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Preface

Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998


Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor
National Institute of standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8401

This table gives the 1998 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and
conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on
Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. Further, it
describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the subset of constants on which
the complete 1998 set of recommended values is based. The 1998 set replaces its
immediate predecessor recommended by CODATA in 1986. The new adjustment,
which takes into account all of the data available through 31 December 1998, is a
significant advance over its 1986 counterpart. The 1998 adjustment was carried
out by P. J. Mohr and B. N. Taylor of the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) under the auspices of the CODATA Task Group on
Fundamental Constants. The standard uncertainties (i.e., estimated standard
deviations) of the new recommended values are in most cases about 1/5 to 1/12
and in some cases 1/160 times the standard uncertainties of the corresponding
1986 values. Moreover, in almost all cases the absolute values of the differences
between the 1998 values and the corresponding 1986 values are less than twice
the standard uncertainties of the 1986 values.
The Task Group was established in 1969 with the aim of periodically providing
the scientific and technological communities with a self-consistent set of
internationally recommended values of the fundamental physical constants based
on all applicable information available at a given point in time. The first set was
published in 1973 and was followed by a revised set first published in 1986; the
current 1998 set first appeared in 1999. In the future, the CODATA Task Group
plans to take advantage of the high level of automation developed for the current
set in order to issue a new set of recommended values at least every four years.

Fundamental Physical Constants Atomic and Nuclear Constants


Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. u r

General
fine-structure constant e2/40 c
inverse fine-structure constant

7.297 352 533(27) 103


137.035 999 76(50)

Rydberg constant 2 m e c/2h

R
R c
R hc

10 973 731.568 549(83)


3.289 841 960 368(25) 1015
2.179 871 90(17) 1018
13.605 691 72(53)

m1
Hz
J
eV

7.6 1012
7.6 1012
7.8 108
3.9 108

a0

0.529 177 2083(19) 1010

3.7 109

Eh

4.359 743 81(34) 1018


27.211 3834(11)
3.636 947 516(27) 104
7.273 895 032(53) 104

J
eV
m2 s1
m2 s1

7.8 108
3.9 108
7.3 109
7.3 109

GeV2

8.6 106

R hc in eV
Bohr radius /4 R = 40 2/m e e2
Hartree energy e2/40 a0 = 2R hc
= 2 m e c2
in eV
quantum of circulation

h/2m e
h/m e

3.7 109
3.7 109

Electroweak
Fermi coupling constanta
weak mixing angleb W (on-shell scheme)
2 1 (m /m )2
sin2 W = sW
W
Z

G F /(c)3

1.166 39(1) 105

sin2 W

0.2224(19)

8.7 103

Electron, e
9.109 381 88(72) 1031

kg

7.9 108

c2

5.485 799 110(12) 104


8.187 104 14(64) 1014
0.510 998 902(21)

u
J
MeV

2.1 109
7.9 108
4.0 108

electron-muon mass ratio


electron-tau mass ratio
electron-proton mass ratio
electron-neutron mass ratio
electron-deuteron mass ratio
electron to alpha particle mass ratio

m e /m
m e /m
m e /m p
m e /m n
m e /m d
m e /m

4.836 332 10(15) 103


2.875 55(47) 104
5.446 170 232(12) 104
5.438 673 462(12) 104
2.724 437 1170(58) 104
1.370 933 5611(29) 104

electron charge to mass quotient


electron molar mass NA m e
Compton wavelength h/m e c
C /2 = a0 = 2/4 R
classical electron radius 2 a0
Thomson cross section (8/3)re2

e/m e
M(e), Me
C
re
e

1.758 820 174(71) 1011


5.485 799 110(12) 107
2.426 310 215(18) 1012
386.159 2642(28) 1015
2.817 940 285(31) 1015
0.665 245 854(15) 1028

C kg1
kg mol1
m
m
m
m2

4.0 108
2.1 109
7.3 109
7.3 109
1.1 108
2.2 108

e
e /B
e /N

928.476 362(37) 1026


1.001 159 652 1869(41)
1 838.281 9660(39)

J T1

4.0 108
4.1 1012
2.1 109

ae

1.159 652 1869(41) 103

electron mass
in u, m e = Ar (e) u (electron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

electron magnetic moment


to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
electron magnetic moment
anomaly |e |/B 1

Page 1

me

me

3.0 108
1.6 104
2.1 109
2.2 109
2.1 109
2.1 109

3.5 109

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1999 and Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000.

Fundamental Physical Constants Atomic and Nuclear Constants


Quantity
electron g-factor 2(1 + ae )
electron-muon
magnetic moment ratio
electron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
electron to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
electron-neutron
magnetic moment ratio
electron-deuteron
magnetic moment ratio
electron to shielded helionc
magnetic moment ratio
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
electron gyromagnetic ratio 2|e |/

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. u r

ge

2.002 319 304 3737(82)

4.1 1012

e /

206.766 9720(63)

3.0 108

e /p

658.210 6875(66)

1.0 108

e /0p

658.227 5954(71)

1.1 108

e /n

960.920 50(23)

2.4 107

e /d

2 143.923 498(23)

1.1 108

e /0h

864.058 255(10)

1.2 108

e
e /2

1.760 859 794(71) 1011


28 024.9540(11)

s1 T1
MHz T1

4.0 108
4.0 108

1.883 531 09(16) 1028

kg

8.4 108

0.113 428 9168(34)


1.692 833 32(14) 1011
105.658 3568(52)

u
J
MeV

3.0 108
8.4 108
4.9 108

kg mol1

3.0 108
1.6 104
3.0 108
3.0 108
3.0 108

Muon,
muon mass
in u, m = Ar () u (muon
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

c2

muon-electron mass ratio


muon-tau mass ratio
muon-proton mass ratio
muon-neutron mass ratio
muon molar mass NA m

m /m e
m /m
m /m p
m /m n
M(), M

206.768 2657(63)
5.945 72(97) 102
0.112 609 5173(34)
0.112 454 5079(34)
0.113 428 9168(34) 103

muon Compton wavelength h/m c


C, /2
muon magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

C,

/B
/N

11.734 441 97(35) 1015


1.867 594 444(55) 1015
4.490 448 13(22) 1026
4.841 970 85(15) 103
8.890 597 70(27)

a
g

1.165 916 02(64) 103


2.002 331 8320(13)

5.5 107
6.4 1010

/p

3.183 345 39(10)

3.2 108

muon magnetic moment anomaly


| |/(e/2m ) 1
muon g-factor 2(1 + a )
muon-proton
magnetic moment ratio

C,

m
m
J T1

2.9 108
2.9 108
4.9 108
3.0 108
3.0 108

Tau,
tau massd
in u, m = Ar () u (tau

Page 2

3.167 88(52) 1027

kg

1.6 104

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1999 and Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000.

Fundamental Physical Constants Atomic and Nuclear Constants


Quantity
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

Symbol

Value

1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104

3 477.60(57)
16.8188(27)
1.893 96(31)
1.891 35(31)
1.907 74(31) 103

kg mol1

1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104
1.6 104

0.697 70(11) 1015


0.111 042(18) 1015

m
m

1.6 104
1.6 104

1.907 74(31)
2.847 15(46) 1010
1 777.05(29)

tau-electron mass ratio


tau-muon mass ratio
tau-proton mass ratio
tau-neutron mass ratio
tau molar mass NA m

m /m e
m /m
m /m p
m /m n
M(), M

tau Compton wavelength h/m c


C, /2

C,
C,

Relative std.
uncert. u r

u
J
MeV

c2

Unit

Proton, p
mp

1.672 621 58(13) 1027

kg

7.9 108

m p c2

1.007 276 466 88(13)


1.503 277 31(12) 1010
938.271 998(38)

u
J
MeV

1.3 1010
7.9 108
4.0 108

proton-electron mass ratio


proton-muon mass ratio
proton-tau mass ratio
proton-neutron mass ratio
proton charge to mass quotient
proton molar mass NA m p

m p /m e
m p /m
m p /m
m p /m n
e/m p
M(p), Mp

1 836.152 6675(39)
8.880 244 08(27)
0.527 994(86)
0.998 623 478 55(58)
9.578 834 08(38) 107
1.007 276 466 88(13) 103

C kg1
kg mol1

2.1 109
3.0 108
1.6 104
5.8 1010
4.0 108
1.3 1010

proton Compton wavelength h/m p c


C,p /2
proton magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
proton g-factor 2p /N

C,p
p
p /B
p /N
gp

1.321 409 847(10) 1015


0.210 308 9089(16) 1015
1.410 606 633(58) 1026
1.521 032 203(15) 103
2.792 847 337(29)
5.585 694 675(57)

p /n
0p

1.459 898 05(34)


1.410 570 399(59) 1026

0p /B
0p /N

1.520 993 132(16) 103


2.792 775 597(31)

1.1 108
1.1 108

p0

25.687(15) 106

5.7 104

p
p /2

2.675 222 12(11) 108


42.577 4825(18)

s1 T1
MHz T1

4.1 108
4.1 108

p0

2.675 153 41(11) 108

s1 T1

4.2 108

proton mass
in u, m p = Ar (p) u (proton
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

proton-neutron
magnetic moment ratio
shielded proton magnetic moment
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
proton magnetic shielding
correction 1 0p /p
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
proton gyromagnetic ratio 2p /
shielded proton gyromagnetic
ratio 20p /

Page 3

C,p

m
m
J T1

T1

7.6 109
7.6 109
4.1 108
1.0 108
1.0 108
1.0 108
2.4 107
4.2 108

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1999 and Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000.

Fundamental Physical Constants Atomic and Nuclear Constants


Quantity
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. u r

MHz T1

4.2 108

1.674 927 16(13) 1027

kg

7.9 108

1.008 664 915 78(55)


1.505 349 46(12) 1010
939.565 330(38)

u
J
MeV

5.4 1010
7.9 108
4.0 108

kg mol1

2.2 109
3.0 108
1.6 104
5.8 1010
5.4 1010

Symbol

Value

p0 /2

42.576 3888(18)
Neutron, n

neutron mass
in u, m n = Ar (n) u (neutron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

mn

mn

c2

neutron-electron mass ratio


neutron-muon mass ratio
neutron-tau mass ratio
neutron-proton mass ratio
neutron molar mass NA m n

m n /m e
m n /m
m n /m
m n /m p
M(n), Mn

1 838.683 6550(40)
8.892 484 78(27)
0.528 722(86)
1.001 378 418 87(58)
1.008 664 915 78(55) 103

neutron Compton wavelength h/m n c


C,n /2
neutron magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

C,n
n
n /B
n /N

1.319 590 898(10) 1015


0.210 019 4142(16) 1015
0.966 236 40(23) 1026
1.041 875 63(25) 103
1.913 042 72(45)

gn

3.826 085 45(90)

2.4 107

n /e

1.040 668 82(25) 103

2.4 107

n /p

0.684 979 34(16)

2.4 107

n /0p

0.684 996 94(16)

2.4 107

n
n /2

1.832 471 88(44) 108


29.164 6958(70)

neutron g-factor 2n /N
neutron-electron
magnetic moment ratio
neutron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
neutron to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(H2 O, sphere, 25 C)
neutron gyromagnetic ratio 2|n |/

C,n

m
m
J T1

7.6 109
7.6 109
2.4 107
2.4 107
2.4 107

s1 T1
MHz T1

2.4 107
2.4 107

3.343 583 09(26) 1027

kg

7.9 108

2.013 553 212 71(35)


3.005 062 62(24) 1010
1 875.612 762(75)

u
J
MeV

1.7 1010
7.9 108
4.0 108

kg mol1

2.1 109
2.0 1010
1.7 1010

Deuteron, d
deuteron mass
in u, m d = Ar (d) u (deuteron
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV

md

md

c2

deuteron-electron mass ratio


deuteron-proton mass ratio
deuteron molar mass NA m d

m d /m e
m d /m p
M(d), Md

3 670.482 9550(78)
1.999 007 500 83(41)
2.013 553 212 71(35) 103

deuteron magnetic moment


to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio

d
d /B
d /N

0.433 073 457(18) 1026


0.466 975 4556(50) 103
0.857 438 2284(94)

Page 4

J T1

4.2 108
1.1 108
1.1 108

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1999 and Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000.

Fundamental Physical Constants Atomic and Nuclear Constants


Quantity
deuteron-electron
magnetic moment ratio
deuteron-proton
magnetic moment ratio
deuteron-neutron
magnetic moment ratio

Symbol

Value

Unit

Relative std.
uncert. u r

d /e

4.664 345 537(50) 104

1.1 108

d /p

0.307 012 2083(45)

1.5 108

d /n

0.448 206 52(11)

2.4 107

Helion, h
helion massc
in u, m h = Ar (h) u (helion
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV
helion-electron mass ratio
helion-proton mass ratio
helion molar mass NA m h
shielded helion magnetic moment
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
shielded helion to proton
magnetic moment ratio
(gas, sphere, 25 C)
shielded helion to shielded proton
magnetic moment ratio
(gas/H2 O, spheres, 25 C)
shielded helion gyromagnetic
ratio 2|0h |/
(gas, sphere, 25 C)

mh

mh

c2

5.006 411 74(39) 1027

kg

7.9 108

3.014 932 234 69(86)


4.499 538 48(35) 1010
2 808.391 32(11)

u
J
MeV

2.8 1010
7.9 108
4.0 108

kg mol1
J T1

2.1 109
3.1 1010
2.8 1010
4.2 108

m h /m e
m h /m p
M(h), Mh
0h

5 495.885 238(12)
2.993 152 658 50(93)
3.014 932 234 69(86) 103
1.074 552 967(45) 1026

0h /B
0h /N

1.158 671 474(14) 103


2.127 497 718(25)

1.2 108
1.2 108

0h /p

0.761 766 563(12)

1.5 108

0h /0p

0.761 786 1313(33)

4.3 109

h0

2.037 894 764(85) 108

s1 T1

4.2 108

h0 /2

32.434 1025(14)

MHz T1

4.2 108

6.644 655 98(52) 1027

kg

7.9 108

4.001 506 1747(10)


5.971 918 97(47) 1010
3 727.379 04(15)

u
J
MeV

2.5 1010
7.9 108
4.0 108

kg mol1

2.1 109
2.8 1010
2.5 1010

Alpha particle,
alpha particle mass
in u, m = Ar () u (alpha particle
relative atomic mass times u)
energy equivalent
in MeV
alpha particle to electron mass ratio
alpha particle to proton mass ratio
alpha particle molar mass NA m

c2

m /m e
m /m p
M(), M

7 294.299 508(16)
3.972 599 6846(11)
4.001 506 1747(10) 103

a Value recommended by the Particle Data Group, Caso et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 3(1-4), 1-794 (1998).
b Based on the ratio of the masses of the W and Z bosons m /m recommended by the Particle Data Group (Caso et al., 1998). The value for
W
Z
sin2 W they recommend, which is based on a particular variant of the modified minimal subtraction (MS) scheme, is sin2 W (MZ ) = 0.231 24(24).
c The helion, symbol h, is the nucleus of the 3 He atom.
d This and all other values involving m are based on the value of m c2 in MeV recommended by the Particle Data Group, Caso et al., Eur. Phys.

J. C 3(1-4), 1-794 (1998), but with a standard uncertainty of 0.29 MeV rather than the quoted uncertainty of 0.26 MeV, +0.29 MeV.

Page 5

Source: Peter J. Mohr and Barry N. Taylor, CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1999 and Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000.