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Teachers at the Heart of the Education System

To have real impact on student achievement, reform efforts must consider the key role of teachers in students learning. Research clearly substantiates this perspective. Estimates suggest that in a single year an average student with a good teacher can progress more than a full grade level faster than an average student with a poor teacher.1 Despite the knowledge that good teachers exist, it is hard to find agreement on what exactly a good teacher is. That disagreement in definition is supported by research, says Hanushek, in that it suggests there is no single model of an effective teacher. Teachers have different styles and personalities and their work may be evaluated on different bases.2 While teachers may cultivate in their students many things (an enjoyment of learning, social awareness, a desire to contribute to their community), teachers effectiveness is usually judged in terms of students academic achievement. 1. Attempts to Define Teacher Effectiveness Much of the research regarding teacher effectiveness uses tools that attempt to link an established number of teacher-related factors to student achievement. These factors often include: (1) the quality of teachers instruction, that is, the orderliness of the presentation, the clarity of its objectives, its linkage to previous materials and concepts, as well as the use of assessment and feedback; (2) the appropriateness of the instruction to students abilities, prior knowledge, and different learning rates--and the use of grouping when appropriate; (3) the incentives, both academic and behavioral, used to motivate students and arouse curiosity; and (4) the efficient use of time in both dealing with the material and keeping students on task.3 These research approaches have been criticized by some due to the use of tools that attempt to capture significant elements of direct instruction more academically-focused teacher-directed classrooms that use sequenced and structured materialsrather than more child-centered, discovery-oriented instructional approaches.4 Empirical evidence from teacher effectiveness research show commonalities in the kind of actions that teachers engage in that do have positive student achievement effects, provided they are related to the context in which they occur (eg. subject matter or age of students). One summary of the evidence of key teacher behaviors includes:5 ! ! ! ! ! Clear goal setting Structuring of content Clarity of presentation Management of the classroom High expectation of students
There is no single model of an effective teacher. Researchers have attempted to link teacher effectiveness with several key factors. These factors include the quality and appropriateness of teacher instruction, the academic and behavioral incentives used to motivate students, and the efficient use of time.

Empirical evidence has demonstrated the positive effects of teachers on student performance. Estimates suggest that in a single year an average student with a good teacher can progress more than a full grade level faster than an average student with a poor teacher.

Importantly, high teacher expectations of students have a positive effect on student achievement.

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! ! !

Use of low and higher order questions to keep students at work and to check for understanding Student opportunities to practice what is taught, both through classroom work and homework Frequent evaluation through testing, corrective instruction, and feedback

Effective teachers tend to have confidence in their ability to teach, care about teaching and their students, and cooperate with each other.6 Their students learning, research suggests, is generally higher when they are actively engaged in the learning process, when a variety of instructional methods are used, and the pacing of material for individual students is varied through use of multiple means--individual work, grouping, and peer teaching.7 For achieving higher order cognitive objectives (mostly in the upper primary schools and the teaching of secondary school science and mathematics), discovery learning, inductive procedures, teaching for understanding, project methods, and activity and laboratory techniques [have been demonstrated as] more effective.8 2. Teacher Education that Meets Teacher and Student Needs While the specifics of what makes a good teacher may not always be clear, the realities of the classroom and our understanding of how students learn suggest that the task of educating a teacher is not a simple one. Linda Darling-Hammond makes the case for what a good teacher needs:9 A. An understanding of the subject matter; so that teachers not only understand core ideas, but know how to structure those ideas, and understand how those ideas relate to each other, across fields, and to everyday life. B. Pedagogical content knowledge; so that teachers can make ideas accessible to others and recognize how others understanding of ideas depends upon their prior experience and the context. C. A knowledge of development; so that teachers can formulate productive learning experiences by understanding childrens/adolescents thinking, behavior, interests, and current knowledge, as well as understanding the troubles they might experience within particular domains at particular ages in particular contexts. Teachers must be able to understand how to support further growth in a number of domainssocial, physical, and emotional, as well as cognitive. D. An understanding of differences; so that teachers can truly connect with their students, understanding differences that may arise from culture, language, family, community, gender, prior schooling, or other factors that shape peoples experiences, as well as differences that may arise from developed intelligences,

Effective teachers tend to have confidence in their ability to teach, care about teaching and their students, and cooperate with one other. Discovery learning, inductive procedures, teaching for understanding, project methods, and activityoriented teaching techniques have been demonstrated as especially effective.

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preferred approaches difficulties.

to

learning,

or

specific

learning
Good teachers need:

! Understanding of the ! Pedagogical content


knowledge to make ideas accessible to students Knowledge of child development Understanding of differences between children Understanding of the role of motivation in the learning process Knowledge about the various purposes for learning Command of teaching strategies that support students learning styles Understanding of student assessment Knowledge about curriculum resources and technologies Appreciation for collaboration between teachers, students and parents Ability to analyze and reflect on teaching practice with the goal of improvement subject matter

E. An understanding of motivation; so that teachers can structure tasks and feedback so as to encourage extensive efforts, without either relinquishing the press for understanding when the going gets tough, or discouraging students so that they give up altogether. F. A knowledge about learning; so that in understanding that there are various purposes for learning--for example, for recognition, for appreciation, or for application--teachers can support particular learning with distinctive teaching strategies, using good judgement about which kinds of learning are most necessary in different contexts. G. A command of teaching strategies; so that teachers can address a variety of goals and use multiple pathways to support students various ways of learning. H. An understanding of student assessment; so that teachers can construct and use evaluate students strengths and weaknesses.

! ! ! ! !

! I. A knowledge about curriculum resources and technologies; so that teachers can help students learn to find and use a wide array of resources for framing and solving problems, rather than only those from a single source or textbook. ! !

J. An appreciation for collaboration; so that teachers can use interactions among students to enhance discourse and learning, as well as improve coordination with fellow teachers and parents. K. An ability to analyze and reflect on teaching practice; so the teachers can assess the effects of their teaching and refine and improve their instruction. Beyond simply attaining these particular skills and knowledge, teachers must be exposed to and incorporate critical behaviors to be effective in the classroom. Offering some insight on this issue is a study by Stallings and colleagues that looked at methods to improve teacher and student achievement relative to reading practice in secondary schools. The researchers discovered that teachers are more likely to change their behavior and continue to use new ideas presented in teacher workshops under the following conditions:10 They ! ! ! ! Become aware of a need for improvement through their analysis of their own profile. Make a written commitment to try new ideas in their classroom. Modify the workshop ideas to work in their classroom and school. Try the ideas and evaluate the effect.

Obviously teachers expected knowledge and skills depend on their career stage and teaching content.

Teachers are more likely to change their practices and behaviors when using more reflective learning processes, at both the individual and group levels.

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! ! ! ! !

Observe in each others classrooms and analyze their own data. Report their success or failure in their group. Discuss problems and solutions regarding individual students and/or teaching subject matter. Are exposed to a wide variety of approaches; for example, modeling, simulations, observations, and critiquing of video tapes. Learn in their own way to set new goals for professional growth.
Among the many critical elements of successful teacher education are approaches that are constructivist and that work to link conceptual and pedagogical content knowledge with practice. Cornerstones of a successful teacher education model include: ! learning by doing ! linking prior knowledge to new information ! learning by reflecting and solving problems ! learning in a supportive environment where problems and successes can be shared.

3. Constructing Effective Teacher Education. The prior comments of Darling-Hammond and Stallings help capture some critical elements that move teacher education beyond conceptions of more traditional programs. Constructivist Approaches. First, the cornerstones of the Stalling model are learning by doing; linking prior knowledge to new information; learning by reflecting and solving problems; and learning in a supportive environment where problems and successes can be shared. While the model looks specifically at education within the context of professional development, its lessons are relevant to both preparatory (preservice) as well as ongoing teacher education (in-service). Cultivating teacher skills and knowledge as suggested by Linda Darling-Hammond, as well as the behaviors for successful teaching suggested by Stallings, require teacher education programs that more fully integrate theory and practice, take a more comprehensive view of the scope of teacher training, and build sustained teacher understanding and commitment to innovative approaches through more constructivist learning methods. Whar is meant by constructivism, however, is not always clear to all. One way of seeing it is by relating teaching to learning and by understanding the way people learn. Much has been researched in this respect from the perspective of cognitive psychology. In esssence, constructivism refers to the way in which people construct understandings or make meanings. These ways are always the result of external inputs and the processing each person does of the information on the basis of prior knowledge and experienced. The new Basic Education Teacher Diploma (BEDT) developed in Namibia offers a good illustration of the above principles set in action and related to the particular characteristics of that country11. In its pedagogical aspects the new programme emphasizes learnercentred, reflective, analytic and productive methods and approaches in teacher education. Student teachers are expected to experience the types of learning process they will have to develop for their own students. Critical inquiery (action research) is used to pave the way for creating a new official knowledge base for education. In framing the program, these were the key questions: how do student teachers learn best? And what do they need to learn?

The BEDTin Namibia emphasizes learnercentred, reflective, analytical and productive methods and approaches in teacher education. It integrates various types of exposure to classroom situations so that theory and practice can be integrated meaningfully for the benefit of the student teeacher The BEDT

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One program at the University of California Berkeley has incorporated these approaches in a developmental-constructivist teacher education program, based on the hypothesis that, like children, teachers pedagogical understanding develops through sequential, qualitatively different levels, and that it is important to identify the key conceptual differences.12 This five-step process, say these educators, moves teacher understanding from more behaviorist to more constructivist conceptions of learning. It is rare to find programs that clearly articulate such thinking, and use the stepwise process of reshaping a teachers own understanding of the goals of instruction as the basis for modifying and improving the actual nature of his or her teaching. The chart which follows on the next page illustrates the five steps a teacher might journey in moving to more constructivist conceptions of learning.

teeacher. The BEDT has been designed to take into account the different ways in which students learn and their strengths and weaknesses.

Development of Teachers Conceptions of Teaching and Learning13


Goals of instruction 1. 2. A large store of facts and procedures. Essential skills for attaining and using facts and procedures. Correct understandings of concepts, underlying facts, procedures, and skills in a subject. Improved conceptual understanding.

Requirements for learning


1. 2. Be able and receptive. Practice new skills, having first acquired prerequisite skills. Manipulate and explore relevant aspects of reality, having reached the required developmental stage. Use best thinking to construct understandings consistent with present level of development. Reflect on general characteristics of best current thinking.

Nature of teaching
1. 2. Telling and showing. Giving students practice, with corrective feedback and positive reinforcement. Giving students opportunities to explore and manipulate developmentally appropriate materials. Engaging students in thought-provoking activities and guiding their thinking toward better understandings. Helping students examine their own thinking.

3.

3.

3.

4.

4.

4.

5.

Ways of thinking that can lead to better understandings.

5.

5.

Developing Conceptual and Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Increasingly more accepted today in discussions about improved teacher education is the necessity for specific processes, both in the pre-service and in-service domains, that tie subject matter knowledge with teaching strategies and are used in close relationship to the characteristics of the students being taught. Deborah Loewenberg Ball, in discussing mathematics reforms, writes, "There's a growing recognition that teachers, like their students, bring with them experiences and prior understandings that profoundly shake their learning. Past experiences can
Improved teacher education requires specific training that ties teachers subject matter knowledge with the teaching process itself, especially in subject areas such as mathematics and science.

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often act as obstacles. Elementary teachers, most of whom experienced school knowledge as a given -- and who acquired facts and memorized rules -- are being asked to invent a kind of teaching that engages students in complex reasoning in authentic contexts. Despite the fact that they have never seen or experienced such teaching, theyre faced with trying to find ways to connect students with mathematics and mathematical reasoning to engage students in genuine experiences.14 Teacher education must attempt to build that gap with training that integrates content and pedagogy as well as builds what Shulman15 describes as pedagogical content knowledgethe kind of knowledge that a teacher needs to transform complex ideas into meaningful representations and to do so in a way that recognizes the understanding levels of the particular students. This more integrated kind of teacher education would also help build an understanding of the investigative work in that particular discipline, an appreciation of, the processes by which knowledge is generated and a more positive attitude towards subjects like mathematics and science.16 In fact, the ability of teachers to bridge the gap between subject knowledge and teaching for understanding is key to good teaching. This involves the capacity to transfome substantive kwnoeldge into "knowledge for teaching". In enumerating the knowledge areas that all student teachers need to encounter, Shulman (1987) distinguishes between " curriculum knowledged" related to the materials and programmes that "serve as tools of the trade" for teachers and "pedagogical content knowledge". This area is important because ". It identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction". 4. Current Teacher Training Constraints and Weaknesses One might ask if the previously stated conceptions about teacher roles, knowledge and training are too idealistic given current norms in education and the realities imposed by cost in many countries today? Given the gap between ideal teacher education and actual, is investment in teacher education a wise choice? Reviews of production function studies (conducted in 1993-94) that attempted to gauge the determinants of student achievement suggest that teacher knowledge and experience are significant predictors in only 50-60% of cases.17 In a study conducted in Latin America, the conclusion was in-service training was never related to student learning!18 Hasty conclusions from these data that might exclude teacher education efforts as part of any educational reform have been strongly challenged. Villegas-Reimers and Reimers note that teacher education may show limited impact in the studies for numerous

Teachers are often being asked to invent a kind of teaching that engages students in complex reasoning in authentic contexts, despite the fact that teachers may have never seen or experienced this kind of teaching themselves. Pedagogical contentent knowledge is key to the possibility of achieving meaningful learning in students,: ". It identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction"..

Production function research in developing countries often fails to capture impact of teacher education on student achievement. It neglects to more closely examine the quality or content of training. Villegas-Reimers and Reimers note that study results might b b tt i t t d

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reasons. Limited range of variability might be expected because numbers of teachers being trained at any one time is small in comparison to those already in the system and because there may be limited variations in the quality of training in a single country. Furthermore, these studies tend to examine a fairly restricted set of learning outcomes. None of the research measured the quality or content of the training programs. With qualifications, VillegasReimers and Reimers state that some of these study results might be better interpreted to mean that existing options for teacher training have no impact, and not that teacher training can be dismissed as option.19 Yet why are existing programs often ineffective?20 ! ! ! Many teacher training programs poorly integrate educational theory with supervised and extensive teaching practice. Pedagogy is taught in a fashion unrleated to specific subject matter. Many programs are too short to afford trainees the opportunity to develop the necessary competencies and knowledge; or lack the necessary mechanisms for follow-up once the training has been completed. The curriculum offered in many training institutions is outdated and irrelevantoften failing to address non-conventional teaching strategies; methods to adapt new school curricula; and the realities of schools, classrooms, and communities where teachers actually teach. Teacher-educators may themselves have a limited education and may be poorly prepared to train others. Ongoing professional development training programs are ad-hoc, fail to take into account teachers needs, and even when taken together, tend to be fragmented learning experiences. Printed materials that would support self-education efforts by teachers are lacking. Curricular materialsstudy guides and textbooksare very rigid, and reinforce didactic modes of instruction rather than support adoption of new methods.

be better interpreted to mean that many existing options for teacher training have no impact, and not that teacher training can be dismissed as viable option in improving student achievement.

! ! ! !

Existing programs are often ineffective because they poorly integrate theory with practice, are too short, lack follow up, are based on outdated training curricula and methods, and fail to take into account teachers needs.

5. Teacher Education: Pre-Service Programs The goal of teacher education is not to indoctrinate teachers to behave in rigid, prescribed ways, but to encourage teachers to think about how they teach and why they are teaching that way.21 Pre-service programs are those which provide the first preparation to teachers, so are referred to in some contexts as "initial" teacher education.. Participation in a teacher preparation program may or may not be required prior to being allowed to practice in the teaching profession. The minimal basics of any pre-service program should include:22

Pre-service teacher education basics include education in the subject matter; exposure to the curriculum, its objectives, methods and evaluation strategies appropriate for that curriculum, as well

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! ! ! ! !

A solid foundation in the subject matter belonging to level for which the teacher is being prepared. An understanding of the subjects to whom teaching will be addressed and the social and cultural context in which they live. Exposure to curriculum , teaching and assessment strategies needed to teach this curriculum. Exposure to classroom management techniques and Opportunities for student teaching

as classroom management techniques; and opportunities for student teaching.

Yet, these basics alone may not be enough. The research shows that many of these pre-service programs do not always have a strong impact on student learning.23 Research from a number of resourcerich countries would suggest that successful programs tend to demonstrate other essential elements.24 Effective teacher education programs clearly articulate their mission and clarify what is valued and expected in a prospective teacher. They encourage collaboration between teacher educators and students in a collegial atmosphere. Teaching practice is a key focus, though it is balanced with an academically challenging program of instruction. Teacher educators model good teaching practice and encourage reflective inquiry. Action research is used to encourage student teachers to look more closely at the complexities of teaching and learning. Clearly, these more effective programs do a far better job at addressing the broader range of teaching needs outlined earlier by Linda Darling-Hammond. The challenges faced by developing countries are often significant in regards to improving teacher caliber. Large cadres of teachers may be untrained or poorly trained, traditional teaching approaches may predominate in the classroom, and absenteeism and poor motivation may hinder significant attempts at change. Yet a study of promising practices in five countries (Bangladesh, Botswana, Guatemala, Namibia and Pakistan) does offer some guiding steps that may be more widely applicable to the realities that many countries face. The study suggests that implementers:25 1. Provide focused instruction for new teachers. Train beginning teachers in their subject matter, build their fluency in the language of instruction, develop their knowledge in how to use the instructional materials and basic classroom management skills, and cultivate the ability to reflect upon their own teaching. Most of these capacities may be best learned through on-the-job practice done either through a traditional pre-service program that offers substantial supervised practice teaching and coaching, or through an ongoing in-service training program that provides close supervision while on the job. 2. Consider a range of alternative teacher training programs suitable to or adapted to local needs and constraints. Programs such as shorter-term school-based initiatives with ongoing mentoring and support should be considered, particularly in

Truly effective preservice training demands more. Given the limited time available for pre-service education, hard choices must often be made about what teachers can be expected to know and be able to do when they begin teaching.

Despite the challenges to improving teacher caliber in developing countries, studies of programs in Bangladesh, Botswana, Guatemala, Namibia, and Pakistan reveal promising practices.

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education systems with a great shortage of teachers. 3. Establish an appropriate system of standards accreditation to match the preparation program. All teachers should be able to work towards higher standards and the same professional status. 4. Build capacities among the teacher educators. Teacher educators must be active in classroom and school research, model good practices in their own classroom, impart clear subject pedagogies, have a clear concept of how adults and children learn, and take time to reflect with students about teaching practice. The appropriate length of pre-service training is widely debated. Little research has been conducted on the relative direct or indirect costs of teacher education or the cost-benefit ratios of particular forms of pre-service and in-service education as they affect various indicators of school improvement or student achievement. Research does suggest that if residential programs are the option, they work best when candidates are given a year of supervised practice.26 There are good examples of short-term models of teacher education which have been successful preparing teachers to work well in the achievement of a limited set of learning outcomes. Case studies from two innovative programs in Guatemala and Bangladesh indicate that comparatively inexpensive teacher training models can lead to significant change in teacher classroom pedagogy and in higher pupil retention rates. In the Nueva Escuela Unitaria and National Bilingual Intercultural Education programs of Guatemala (which serve primarily Mayan speaking students) in-service teacher instruction was integrated into school operations. In comparison with similar schools in the region, they were more efficient. Costs for each child who made it through the sixth grade were lower, despite the additional operating costs for the two programs per student per year. In the BRAC Non-formal Primary Education program in Bangladesh, where paraprofessional teachers were trained in short initial programs with ongoing support provided, schooling costs were much lower despite the teachers effective performance.27 However, the BRAC programme is only effective for teachers who work with children up to fourth grade. Obviously, context and needs must drive the form of the model. The nature and level of the teacher education must be relative to the average level of education within the population. Higher levels of education tend to be linked with greater requirements for training, though they are also driven by the market demand for teachers. Induction models have been used to support teacher preparation efforts. These induction models follow initial teacher preparation programs. Becoming increasingly more common, these programs

The appropriate length of pre-service training is widely debated. However, although there are successful examples of short-term teacher preparation these only cover a limited set of capacities. Time for learning is an impozrtant factor affecting results and very short teacher education programmes may not be sufficient for the prepartion of teachers in the kind of world we live in today.

Case studies from Guatemala and Bangladesh indicate that comparatively inexpensive teacher training models can lead to significant change in teacher classroom pedagogy and in higher pupil retention rates.

The form of the teacher training must be driven by context

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sometimes school-based, sometimes institution-based--support teachers in the early stages of teaching and recognize the critical importance of the first years of teaching in developing effective skills and positive attitudes. Induction programs may offer coaching and mentoring, provide release time for observation of other teachers, and give greater time for reflection on teaching. Some work to integrate beginning teachers in the social system of the school, the school district and community. Many waive formal appraisals and evaluation during the first year of teaching.28 Countries such as China, Korea, Japan, New Zealand and Canada have or are developing such programs.29

and consider the average level of education within the population. Induction models in China, Korea, Japan, New Zealand and Canada have been effective in supporting teachers in the early stages of their teaching. These models recognize the critical importance of the first years of teaching in developing effective skills and positive attitudes.

6. Teacher Training: In-Service Professional Development Programs Teacher education, or teacher as a learner, from day one, must be thought of as a career-long proposition.30 In-service training for teachers can cover a broad spectrum of programming options. In-service might mean a one-day workshop conducted at a school or local college, or a lengthy workshop conducted at a teacher training institution. It can be individually oriented or be implemented for large numbers of teachers in crowded lecture halls. It can be a one-time offering or an ongoing program of training and support. Too often in-service training suffers from what Michael Fullan noted over 20 years ago in his review of in-service programs in Canada. In-service professional development was a failure, he wrote, because: 31 ! ! ! ! ! ! One-shot workshops are widespread but are ineffective. Topics are frequently selected by people other than those for whom the workshop is intended. Follow-up support for ideas and practices introduced in the inservice program occurs only in a very small number of cases. Follow-up evaluations occur infrequently. In-service programs rarely address the individual needs and concerns of teachers. The majority of programs involve teachers from many different schools and/or school districts, but there is no recognition of the differential impact of positive and negative factors within the systems to which they must return. There is a profound lack of any conceptual basis in the planning and implementation of in-service programs that would ensure their effectiveness.

In-service professional development programs often repeat the failures of pre-service training. They tend to be oneshot, lack adequate teacher input and follow-up support, and rarely address the concerns of teachers or take into account the realities that teachers face in the classroom.

Despite the evidence that longer-term in-service programs are more effective, short-term programs (many if not most centering on providing teachers with technical knowledge to deal with a newly developed curriculum or updated national developments plans) continue to predominate Mostly supply driven these in service Teachers at the Heart of the Educational System --------------------------------10

continue to predominate. Mostly supply-driven, these in-service programs fail to provide teachers the reinforcements necessary to build greater in-depth knowledge of subject matter or pedagogy. 32 They fail to see teacher development as a necessary and ongoing process. The fact is that regardless of their level of development, all education systems need to spend sizable sums on in-service training [and do so] for a number of reasons: to upgrade the knowledge and pedagogical skills of poorly qualified teachers; to cope with graduates who lack specialized teacher training; to facilitate the introduction of educational reforms, curriculum innovations, new techniques, or new textbooks; and to provide an essential component for career development, which is perhaps the most important reason of all.33 Many efforts appear to be unsuccessful in terms of results. Maria Teresa Tatto suggests, Radical change can occur only if a different set of norms about teaching and learning are made prevalent. There must be a teacher education culture willing to implement innovative ways to educate teachers.34 Lessons drawn from effective in-service programs in Guatemala and Pakistan as well as an extensive review of the international literature suggest the importance of several key factors:35 A. Appropriate needs assessment. Before in-service training is conducted, an initial determination of the needs, interests and strengths of teachers must be completed. The purposes and goals of the training must be clear and teachers and staff must have a voice. B. Careful planning so that programs fit into a long-term strategic framework. Once the range of needs is evident, how the various needs will be met and what components can be realistically included must be considered. The plan might include combinations of peer coaching, visits by outside specialists, mobile teacher educators, action research in the classroom or schools, whole day activities, retreats, longer developmental workshops, or use of teacher centers.

In-service training is often supply driven and fails to provide teachers the reinforcements necessary to build greater in-depth knowledge of subject matter or pedagogy the two critical ingredients that will increase effects on student learning.

Tatto suggests that there must be a teacher education culture willing to implement innovative ways to educate teachers.

C. Participatory planning and implementation. Initial consultation with key players is not enough. Teachers, principals, administrative officials, and other local participants need to be involved in the planning steps of the program. D. Applicable curriculum content and methods that balance pedagogy and subject matter. In-service training programs need to focus on practical methods to teach curriculum subject matter in meaningful ways, and offer an understanding of child development and learning theories that is relevant to the student population and teaching context. They also need to address topics such as effective evaluation of teaching and learning, developing parent-school community relations, coping in under-

Lessons from successful in-service programs note the need for: ! Appropriate upfront assessment of teacher needs, interests and strengths ! Careful planning so that programs fit into a long-term

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resourced schools, and when relevant, managing multi-grade classrooms. The special concerns of rural teachers must also be addressed, such as their concerns about isolation, dealing with local community values and expectations that may differ from the teachers, difficult housing and sanitary conditions, safety concerns (particularly for female teachers), the issue of acquisition of resources in remote areas, and the administration of small schools and heavy workloads. E. Evaluation of impact of teacher education programs. Most evaluations of training programs tend to look at the modes of presentation, its relevance, the adequacy of facilities, and competence of instructors. Evaluations should also investigate whether attitudes and practices of participants have actually changed for the better, and whether these changes have manifested themselves in classroom and school practices. Ongoing guidance, monitoring and support. Teachers ongoing professional development needs can be supported in multiple ways. Their skills can be further developed through programs of coaching and mentoring. Principals can ensure that teaching resources are available; that learning facilities are well maintained; that school mission, instructional standards, curricular goals, and expected teaching behaviors are clearly communicated; and that parent and community support is garnered. 36 Effective supervision can be provided, either by external supervisors or by the school principal. Research indicates that supervision can have more effect on teacher performance in the classroom than other kinds of in-service training.37 Effective supervisors can help teachers conceptualize what good teaching is, demonstrate good teaching techniques themselves, offer opportunities for teachers to practice in non-evaluative situations, and offer immediate feedback on classroom practice. Too often supervisors tend to see their role as administrative; are poorly trained to perform this role; have little time to spend in the classroom; or find themselves in conflict over their roles as both evaluator (insuring that teacher conform to expected standards) and facilitator (offering constructive input to support teachers learning). Some systems have separated these conflicting roles to avoid this problem.

! !

strategic framework Participatory planning and implementation Applicable curriculum content and methods that balance pedagogy and subject matter Evaluation of impact of teacher education programs at the classroom level Ongoing guidance, monitoring and teacher support

F.

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12

7.

Some Effective Models of Training.

School-based Models. It is at least twenty-years since those who research and implement policy realised that in-service teacher education was fraught with problems. A number of research pieces (particularly processproduct) had shown that there was not much effect on student achievement of in-service courses38. This lead to the view that teacher in-service needed to be re-conceptualized and that a possible way was to understand such activities as directed to teacher professional development. Teacher professional development in turn was as seen as having a more effective thrust when it occurred in the school itself or was closely related to the work each teacher does in classrooms and schools. Throughout the world, since at least the eighties, a number of teacher development experiences which are school-based have developed. Not only have their been small experiences, but several countries have established a policy for school-based teacher development. In Chile, the Programme for the Improvement of Quality and Equity in Secondary Schools, put in place an unusual experience which led to the establishment of teacher development professional groups in secondary schools. With assistance from the Ministry of Education (support materials and procedures) teacher development groups focusing on "personal, social and professional developmente" have been operating39. From the first experiences of getting to know each other, of discussing the problems, of examining stimulus materials teachers are now developing curriculum materials, finding solutions to issues of teaching particular topics and write about these in periodical publications. The more recent in-depth study of teaching (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) that investigated and compared 8th grade math instruction in Germany, Japan and the US, calls to attention the role of culture in shaping and defining the teaching process. The study also drew attention to the Japanese system of lesson study--a system that not only helps to build an effective practice knowledge base but also helps construct a common understanding about what constitutes effective teaching practice. Japanese teachers within a school meet in an ongoing process to develop a deep understanding of the learning and teaching process. Teachers, working in groups, first identify the problem that theyd like to address within a lesson, they then plan the lesson, teach the lesson, evaluate and reflect on its effect, revise the lesson, again evaluate and reflect, and then share the results. This long-term i i d l l d d l i l
The Japanese system of lesson study models good teacher-as- learner practice. The teacher development

The core of the achievements of the Chilean teacher groups lies in the way it satisfies teacher needs and their felt need to share professional issues with others: "It has helped us to see ourselves individually as professionals and collectivelly as equals who are sharing a common task of education"

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continuous improvement model leads to gradual, incremental improvements in teaching over time. Lesson study encourages teachers to maintain a constant focus on student learning; focus on teaching not teachers, make improvements in context, and build a system that can learn from its own experience. Importantly, improvements in teaching become the primary work of teachers, supported though by administrators and the school system. In effect, this system models what research tells us is good teacher as learner practice. The teacher development activities extend over time, create opportunities for shared experiences and discourse around shared texts and data about student learning, focus on shared decision making, and support the development of teachers learning communities.40 While acknowledging the Japanese cultural context, researchers Stigler and Hiebert see no reason adapted models could not be developed elsewhere. The model is consistent other similar approaches--such as action research-- that view teachers as researchers and that allow teachers to explore issues of common concern in a process of ongoing experimentation and reflection. The findings of a small-scale project carried out with secondary school teachers in Lesotho by educator Janet Stuart suggest these approaches do have wider application.41 Models of a comparable nature that encourage teachers to study their own practice do result in changed teaching, she says, given that reasonable support is offered to teachers in the process of experimenting with and evaluating alternatives." In the Lesotho case, a curriculum that focused on student-centered activity-based teaching methods was not widely accepted by teachers. Teacher educators, teachers and students alike seemed unclear about the feasibility and effectiveness of such methods. The primary reason that teachers avoided these approaches was a lack of role models and opportunity to see or experiment with alternatives in a supportive atmosphere. Other factors were lack confidence in the subject matter, and lack of time or opportunity to think through what they were learning, and reflect on the practice of particulate values and theories. In the project, teachers were allowed to select the aspects of teaching they were to target, as well as their preferred solutions. Through repeated cycles of diagnosis, planning, action, observation, evaluation, and reflectionsupported by a teacher educator teachers methods shifted away from transmission modes to more student-centered activities that worked in spite of overcrowded classrooms and lack of resources. Importantly, the process enabled teachers to develop their ability to reframe problems so that they were more amenable to action;to enlarge their repertoire of teaching skills by sharing ideas and try[ing] out new approaches; to evaluate their own practice critically;[and] to develop new concepts and build theory grounded on their own findings that were shared, critique, refined and made available to others in the professional community. Over the course of the study, t h dil k l d d th i t d t t ti l f

activities extend over time, create opportunities for shared experiences and discourse around shared texts and data about student learning, focus on shared decision making, and support the development of teachers learning communities.

This model, consistent with action research approaches, can be adapted and used elsewhere.

A small-scale investigation of action research approaches in Lesotho proved effective when reasonable ongoing support is offered to teachers.

Over the course of the Lesotho study, teachers more readily acknowledged their students potential for using higherorder cognitive skills

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teachers more readily acknowledged their students potential for using higher-order cognitive skills as well as their own obligation to support the development of student learning strategies when they were lacking. Stuart notes that despite the successes of the program teachers said they did not feel they reached the stage where they could facilitate the process for others, nor carry out independent research of their own. Overcoming this reluctance might be facilitated through the incorporation of action research into teacher professional development programs at all levelspre-service, internship periods, and in-serviceand through the development of self-evaluation groups within school systems and across schools. Other efforts, drawing upon models that allow greater teacher involvement in shaping their professional development as well as their own schools strategies for improvement, have shown promise. A more open model of small school grants that support teacher professional development is being experimented with in Guinea. School improvement efforts by teachers are shared in a yearly forum and are to-date demonstrating the potential of such methods.42 Stigler and Hiebert argue that alternatives of this nature encourage the development of a substantive body of professional knowledge, provide a mechanism for improving upon it, and draw upon the genuine desire of the profession members to improve their practice. It is this, they say, that defines a profession, not solutions that only address the trappings of the profession such as increased teacher pay or certification requirements, more accountability, or improved career ladders and peer review.43 Distance Education Studies of distance education programs suggest they offer a costeffective teacher training option when large numbers of unqualified persons need to be trained. These distance education approaches work best when they are accompanied by instructional materials, and supported by supervised visits and tutorial follow up.44 A Sri Lankan study, which compared an in-service distance education program with two other residential-type programs, offers some interesting lessons. The Sri Lankan distance education model includes carefully-designed self-study printed materials, on-the-job training, and a self-paced course of instruction that lasts 3-5 years. Tutors visited teachers three times during the academic year, as well as met in two 2-day sessions and one 5-day session at regional centers to discuss teacher experiences. Pedagogy and subject matter knowledge is emphasized. The comparison residential models included (1) two-year full-time, primarily teacher-centered in-service courses at a teacher college intended to update the skills of experienced teachers, and (2) two-year full-time residential pre-

as well as their own obligation to support the development of student learning strategies when they were lacking.

Teacher reluctance to use these methods without ongoing support might be addressed through the incorporation of action research into teacher professional development programs at all levels and through the development of selfevaluation groups within school systems and across schools.

These methods can draw upon a genuine desire of teachers to improve their practice.

A Sri Lankan study, which compared an in-service distance education program with two other residential-type programs, suggests the approach offers a cost-effective teacher training option when large numbers of unqualified persons

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service pupil-centered courses at colleges of education intended for new teacher candidates and that include a one-year internship with supervised practice and follow-up. The results analysis revealed that though the residential approaches resulted in greater student achievement, the distance education approach was five to six times more cost-effective. The investigators conclude that:
The colleges of education approach seems to work better on a

need to be trained. The analysis revealed that though the residential approaches resulted in greater student achievement, the distance education approach was five to six times more costeffective.

small-scale and for the purposes of preparing high-quality teachers. This approach makes sense in context where educating large numbers of teachers is not urgently needed, where there are high-quality recruits and available resources, and where the purposes to educate a few (but excellent) teachers. The teachers college approach seems to be appropriate when the purpose is to update in-service teachers knowledge and skills as a vehicle to motivate teachers for long years of service. This approach makes sense in context where educating large numbers of teachers is not an issue, where teacher preparation is seen as updating more than developing pedagogical knowledge and skills, and where there are resources available for selected groups of teachers. The distance education approach seems appropriate when the agenda is to educate large numbers of untrained teachers at low cost. This approach seems the most appropriate, among those studied for contexts with limited resources and with large numbers of untrained teachers.45 The investigators note that the Sri Lankan distance education model effects might have been strengthened by placing more emphasis on knowing subject matter and finding ways to reinforce its effects when graduates are in schools. These additional elements have proven effective in other distance education models. They suggest that effective and affordable models for filling needs for educated and certified teacher might come through hybrid models that that combine the best features of both pre-service colleges of education and in-service distance education. Campus-based instruction could precede in-service distance education as well as support teachers during returns from the field. Comparable approaches, they observe, have been found in Africa in Zimbabwe (ZINTEC), in Asia in Indonesia and Malaysia, and in Oceanic in Papua New Guinea.46 Other researchers, drawing upon the literature, reinforce the value of such models in providing teacher opportunities for continuous practice, and mentoring, guidance and support from instructors or peers. Additional factors for success include adequate infrastructure in terms of communication, transport and library sources; strong policy backing; and high quality materials and up-to-date curricula.47

The researchers suggest that effective and affordable models for filling needs for educated and certified teachers might come through hybrid models that that combine the best features of both preservice colleges of education and inservice distance education. Campusbased instruction could precede inservice distance education as well as support teachers during returns from

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8. Systemic Support for Teachers Improving current teacher education programs is only one element of a broader systemic effort that is needed to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching. Programs must consider new kinds of recruitment procedures; the crafting of proper incentives; and the provision of adequate teaching resources so teachers can do their job effectively. There must be a commitment in the form of vision, policies, plans and actions for long-term development of teachers, that more clearly defines the rights and responsibilities of various groups, in and outside the system, and that brings teachers into the process.48 A. Recruitment and Incentives Recruitment. Recruitment and retention of good teachers, say reports arising out of recent US studies, are among key elements to improving schools.49 Some suggest that establishing higher standards will support the development of a better quality teaching force. Yet is the establishment of higher standards an option where, as is the case in many countries around the world, adequately educated candidates are in short supply? Lockheed and Vespoor make an interesting argument in favor of such a strategy. They note that in many countries, teacher training programs devote less than 25% of training time to the development of teaching skills. The real issues are not whether or not to set high standards for teacher education, but to make sure the quality of the training processes in pre-service institutions is up to standards, and certainly to have policies that stimulate the entry of good candidates into teacher education programmes. When teachers are in short supply, attracting appropriate candidates may be among the primary issues. Strategies might include the introduction of more flexible training courses, recruitment of atypical candidates, promotion of the teaching career through regular national advertising and publicity campaigns, offering a greater role at the local level in the selection and support of teacher trainees, and retraining existing teachers when particular subject areas are inadequately covered.50 In many countries, teachers in rural areas are sorely lacking. In some countrieslike Morocco, Somalia and Yementheir urban areas have surplus teachers (both male and female), but the rural areas suffer acute shortages. A number of policy options might be relevant especially for those countries where recruitment of women is an issue. First, salaries must not be biased against rural postings. Additional options tried by various countries include setting targets for womens recruitment, focusing recruitment of rural teachers on women from local areas who are willing to serve there, and providing teachers with housing and transportation[One example

the field.

A broader systemic approach is needed to enhance the quality of teachers and teachingone that considers new recruitment approaches, proper incentives, adequate resources, and longterm policy commitments.

Raising standards for entry into teaching is often in tension with the need to increase supply. Raising standards may be necessary to increase salary and status.

Improving student achievement in many countries is often hindered by their inability to attract appropriate teacher candidates.

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from Nepal demonstrates a more comprehensive approach can work] It offered home-posting for women teachers, lowered entry requirements for some rural girls, subsidized their secondary education, and supported girls through conventional teacher training with a monthly stipend, travel expenses, medical care, and tutoring. Community involvement also proved important, drawing new teachers into the system, increasing female teacher numbers, and as well, girls enrollment.51 A comparable problem was faced by Zimbabwe in the mid-1980s. Faced with a pressing need to expand its teaching force, it developed an Integrated Teacher Education Course that successfully attracted and retained new primary school teachers. Students attended a 16week residential course, then taught ten semesters, and finished with another 16-week residential course. During the on-the-job experience they continued to study in a correspondence course and had their teaching assessed by visiting monitors. Tuition, course materials, food, and lodging were free, a stipend was awarded on joining the program, and a standard certified teachers salary was awarded on completion. Significant to the effort were non-financial incentives. Student were deployed in clusters of three to four to encourage interaction and maintain enthusiasm, and course materials emphasized community projects that improved teacher presence in the community and encouraged new local applicants to become teachers.52 Selection. As noted earlier, increased education criteria for teachers may not always be the realistic option in countries where supply is limited. If the lowering of minimum education criteria for teachers is to be considered, what other selection criteria are might be used? McGinn and Borden suggest as valid screening criteria good communication and interpersonal skills, positive beliefs about the learning capacity of students, prior experience with children and youth, and familiarity with the real conditions of classrooms and purpose of schooling. They note that one of the best ways to find out who will be a good teacher is to put the candidate to work and observe learning outcomes in students. They mention that in some countries, teacher training is provided only after the teacher has begun to teach (generally as an assistant with an experienced teacher).53 Incentives. What are the disincentives to working in schools? Not uncommon are salaries so low that teachers must hold other jobs to support their income, salaries lower than those paid to workers in the private sector. Even if pay is not a prime issue for all, teachers still often find themselves with scarce opportunities for professional advancement and poor working conditions that include overcrowded classes, poor physical infrastructure and sanitation facilities, lack of teaching materials, and professional and social isolation. Incentives therefore need to look at both monetary and non-monetary benefit options. These incentives need to be examined in light of how they

Tactics used in countries like Morocco, Somalia, Yemen and Zimbabwe offer a number of policy options to attract teachers. Both monetary and nonmonetary incentives may be necessary.

Selection criteria should not only include educational attainment but also consider a candidates communication and interpersonal skills, positive beliefs about the learning capacity of students, prior experience with children and youth, and familiarity with the real conditions of classrooms and purpose of schooling.

Incentives need to be

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might benefit different people at different stages of their career, as well as how they might impact both career satisfaction and actual improvements in teaching. Its clear that enhanced and screening mechanisms that might improve teacher quality also must be accompanied by magnets that will draw and keep people in the profession. It is not always appropriate to conclude from studies that indicate no clear relationship between teacher salaries and student results, that salaries are not an important factor in school results. The truth is salaries impact many factors related to good teaching such as teacher cultural basis, teacher morale, attitudes to students and these in turn do affect the will to learn of students. It is also true that assessment of whether teachers are well paid or not in any contexts depends on how their salaries relate to other work requiring similar education and capabilities. In this respect a recent study in Bolivia suggests that teachers are probably underpaid and that it is difficult to conclude therefore whether their salaries affect or not student learning54. It would seem reasonable to hold that salaries do have a powerful effect on the type and quality of student attracted to the profession. Inadequate salaries take their toll on an education system in other ways. Coombe notes in her study of African teachers that high departure rates, absenteeism, neglect of duty and lack of discipline among teachers have contributed increased absenteeism rates, repetition rates and lack of discipline among pupils.55 A study on remuneration of African teachers by Zymelman and DeStephano suggest a number of recommendations in regard to the issue of salary:56 ! ! Un-link the teacher pay system from that of other civil servants to increase flexibility in teacher salary scale (in cases where they are part of the civil service grading system). Adjust salary scales to economic conditions rather than institutional criteria. Maximum and minimum salaries and rates of progression in the salary scale should be used to attract and retain qualified teachers and, where possible, minimize costs. Abolish the guarantees that ensure teacher training graduates are automatically granted teaching positions. This will offer greater flexibility in teacher training planning. Collect and use data on teachers (type, age, attrition rate, salary scales, fringe benefits and distribution of teachers by salary step) to develop good teacher cost forecasts and to better manage and control the system.

examined in light of how they might benefit different people at different stages of their career, as well as how they might impact both career satisfaction and actual improvements in teaching.

Inadequate teacher salaries can result in high departure rates, absenteeism, neglect of duty and lack of discipline among teachersall with negative ramifications on student learning.

! !

African remuneration studies recommend more flexible salary systems that are detached from civil service systems and more responsive to economic conditions.

Drawing upon research evidence, a number of other investigators have added some additional advice in terms of salaries and teacher work conditions:57 ! Offer all teachers in comparable environments the same conditions of service and a common career structure. Teachers at the Heart of the Educational System --------------------------------19

! ! ! ! !

! !

Have differentiated criteria to make selective salary increases for teachers rather than making them across the board. Provide special incentives and compensation for those teaching in poor working conditions or in remote locations. Decentralize fiscal responsibility to districts and lower levels for such items as teacher training, instructional materials, and school facilities. Ensure that both men and women are equally compensated. Define teacher conditions of service that are specific to the teaching profession, drafting them in consultation with teacher representatives. This might include leave arrangements, length and configuration of school year, code of teacher conduct, arrangements for transfers from one school to another, maternity leave, coverage for teachers on leave, appraisal and staff development, promotion arrangements, and housing standards. Investigate the provision of adequate teacher guides and basic instructional materials to make teaching more effective. Re-examine teacher workload, including time spent on administrative activities. Recent research shows that on average about half of a teachers time is devoted directly to teaching and lesson preparation. Administrative work might be delegated to support staff.

Other investigators suggest systems with more differentiated criteria, and that are more fiscally decentralized and more cognizant of conditions of service.

US-based research has also attempted to tackle the difficult issue of teacher compensation. The Finance Center of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) discourages merit pay plans that may require teachers to compete against one another for limited resources and that work at cross-purposes to the goal of greater collaboration in schools. Additionally they note that ladder programs that move effective teachers upwards based on merit, may also simultaneously move teachers out of the very roles where they are most needed. CPRE suggests compensation plans that link compensation to organizational needs. Compensation may be in response to a teachers development of particular knowledge and skills in content knowledge, or for expertise in instruction, curriculum development, professional development, guidance counseling, parent outreach or management skills. Alternatively compensation may be for a school unit or specified teacher groups collective performance in enhancing student outcomes. They note that these types of plans should involve all relevant parties, be based on common agreements as to educational results desired, be adequately funded and enable ongoing investment in teachers professional education. These kinds of compensation programs must be linked to specific local need, use measurable indicators with clear timetables, offer fair and credible assessment systems, and offer the kinds of compensation awards that are valued by teachers.58 Kemmerer and Thiagarajan, looking at the developing country context, suggest that governments also look more closely at community partnerships as financial constraints grow. Communities involvement may afford the opportunity to impact teacher incentives in a number of ways including: increasing

US-based studies recommend models that more closely link remuneration with organizational need via individual compensation in response to a teachers acquisition of skills and expertise, or compensation based on collective performance of a group in enhancing student outcomes. Merit pay plans that might increase teacher competition and decrease cooperation are discouraged.

Increased community involvement may

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teachers compensation (both monetary and non-monetary), developing the school environment, improving the availability of instructional support, and enhancing teachers status within the community. Drawing upon work done by the Improving Efficiency of Educational Systems Project and in collaboration with participants of the Economic Development Institute Seminar on Teacher Incentives, the two investigators developed a lengthy list of over 130 options. These options, they say, must consider the specific country context and the specific factors that impact teacher recruitment, retention and performance. With that caveat, a few samples are offered:59 Recruitment: ! Provide a special one-time bonus for recruiting excellent teachers ! Assist in medical expenses of local teachers Retention: ! Donate a plot of land for use by teachers or provide cheap rental housing ! Have special community meetings/events to acknowledge the work of teachers ! Build a suitable teachers room in the school ! Appoint a steering committee to work with principal and staff to provide suitable teacher incentives Performance: ! Collect local funds to reward outstanding teachers ! Support teacher efforts with volunteer aides ! Purchase necessary textbooks and reference books for use by teachers Clearly, the varying educational, political and cultural contexts should shape each localitys incentive response. The examples above (from Zymelman and DeStephano, Kemmerer and Thiagarajan, CPRE and others), each with their corresponding recommendations, simply offer a range of options that might need be considered. B. Broad-based Involvement of Stakeholders From a growing body of research and experience in many countries we know that broad-based involvement of all stakeholders is central to efforts to mobilize and sustain a long-term commitment to the professional development of teachers, particularly in-service, schoolbased programs. National authorities must work to provide resources and incentives for teachers to seek professional development. They must find ways of linking professional development and training tightly to teacher certification and teacher career path structures. They must delegate to the schools, when appropriate, the authority, flexibility, and responsibility to develop relevant programs and

involvement may afford the opportunity to impact teacher incentives in a number of creative ways.

The varying educational, political and cultural contexts should shape each localitys incentive response.

Educational authorities, schools, school leaders, teachers, parents and community all have critical responsibilities in efforts to improve schools and student achievement.

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school schedules to establish development commitment.60

this

long-term

professional
A study of Colombia, Ethiopia and Bangladesh found that in-service teacher training and the efforts to build commitment through active involvement of both teachers and parents are two of the three most important factors in institutionalization of successful educational reform.

The rights and responsibilities of various administrative groups with the education system must be clarified61 and should acknowledge the vital role of school leaders in contributing to student learning. While research on school directors or principals in developing countries is limited, a few studies have shown that school leaders are most successful when they use participatory methods, and can generate consensus among teachers and students about educational goals as well as the methods to achieve them.62 School leaders, in establishing these common goals and expectations and in mobilizing community resources to compensate for insufficient central support, can distinguish their schools from less effective schools.63 In addition, principals, working as instructional leaders, can play a large role in the degree to which teachers become aware of their problem areas and adopt effective teaching practices.64 Active community involvement is also emerging as an important element in efforts to improve teaching. Dalin, in his review of three major educational reform efforts in Colombia, Ethiopia and Bangladesh, identifies in-service teacher training and efforts to build commitment through active involvement of both teachers and parents as two of the three most important factors in institutionalization of successful educational reform.65 Parents, individually and as part of an established governance structure, have a vital role in ensuring that pupils (male and female) and their teachers come to school, that staff perform their roles, and that critical school needs, including the professional development of teachers, are met. It is the responsibility of national education leaders to create the conditions that encourage, permit, and facilitate changes in how teaching-learning occurs and that encourage and facilitate the professional development of teachers throughout their careers.

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ENDNOTES
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Hanushek, Eric (1994). Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute. 2 Hanushek, Eric (1994). Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute. 3 Shaffer, E.C., Nesselrodt, P.S., and Stringfield, S. (1994). The Contributions of Classroom Observation to School Effectiveness Research. In Reynolds et al. Advances in School Effectiveness Research and Practice (pp.111-132). Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon 4 Avalos, Beatrice, Teacher Training in Developing Countries: Lessons from Research. In Farrell, J and Oliveira, J. (Eds.) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs (pp. 175186). Washington, DC: The World Bank. 5 Creemers, Bert P.M. (1994). Effective Instruction: An Empirical Basis for a Theory of Educational Effectiveness. In Reynolds et al. Advances in School Effectiveness Research and Practice (pp.111-132). Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon. 6 Drawn from extensive research cited in Craig, H., Kraft, R., and du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Joint USAID, ABEL Project and World Bank publication. 7 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 8 Avalos, B. and Haddad, W. (1981). A Review of Teacher Effectiveness Research in Africa, India, Latin America, Middle East, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand: Synthesis of Results. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. Cited in Avalos, Beatrice, Teacher Training in Developing Countries: Lessons from Research. In Farrell, J and Oliveira, J. (Eds.) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs (pp. 175-186). Washington, DC: The World Bank. 9 Text and quotes drawn from Darling-Hammond, Linda (1998). Policy and Change: Getting Beyond Bureaucracy. In Hargreaves et al, The International Handbook of Educational Change. (pp. 642-667). Great Britain: Kluwer Academic Press. 10 Stallings, J. A. (1989). School Achievement Effects and Staff Development: What are Some Critical Factors? Paper presented at American Education Research Association annual meeting. From Fullan, M. with Stielgelbauer, S. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press. 11 For details see: Zeichner,K . and Dahlstrom, L. Eds. (1999). Democratic Teacher Education Reform in
1

Africa. The Case of Namibia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 12 Black, Allen and Ammon, A. (1992). A Developmental-Constructivist Approach to Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 43.5:323-335. 13 Taken from the article, Black, Allen and Ammon, A. (1992). A Developmental-Constructivist Approach to Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 43.5:323-335. 14 Ball, Deborah L. (1996). Teacher Learning and the Mathematics Reforms: What We Think We Know and What We Need to Learn. Phi Delta Kappan, 77.7: 500-508. 15 Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and Te4aching. Foundations for the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57.1. 1-22. 16 Kennedy, Mary M. (1998). Education Reform and Subject Matter Knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35.3: 249-263. 17 Fuller, B. and Clarke, P. 1994. Raising Schools Effects while Ignoring Culture? Local Conditions and the Influence of Classrooms Tools, Rules and Pedagogy. Review of Educational Research, 64.1:119-157. Cited in Villages-Reimers, E. and Reimers, F. (1996). Where are the 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms around the World. Prospects 26.3: 469-491.

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Velez, E., Schiefelbein, E. & Valenzuela, J. (1993). Factors Affecting Achievement in Primary Education. Washington, DC: World Bank (Human Resources Development and Operaations Policy Working Papers). Cited in Villages-Reimers, E. and Reimers, F. (1996). Where are the 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms around the World. Prospects 26.3: 469-491. 19 Villages-Reimers, E. and Reimers, F. (1996). Where are the 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms around the World. Prospects 26.3: 469-491. 20 Drawn from a number of sources including: Villages-Reimers, E. and Reimers, F. (1996). Where are the 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms around the World. Prospects 26.3: 469-491. And Tatto, M. (--). Limits and Constraints to Effective Teacher Education. In Commings, W. and McGinn, N. (Eds.) International Handbook of Education and Development: Preparing Schools, Students and Nations in the 21st Century (pp. 213-230). Pergamon. 21 Lockheed, M., Vespoor, A., & associates (1991). Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. 22 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 23 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 24 The authors note a variety of research done primarily in resource-rich countries (Howey and Zimpher, 1989; Grossman, 1990; Doyle, 1990; Feiman-Nemser, 1990; Liston, 1995; and Borko and Putnam, 1996) Cited in Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 25 Exacted from the text with some editing. Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 26 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 27 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 28 Odell, S.A. (1989). Developing Support Programs for Beginning Teachers: Assisting the Beginning Teacher. Reston, VA: Association for Teacher Educators. 29 Darling-Hammond, L. and Cobb, V, eds. (1995). Teacher Preparation and Professional Development in APEC Members: A Comparative Study. Washington, DC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat. 30 Fullan, M. with Stielgelbauer, S. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press. 31 List taken almost verbatim from Fullan, Michael (1979). School-focused In-service Education in Canada. Report prepared for the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (OECD), Paris. From Fullan, M. with Stielgelbauer, S. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press. 32 Lockheed, M., Vespoor, A., & associates (1991). Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. 33 Oliveira, J. and Farrell, J. (1993). The Cost and Effectiveness of Teachers. In Farrell, J and Oliveira, J. (Eds.) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs (pp. 175-186). Washington, DC: The World Bank. 34 Tatto, M. (--). Limits and Constraints to Effective Teacher Education. In Commings, W. and McGinn, N. (Eds.) International Handbook of Education and Development: Preparing Schools, Students and Nations in the 21st Century (pp. 213-230). Pergamon. 35 Draws heavily upon the conclusions from the cases in Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 36 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 37 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press.
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Avalos, B. and Haddad, W. (1981). A Review of Teacher Effectiveness Research in Africa, India, Latin

America, Middle East, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand: Synthesis of Results. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre 39 For a description see: B. Avalos (1998). School-Based Teacher Development. The Experience of Teacher Professional Groups in Secondary Schools in Chile. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 33: 257-271. 40 Bransford, J. Brown, A., & Cocking, Rodney, eds. (1999). How People Learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 41 Stuart, J. (1991). Classroom Action Research in Africa: A Lesotho Case Study of Curriculum and Professional Development. In Lewin, K. and Stuart, J. (pp. 127-152). Hong Kong: Macmillan. 42 See Dembele, M (1997). Small Grants in Guinea: Finding Ways to Transform Small-scale Incentives to Widespread Commitment. Paper presented at Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Mexico City. Also Schwille, John, Dembele, M. and Gando Bah, M. (1999) Balancing Internal and External Evaluation Responsibilities for Teacher Designed Professional Development Projects in Guinea. Paper prepared for presentation for the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada. Also Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. Pp. 124-126. 43 Stigler, J. and Hiebert, J. (1999). The Teaching Gap. New York: The Free Press. 44 Tatto, M., Nielson, D. & Cummings, W. (1991). Comparing the Effects and Costs of Different Approaches for Educating Primary School Teachers: The Case of Sri Lanka. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Insitute for International Development, BRIDGES Research Report No. 10. 45 Tatto, M.T., Nielsen, H.D., Cummings, W., Kularatna, N.G. & Dharmadasa, K.H. (1993). Comparing the Effectiveness and Costs of Different Approaches for Educating Primary School Teachers in Sri Lanka. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9.1: 46-64. 46 Tatto, M.T., Nielsen, H.D., Cummings, W., Kularatna, N.G. & Dharmadasa, K.H. (1993). Comparing the Effectiveness and Costs of Different Approaches for Educating Primary School Teachers in Sri Lanka. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9.1: 46-64. 47 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 48 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 49 One of three important policy implications arising out of the September 1996 Report of the National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future, What Matters Most: Teaching for Americas Future, Followed by Pursuing Excellence, the report of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. 50 Adapted from Canadian Education Association Report 1992 and Manitoba Department of Education and Training 1991. Cited in Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 51 United Nations (1992). Promoting the Recruitment and Training of Women Teachers. Forum for Advancing Basic Education and Literacy, Oct Issue. 52 Case drawn from Lockheed, M., Vespoor, A., & associates (1991). Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. Their sources included Gatawa 1986 and Sibanda 1982. 53 McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 54 Urquiola, M., Jimenez, W., Talavera, M.L. and Hernany, W. (2000). Los Maestros en Bolivia. Impacto, Incentivos y Desempeo. La Paz: Sierpe Publicaciones. 55 Coombe, Carol (1997) Unleashing the Power of Africas Teachers. International Journal of Educational Development, 17.1: 113-117.

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Zymelman, M. and DeStephano, J. (1993). Primary School Teachers Salaries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Farrell, J and Oliveira, J. (Eds.) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs (pp. 113-136). Washington, DC: The World Bank. 57 See Coombe (1993), Villeges-Reimers and Reimers (1996), and Oliveira and Farrell (1993) above. Cited in Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 58 Kelley, C. and Odden, A. (1995). Reinventing Teacher Compensation Systems. CPRE Finance Briefs (FB06), University of Wisconsin, Madison: Consortium for Policy Research in Education. 59 Kemmerer, F. and Thiagarajan, S. (1993). The Role of Local Communities in Teacher Incentive Systems. In Farrell, J and Oliveira, J. (Eds.) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs (pp. 145-156). Washington, DC: The World Bank. 60 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 61 Craig, H., Kraft, R. & du Plessis, J. (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. Washington, DC: USAID/ABEL and World Bank. 62 Georgiades, W. and Jones, H. (1989). A Review of Research on Headmaster and School Principalship in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank Background Paper PHREE/89/11. And Cummings, W., Gunarwardena, G. & Williams, J. (1992) The Implementation of Management Reforms: The Case of Sri Lanka. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Institute for International Development, BRIDGES Research Report Series 11. Cited in McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press. 63 Purkey, S., and Smith, M. (1983). Effective Schools: A Review. The Elementary School Journal, 83.4:427452. Cited in McGinn, Noel, and Borden A. (1995) Framing Questions, Constructing Answers: Linking Research and Education Policy for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: HIID/Harvard University Press 64 Teddlie, Charles (1994). The Integration of Classroom and School Process Data in School Effectiveness Research. In Reynolds et al. Advances in School Effectiveness Research and Practice (pp.111-132). Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon. 65 Dalin, Per et al (1994). How Schools Improve. New York: Cassell.
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