculation, undetected for months as the craft was designed, built and launched, meant the Mars Climate Orbitcr, as it was called, was off course by about 97 kilometers'as it approached Mars. 49

The failure could raise questions about , whether NASA and its contractors are skimping on safety to cut costs. The Mars Climate Orbiter, the first spacecraft designed to study the climate of another planet, , was exceedingly inexpensive by NASA's standards. It is part of a strategy to fly more but less expensive missions to Mars. Two separate review coniniittees were formed to investigate the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter - the internal Jet Propulsion Laboratory peer review team, and a special review board of experts from the laboratory and elsewhere. An independent NASA failure review board was formed shortly. NASA and Lockheed officials said the full details of how the mistake occurred were not known. But, basically, Lockheed was providing the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with data on the amount of force imparted to the spacecraft by its thrusters, which'are fired periodically. This was measured in pounds.) But scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assumed the figure was in newtons and incorporated it into computer models that are used to calculate the spacecraft's position and direction. A newton is the force needed to accelerate a 1 -kilogram mass 1 meter per second. A pound is the amount of force needed to accelerate a 1 pound mass 1 foot per second. Since one pound equals about 4.4 newtons, it would seem that such an error would be readily detected.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY We all know an unattractive way to save energy: sit at home, freezing in the dark. Luckily, there are some easy steps we can take, without ruining our comfort. Using what I learned about energy, I cut my bills almost in half! You too can probably cut your energy bills in half and what to do for that? Firstly get in the habit of turning off lights, closing doors, doing full loads of laundry, and hanging out clothes to dry (if possible). Wash full loads of dishes, and minimize the number of times you open the fridge or drive to the store. Changing habits may be difficult, but it's free. Secondly, if you heat anything with electricity, take the next opportunity to change to a cheaper, more efficient fuel. Electric central heaters, stoves, water heaters, clothes dryers, electric bathroom heaters, and portable electric heaters should all be on your "hit list". Eliminate them, repower them with an efficient fuel, or use an alternate method. Natural gas and fuel oil are economical heating choices, if available. Wood has long been used to heat homes, and newer wood stoves are much cleaner and more efficient than in the past. They require much less wood and therefore less work cutting, splitting and so on and stoking. Since wood is part of the natural carbon cycle, burning it shouldn't really count as greenhouse gas emissions. Solar home and water heating is a great way to help the environment too, if you can afford the initial investment required and have an adequate solar resource. Get the best, most efficient appliances you can, whenever you have the 50

opportunity. Refrigeration is a significant part of domestic energy

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consumption, so you might consider getting the smallest refrigerator that will meet your needs. Also, over the life of an electric motor, the cost of electricity is typically many times the cost of the motor itself. It makes sense to get a more efficient model. Utility bills must be paid, but information is free. Armed with what you have read, I'm sure you can find other ways to reduce your energy consumption and bills. It isn't as hard as you might think. POWER FROM WASTE For the Mitr Kalasin Sugar plant in northeast Thailand, sugar-cane residue that was once considered refuse now represents power, money and the future. The company burns the sugarcane grist to generate electricity, helping it run machinery and provide power to neighboring villages. The process has been so successful that the company is buying other industrial waste. Biomass power generation technology has helped tackle local problems, from burning the unwanted waste to cutting energy costs. Mitr Phol is Thailand's largest sugar producer and owns Mitr Kalasin. Mitr Kalasin, 520 kilometers from Bangkok that is the country capital, is one of several dozen small Thai factories plugged into an official drive to encourage use of waste for commercially viable electricity production. Thailand, a net importer of energy, has been stepping up measures to reduce its dependence on imported fossil fuels and meet rising demand for power. Biological fuels, energy agencies say, will go a long way to promoting diversification, without adding to pollution. Apart from sugar waste, the authorities have been promoting other biomass fuels including rice husks, wood chips and the dung from pigs. As they say Thailand doesn't want to be heavily dependent on one specific source of fuel. Natural gas has become the largest source of fuel, accounting for up to 70 percent of electricity generation, according to the energy policy office. The national Energy Agency wants to cut the gas portion at the current level and diversify into other fuel sources. The office projects a steady rise of power demand by 1,300 megawatts a year over the next 15 years from 16,126 MW in 2001. It estimates Thailand could save almost 5,100 billion tons of crude equivalent per year if its alternative fuel scheme were implemented effectively over the next decade. Thailand started deregulating its power industry in 1996, allowing private producers to sell power to the state-owned Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand to loosen its financial burden on investment expansion. Private producers are divided into five groups of Independent Power Producers (SPP) with capacity more than 90 megawatts and Small Power Producers with capacity less than 90 megawatts. SPPs with biomass and renewable technology are gaining favor from the 52

government, which has pledged to buy an unlimited amount of electricity produced from waste.

HYDROGEN AS FUEL GAS Hydrogen is considered to have a possibility of replacing coal gas as well as other industrial gases. Why? When hydrogen is "burned, its only combustion product is water vapor. Therefore it is safe in comparison with coal gas in which incomplete combustion produces toxic substances. Also, hydrogen is harmless to men while coal gas by itself is toxic. Therefore hydrogen can be regarded as nearly ideal gas fuel from a health standpoint. Hydrogen has the lowest temperature at which explosion starts, that is to say, that hydrogen is the most dangerous gas for explosion. But the period in which hydrogen and oxygen exist as an explosive mixture is much shorter than that for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Even if hydrogen is mixed with oxygen to form an explosive mixture, the duration for its existence is so short that a chance for actual explosion is small in comparison with other gases. It has been proved experimentally that hydrogen is safer than coal gas. Hydrogen, therefore, has a quality that can substitute coal gas as gas fuel. But how can we get hydrogen for our purposes? It should be said that industrially perfect method has not been developed yet although hydrogen has been produced by various methods for a long time. The methods available are very complex and are costly to produce the gas. In spite of some progress made in this respect, further advances are required to use hydrogen as gas fuel in competition with coal gas. The use of hydrogen is not at all impossible and there are some method to produce it at present. There is a method of obtaining hydrogen by cracking hydrocarbon at elevated temperatures. Similarly, by cracking coal gas, a gas containing about 80% hydrogen can be produced. In both methods the formation of fine carbon dust presents difficulties. If a method by which the carbon could be burned and the resulting heat could be utilized for the process were developed, these methods would be considered worthwile. It should mention a technique in which a minute quantity of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in hydrogen can be removed by passing it over charcoal. Removal of carbon monoxide in hydrogen can be made also by passing the gas over the heated catalyst under high pressure and converting carbon monoxide into methyl alcohol. The economical method producing hydrogen today is the one which uses fuel as raw materials. Since hydrogen thus produced represents about one-fifth of the heat value of the coal, it is desirable to find a more efficient method if it is to be used as fuel gas. The greatest cause for poor efficiency is the generation of exhaust gas upon the production of water gas. The reason is due to the direct 53

introduction of air. If oxygen mixed with a proper amount of water vapor instead of air were blown into the generator the exhaust gas would never be formed and the coke could be converted to water gas. Similarly, when the mixture of oxygen and water in proper proportions is blown into the generator, which uses coal, the gas will not contain 50% nitrogen but consists of a large quantity of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Today oxygen can be separated from air not only readily but also economically. Therefore, further studies in this area will not bring the heat value of hydrogen below that of coal gas. The production cost of hydrogen is greater than that for coal gas. Much improvement for the method is needed. If the method is perfected, the thermal economy would further be improved and the production cost of hydrogen would be lowered.

COLD ENERGY Liquified natural gases (LNG) are paid attention to as fuel oils. LNG is considered to be used as the town gas and heat sources in urban regions because LNG can prevent pollution of atmospheric air. But it needs seven times more energy to be transported than crude oil, because of necessity to be liquefied and kept in cold state. A large quantity of cold energy in LNG are not used so efficiently except a small part of it. On the contrary, some plants consume energy to heat for gasification of LNG. This is meaningless and wasteful for conservation of energy. At present, the cold energy is used for liquification of oxygen and nitrogen, freezing of foods, cold destruction and low temperature transmission of electricity. We want to explain the methods of power generation with cold energy. In conventional heat engines, the heating media (working fluids) are heated to high-temperature and sent to the engines to generate power, and then cooled until ambient temperature. There are effective plants to operate in the higher temperature. However, the plants generating power with cold energy have to be operated in such mechanisms as follows: 1)At first, the cold media (coolants) are cooled and raised of their exergy and then supplied to the plants to generate power and at last, warmed up to near ambient temperature. Such plants have not yet been invented. 2)Another practical plants generating power with cold energy are heat engines which are operated in cold environment kept cold media. The working fluids are supplied to the engines at high pressure and near ambient temperature, and drive the turbines to generate power, and then rejected at low pressure and cold temperature. These types of power generation are called heat engines in cold atmosphere. The thermocouples working between cold and ambient (or higher) temperatures can generate power. But, the materials used are not yet developed 54

enough, so the exergy efficiency of power generation is very low at present. Heat engines in cold atmosphere are thought to have many types. Here two types of them are discussed: 1)Type A. In this type, LNG is used as a cold medium for cold atmosphere and LNG (consisted mainly of propane) is used for working fluid. 2)Type B. In this type, LNG is applied to working fluid and cold ambient medium, and ethane (or ethylene) is applied to working medium. The performances of heat engines operated in cold atmosphere are discussed theoretically and numerically by means of exergy. In these engines, the heat source is at normal ambient temperature and the heat sink is at temperature -40C-80C which is kept by cold energy of LNG. In the colder region, the analysts of performances of the heat engines, cannot be carried out only with enthalpy calculation, therefore, exergy must be also utilized. The energy efficiences of these heat engine are lower than expected ones, in type A - 5,2% and in type - 12,5%. These low performances connected with larger temperature differences between the media in the heat-exchangers and with very large irreversible losses. By using more suitable media and decreasing temperaturedrops at heat transfer surface of the heat-exchanger, we shall be able to raise the exergy efficiencies. But, at type A, 25C water is partly used as heat source, because a thermal power station exists near the type A plants. Because of the worst winter condition the ambient temperature of sea water is assumed to be 5C for exergy calculation. Methane, ethane, ethylene and propane are used as working fluid, because sufficient thermodynamic data were not found. FLAMELESS FIRE Working on a theoretical problem connected with burning, Merzhanov asked his assistents to try to find substances that would not give off gases while burning. They tried one combination after another until finally discovering the following. They pressed a mixture of titanium and boron into a sufficiently large tablet and ignited it by a wire spiral heated by electric current. A bright wave of light rapidly spread along the tablet starting from the point of its contact with the spiral. The experimenters enjoyed the spectacular sight, determined the processes that took place in the mixture under the influence of thermal pulse, and only then quite by chance, paid attention to the fact that the tablet had neither smelted nor lost its initial form, but had become dense and hard. The content of the bar they had got was a titanium-boron compound - titanium diboride a substance known for its excellent abrasive properties. Very well - the alloy was obtained; but where was the flame? There was no flame whatsoever. Traditionally, all metallurgical processes are associated with the heat of a furnace and fiery streams of liquid metal. Alexander Merzhanov is of a different opinion. "Specialists know", he says, "that fire is not necessarily connccted with flame. Burning is a complicated chemical reaction. If in the course of reaction the 55

components melt or become gases, this means they interact easily and quickly. If they remain hard, then in corral conditions the process goes very slowly or steps halfway. In other words, in normal conditions, flameless fire (or hard fire, for that matter) burns imperceptibly, we cannot see it. Or, as is the case more often than not, the flame goes out completely. But there is, it appeared, a third path the reaction may take: the interacting substance may give off as much heat that it can keep going on by itself; it only needs the initial thermal pulse, after which it becomes self-propagating. That's why the reaction is called self-propagating hightemperature synthesis (SHS). The discovery made by Merzhanov and his team made it possible to avoid in the traditional process of getting several valuable alloys, a whole link, that is the high temperature furnaces. The process has become much quicker and much cheaper. Energy is saved which previously was to keep up high temperature in furnaces. The quality of the product has improved as the temperature in 1 the tablet - up to 4,000C - is much higher than that in furnaces, and all the undesirable substances in the raw material are burned out. In other words, self purification of the alloy takes a place. The SHS method makes it possible to produce quickly and economically not only already known materials, but also new ones that could not be obtained by the previously existing technologies. A superconductor made of niobium and a certain molybdenum compound is an example. Another advantage of hard fire is in that it not only synthesizes alloys but also allows the simultaneously melting of items, since the reactor into which the refractory substances are placed can be given any necessary shape.

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UNIT 1. Thermodynamics READING Text 1 PRINCIPAL CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS Text 2 METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER SPEAKING Business meeting UNIT 2. Heat READING Text 1 THE CALORIC THEORY OF HEAT Text 2 SPECIFIC HEAT SPEAKING What is heat? UNIT 3. Power engineering READING Text 1 POWER INDUSTRY OF THE FUTURE Text 2 CRYOGENICS SPEAKING Electronics UNIT 4. Computer in engineering READING Text 1 HOW COMPUTERS WORK Text 2 DIGITAL TELEVISION SPEAKING At the exhibition UNIT 5. Cleaning water of power plants READING Text 1 COOLING WATER TREATMENT Text 2 CORROSION IN HEATING SYSTEMS SPEAKING Control display system UNIT 6. Controlling systems READING Text 1 AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM Text 2 ACTUATORS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS SPEAKING Back in the office UNIT 7. Energy in the modern world READING Text 1 TOWARDS THE OCEAN OF ENERGY Text 2 EUROPEAN WIND ENERGY SPEAKING Soil pollution VOCABULARY EXERCISES LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONS SUHHLEMENTARY READING 3 4 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 31 33 33 34 37 38 39 42 46 47

1. The television was invented before my time. 2. It is high time to learn English. 3. Five times four is twenty. 4. Am I late? - No, you are just in time. 5. What is the time? - It's lunch time. 6. The students had a good time at the disco. 7. It took a long time before man flew to outer space. 8.1 have English three times a week. 9. For a long time people didn't understand that lightning and atmospheric electricity are one and the same 57

thing. 10. From time to time he stood up and looked into the window. 11. I II 1.Thermodynamics is based. 1. many different theories of heat. 2.The circulating water at powers 2. the production of heat by stations is. friction. 3.The caloric theoty of heat couldn't 3. on experimentally established explain. . laws. 1. Many problems can be decided, the scientists of the world joining their efforts. 2. Many millions years ago a giant lake stretched from Vienna to the Aral sea, its last descendants being the Caspian sea and the Black sea of today. 3. I was given two articles, the latter being rather dull. 4. There being little time at our disposal, we had to take a taxi. 5. An object losing its potential energy, that energy is turned into kinetic energy. 6. Turbines drive the electric generators, the latter producing electric energy. 7. Chemical sources of electricity having a limited application, the great quantities of electric energy produced today come from different forms of mechanical energy. 8. The teacher finished his report, and the students starting to go out. 1. The student is making an experiment. 2. The experiment is being made by the student. 3. Making his experiment the student was speaking to his teacher. 4. The experiment having been made, the student went home. 5. Having been made in time, the experiment was given to the professor. 6. The student made his experiment, his friend having helped him. 2.Match up A and B. A)to transform; 2. treatment; 3. cooling water; 4. considerably; 5. cooling tower; 6. fouling; 7. corrosion; 8. improvement; 9. condensate; 10. procedure; 11. soluble. B)^ ; 2. ; 3V ; ^; '^'; ^^ ; & ; 9. ; ^; . 1. My friend's son looks like his father. 2. What is the weather like today? 3. You can take any book you like. 4. Some liquids have Jike properties. 5. They didn't like a TV sport program they saw the day before yesterday. 6. A steam turbine is like any other turbine but it is turned by steam. 7. Do you like stories about advantages? 3.Use prepositions or adverbs if necessary. The early Scandinavians, for example, thought that thunderstorms were produced ... Thor, the god ... thunder. Besides his throwing both thunder and lightning ... some people, he was a hammer-thrower. According ... the story, his powerful hammer had the property ... always coming back ... his hands after it had been thrown. The fifth day ... the week, that is Thursday, was named ...him. A story like that invented ... those early Scandinavians could be also heard ... other 58

peoples.

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