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CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION
A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. Conventionally, wireless-controlled robots use rf circuits,which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range, and limited control. Use of a joystick for robotic control can overcome these limitations. Input from the user is transmitted serially over an RF link to the Robot, where it is received, identified and relayed to the appropriate module. The input to the system is from the user. This input is first processed at the control application, serially transmitted over a radio link.

This input is then received at the robot and processed again. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly ,all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distint phases : perception, processing and action. Generally, the precetors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the on-board microontroller or processor, and the task is perfomed using motors or with some other actuators.

The Wireless spy camera Robot has been designed in such a way that it can cater to the needs of suirty. It has countless applications and can be used in different environments and scenarios. For instance, at one place it can be used by the bomb disposal squad,while at another instance it can be used for handling mines. While another application can be to provide up to date information in a hostage situation. One of the major advantages of this robot are, the military, the police and also for the personnel

It can be altered to suit the needs of the user It is fast and robust. It can handle different loads. It can be controlled remotely. It has video feedback. It has its own power supply.

CHAPTER - 2
HISTORY
Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. In Greek drama, Deus Ex Machina was contrived as a dramatic device that usually involved lowering a deity by wires into the play to solve a seemingly impossible problem. The beginning of the robots may be traced to the Greek engineer Ctesibius. In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (1070 AD), a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water. Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that chimed the hours. In the 3rd century BC text of the Lie Zi, there is a curious account on automata involving a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (Chinese emperor 10th century BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi , an 'artificer'. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork' made of leather, wood, and artificial organs.
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Al-Jazari (11361206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and programmable automata. The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments.

CHAPTER - 3 USER INTERACTION DEFINITIONS


The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
While there is no single correct definition of "robot," a typical robot will have several, or possibly all, of the following characteristics. It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli. This is in contrast to a simple
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mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.

MENTAL AGENCY
For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled. The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are not necessary, as shown by ant robots. A clockwork car is never considered a robot. A mechanical device able to perform some preset motions but with no ability to adapt (an automaton) is rarely considered a robot. A remotely-operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot). A car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence, might be called a robot. A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information, such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, would quite likely be called a robot. A sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.

PHYSICAL AGENCY
However, for many laymen, if a machine appears to be able to control its arms or limbs, and especially if it appears anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO or Aibo), it would be called a robot. A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot. A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot. A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot. An autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided

vehicle, is almost always characterized as a mobile robot or service robot. A zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot. A mechanical humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot, usually as

a service robot. Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm, it is

the arm which is almost always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. Having eyes can also make a difference in whether a machine is called a robot, since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. However, simply being anthropomorphic is not a

sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. A robot must do something; an inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS


Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is Evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is Developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.

CHAPTER - 4

COMPONENTS USED

In this project, these are the following component are used

89S52 Atmel microcontroller H-bridge Encoder-decoder Radio frequency module Cctv camera Radio frequency a/v module Program burner Tv tuner card (for pc/laptop) Geared Dc motor Rechargeable battery

CH - 5

DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS

MICROCONTROLLER

INTRODUCTION
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program 9

10 memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption.

VOLUMES
About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers and microprocessors. According to Semico, over four billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 2006. A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only four general-purpose microprocessors but around three dozen microcontrollers. A typical mid-range automobile has as many as 30 or more microcontrollers. They can also be found in many electrical devices such as washing machines, microwave ovens, and telephones.

Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. Originally these included
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can be erased by ultraviolet light, ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. Since 1998, EPROM versions are rare and have been replaced by EEPROM and flash, which are easier to use (can be erased electronically) and cheaper to manufacture.

Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory, however these are becoming increasingly rare due to the widespread availability of cheap microcontroller programmers.

The use of field-programmable devices on a microcontroller may allow field update of the
firmware or or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet

shipped. Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. Where hundreds of thousands of identical devices are required, using parts programmed at the time of manufacture can be an economical option. These "mask programmed" parts have the program laid down in the same way as the logic of the chip, at the same time.

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DC MOTOR

In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.
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Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that BEAMers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating. In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one

The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and has a number of advantages2. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors. The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings, allowing the motor to be driven harder than might otherwise be the
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case. Iron core construction is also relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types. But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life. In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless' armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire itself for structural integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than iron-core motors of comparable size, extending brush and commutator life.

The coreless design also allows manufacturers to build smaller motors; meanwhile, due to the lack of iron in their rotors, coreless motors are somewhat prone to overheating. As a result, this design is generally used just in small, low-power motors. BEAMers will most often see coreless
DC motors in the form of pager motors.

The DC Motor Control circuit:


All DC motors have been controlled using the following circuit:

The 4N25 is an optocoupler, which provides isolation to the microcontroller from the high voltage circuit. ULN2008 is a Darlington pair IC that provides the amount of current that is required by the relay. The third component is a 12volt relay, which is used to turn on the DC motor. The same circuit is used for changing the direction of the DC motor.
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H-BRIDGE
An H-bridge is an electronic circuit which enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H-bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from
discrete components.

GENERAL
The term "H-bridge" is derived from the typical graphical representation of such a circuit. An H15

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bridge is built with four switches (solid-state or mechanical). When the switches S1 and S4 (according to the first figure) are closed (and S2 and S3 are open) a positive voltage will be applied across the motor. By opening S1 and S4 switches and closing S2 and S3 switches, this voltage is reversed, allowing reverse operation of the motor. Using the nomenclature above, the switches S1 and S2 should never be closed at the same time, as this would cause a short circuit on the input voltage source. The same applies to the switches S3 and S4. This condition is known as shoot-through.

OPERATION

The H-Bridge arrangement is generally used to reverse the polarity of the motor, but can also be used to 'brake' the motor, where the motor comes to a sudden stop, as the motor's terminals are shorted, or to let the motor 'free run' to a stop, as the motor is effectively disconnected from the circuit. The following table summarises operation.

S1

S2

S3

S4

Result

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1 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

Motor moves right Motor moves left Motor free runs Motor brakes Motor brakes

CONSTRUCTION

A solid-state H-bridge is typically constructed using reverse polarity devices (i.e., PNP BJTs or Pchannel MOSFETs connected to the high voltage bus and NPN BJTs or N-channel MOSFETs connected to the low voltage bus). The most efficient MOSFET designs use N-channel MOSFETs on both the high side and low side because they typically have a third of the ON resistance of P-channel MOSFETs. This requires a more complex design since the gates of the high side MOSFETs must be driven positive with respect to the DC supply rail. However, many integrated circuit MOSFET drivers include a charge pump within the device to achieve this. Alternatively, a switch-mode DC-DC converter can be used to provide isolated ('floating') supplies to the gate drive circuitry. A multiple-output flyback converter is well-suited to this
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application. Another method for driving MOSFET-bridges is the use of a specialised transformer known as a GDT (Gate Drive Transformer), which gives the isolated outputs for driving the upper FETs gates. The transformer core is usually a ferrite toroid, with 1:1 or 4:9 winding ratio. However, this method can only be used with high frequency signals. The design of the transformer is also very important, as the leakage inductance should be minimized, or cross conduction may occur. The outputs of the transformer also need to be usually clamped by zener
diodes, because high voltage spikes could destroy the MOSFET gates.

A common variation of this circuit uses just the two transistors on one side of the load, similar to a class AB amplifier. Such a configuration is called a "half bridge". The half bridge is used in some switched-mode power supplies that use synchronous rectifiers and in switching amplifiers. The half H-bridge type is commonly abbreviated to "Half-H" to distinguish it from full ("Full-H") Hbridges. Another common variation, adding a third 'leg' to the bridge, creates a 3-phase inverter. The 3-phase inverter is the core of any AC motor drive. A further variation is the half-controlled bridge, where one of the high- and low-side switching devices (on opposite sides of the bridge) are replaced with diodes. This eliminates the shootthrough failure mode, and is commonly used to drive variable/switched reluctance machines and actuators where bi-directional current flow is not required. A "double pole double throw" relay can generally achieve the same electrical functionality as an H-bridge (considering the usual function of the device). An H-bridge would be preferable to the relay where a smaller physical size, high speed switching, or low driving voltage is needed, or where the wearing out of mechanical parts is undesirable.

Circuit diagram

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OPERATION AS AN INVERTER
A common use of the H-bridge is an inverter. The arrangement is sometimes known as a single or three phase bridge inverter.The H bridge with a DC supply will square wave voltage waveform across the load. If this load is purely inductive then the current through the load will be a saw tooth wave with a peak current of half the DC source.

ROBOTS BASE

Movement

Subsystems:

The 89S52 Control Circuit:


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This is the brain of the robot. The 89C51 is an Atmel version of the Intels very famous 8051 microcontroller. Its purpose is to generate the control signals required to control different modules of the robot. The 8051 is a 40 pin Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory that can be programmed repeatedly. The code can be written in any high level language and then converted to hexadecimal format. We have used assembly language to program the microcontroller and all its functions. It has three data ports, which can be used to control external circuitries. The 8051 has a serial port, which enables communication with the serial port of another 8051 or a computer. This microcontroller works on TTL logic levels. This means that a 1 is represented by 5volts and a 0 is represented by the absence of 5volts that is no voltage means a 0. Therefore to accomplish serial communication with a computer, which uses RS232 logic levels, inter-conversion of TTL to RS232 logic levels is required. In our circuit this has been done using a MAX232 level converter IC. It performs the conversion of signals from RS232 levels to TTL and vice versa. The following circuit has been used to perform this level conversion:

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RECHARGEABLE BATTERY

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DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
A cell is an electro-chemical device capable of supplying the energy that results from an internal chemical reaction to an external electric circuit. A battery is composed of one or more cells, either parallel or series connected to obtain a required current/voltage capability (batteries comprised of series connected cells are by far the most common). ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) is the internal resistance present in any cell that limits the amount of peak current it can deliver. The Amp-hour capacity of a battery (or cell) is its most important figure of merit: it is defined as the amount of current that a battery can deliver for 1 hour before the battery voltage reaches the end-of-life point. The "c" rate is a current that is numerically equal to the A-hr rating of the cell. Charge and discharge currents are typically expressed in fractions or multiples of the c rate. The MPV (mid-point voltage) is the nominal voltage of the cell, and is the voltage that is measured when the battery has discharged 50% of its total energy. The measured cell voltage at the end of its operating life is called the EODV, which stands for End of Discharge Voltage some manufacturers refer to this as EOL or End of Life voltage). The gravimetric energy density of a battery is a measure of how much energy a battery contains in comparison to its weight. The volumetric energy density of a battery is a measure of how much energy a battery contains in comparison to its volume. A constant-voltage charger is a circuit that recharges a battery by sourcing only enough current to force the battery voltage to a fixed value. A constant-current
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charger is a circuit that charges a battery by sourcing a fixed current into the battery, regardless of battery voltage.

THE CHARGE/DISCHARGE CURVE


The measured terminal voltage of any battery will vary as it is charged and discharged. The MPV (mid-point voltage) is the nominal voltage of the cell during charge or discharge. The maximum and minimum voltage excursion from the nominal value is an important design consideration: a "flatter" discharge curve means less voltage variation that the design must tolerate. When peak charged, the actual cell voltage will be higher than the MPV. When nearing the EODV (end of discharge voltage) point, the cell voltage will be less than the MPV. The EODV is sometimes referred to as the EOL (end of life) voltage by manufacturers.

BASIC BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS


The electrical characteristics of a battery define how it will perform in the circuit, and the physical properties have a large impact on the overall size and weight of the product that it will power. The key properties and specifications for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Li-Ion will be presented for easy comparison.

CELL VOLTAGE/VOLTAGE STABILITY

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The voltage provided to power the load is obviously very important: The Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries have a 1.25V nominal cell voltage (their discharge voltages are generally assumed to be identical). The Ni-Cd/Ni-MH cell voltage is only about one-third of the nominal 3.6V provided by a Li-Ion cell which means a designer is required to use three series- connected Ni-Cd or NiMH cells to equal the voltage of a single Li-Ion cell. However, the biggest advantage of Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries: Their discharge curve is extremely flat, closest to an ideal battery. This important difference between the battery types means that Ni-Cd and Ni-MH cells are well suited for use with linear regulators, but Li-Ion batteries require switching converters to obtain good energy conversion efficiency in the power supply.

PEAK CURRENT
The maximum current that a battery can deliver is directly dependent on the internal equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the battery. The current flowing out of the battery must pass through the ESR, which will reduce the battery terminal voltage by an amount equal to the ESR multiplied times the load current (V = I X R). More important, the current flowing through the ESR will cause power dissipation within the battery that is equal to the ESR multiplied times the current squared
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(P = I2XR). This can result in significant heating within the battery at high rates of discharge. Both Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries have extremely low ESR values which means that ESR is almost never a limitation for peak discharge current in these cell types. The Li-Ion battery will typically have a higher ESR (compared to Ni-Cd or Ni-MH), but will probably not be a problem in most applications.

SELF DISCHARGE
Self-discharge (which occurs in all batteries) determines the "shelf life" of a battery. Typical selfdischarge rates for the three chemistries, exact values will vary with manufacturer. In general, LiIon is the best of the lot, while Ni-Cd and Ni-MH are fairly comparable to each other. Ni-Cd is typically a little better than Ni-MH, but this may even out as Ni-MH manufacturing technology matures. It is important to note that self-discharge is highly dependent on temperature, increasing as the battery temperature is increased. Another unpleasant characteristic (I have heard voiced with respect to Ni-MH batteries used in cellular phones and laptop computers) is that the discharge rate is extremely non-linear. A battery which loses 30% in a month may lose 15 to 20% in the first few days (not good if you are taking a couple of spare batteries on a weeklong trip, and you don't want to carry the charging station).

RECHARGE TIME
The amount of time that the typical consumer finds acceptable for battery recharging is highly variable, and depends on the item being powered. Figure 5 shows the typical minimum charging times for slow and fast charging rates of the three battery types.

SLOW CHARGING
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"Slow" charge is defined as a charging current that can be safely applied to a battery indefinitely without any kind of monitoring or charge termination method (it is sometimes referred to as trickle charging). A typical Ni-Cd battery will easily tolerate c/10, and some fast-charge Ni-Cd cells will accept up to c/3. Ni-MH cells are not as tolerant of constant charging, as most will not handle a sustained charging current greater than c/40 (although one manufacturer advertises cells that are rated for c/10 trickle charge rate). It is important to note that Li-Ion cells will not tolerate trickle charging at all after they are fully charged. If current is continuously forced into a fullycharged Li-Ion cell (even a very minute current) the cell will be damaged. For this reason, LiIon cells are charged using constant-voltage (C-V) chargers, and not constant-current (C-C) chargers. If a product is designed only for slow (overnight) recharging, a user may have to buy a second battery pack, and keep it on "standby" charge (increasing the amount of money he has to spend).

CCTV
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INTRODUCTION
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance of public areas, such as car parks, housing estates and town centres is increasingly commonplace. For example, 260 cameras monitor the boundaries of the Parliamentary estate. Recently, the Home Office allocated 170 million to fund public area CCTV schemes in England and Wales. This has prompted debate over whether CCTV surveillance reduces crime and whether currentlegislation appropriately regulates its use. This briefing describes how CCTV is used and examines issues suchas its effectiveness, civil liberties and its use in court.

HOW CCTV SYSTEMS ARE USED

Public and private CCTV schemes can be deployed for a number of reasons: Monitoring public areas to detect incidents and to coordinate police responses. CCTV is also used as an aid for enforcing exclusion orders (where an offender is barred from an area) .

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Recording events for use as evidence and to inform investigations. For instance, on the boundaries of the Parliamentary estate, police on patrol alert CCTV operators of incidents via radio links. CCTV operators then record incidents as they unfold. Directed surveillance of suspected offenders. Deterrence of criminal activity although the evidence for this is in conclusive .

DESCRIPTION
The closed circuit television (CCTV) system is used on orbit to provide support to orbiter and payload activities. This support includes transmitting real-time and recorded video from the orbiter to MCC through either the S-band FM or Ku-band communications systems. Mission requirements for CCTV and camera configurations are specified in the Flight Requirements Document for each shuttle flight. The CCTV system consists of video processing equipment, TV cameras (and lens assemblies), pan/tilt units (PTUs), camcorders, video tape recorders (VTRs), color television monitors (CTVMs), and all the cabling and accessories required to make these components work together. All CCTV operations can be controlled by the crew. Most CCTV configuration commands can be executed by the Instrumentation and Communications Officer (INCO) at Mission Control. Among the commands MCC cannot uplink are those to configure and operate loose CCTV equipment, such as camcorders and VTRs, and selection of inputs to the color monitors. Standard CCTV components are powered via circuit breakers located on panel R14. Flightspecific keel cameras (prox ops or berthing) are usually powered from a cabin payload bus. CCTV pushbuttons on panel A7U have lights that illuminate to provide visual feedback on camera and CCTV routing configuration. These lights are powered via the annunciator light switches located on panel A6U.

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SUCCESSFUL CCTV USE

Integrating CCTV into an overall crime reduction strategy is likely to increase its effectiveness substantially. For example, research indicates that CCTV in car parks generally leads to a reduction in car crime 2. This effect appears to be enhanced with the introduction of additional crime reduction measures such as lighting, security personnel and publicity. CCTV in car parks however, was not found to lead directly to many arrests, suggesting that reductionin crime was
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not due to the removal of offenders. For CCTV to be effective in the long term, it may need to be seen as contributing to arrests.

OVERVIEW

CCTV surveillance in public places needs to balance individual rights with the public interest. In particular: CCTV has received major government funding, but the conditions under which it is effective are poorly understood. CCTV can provide valuable information for police and courts. However, images can be of poor quality and may not be a reliable means of verifying identity. To avoid misuse and maintain public acceptance of CCTV, it is paramount that appropriate measures are taken to ensure compliance with data protection and privacy legislation.

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RADIO FREQUENCY MODULE

INTRODUCTION

The RF Module 3.5a is an optional package that extends the COMSOL Multiphysics modeling environment with customized user interfaces and functionality optimized for the analysis of electromagnetic waves. This particular module solves problems in the general field of electromagnetic waves, such as RF and microwave applications, optics, and photonics. The application modes included here are fully multiphysics enabled, making it possible to couple them to any other physics application mode in COMSOL Multiphysics or the other modules. For example, to analyze stress-optical effects in a waveguide, you would first do a plane strain analysis using the Structural Mechanics Module followed by an optical mode analysis show the resulting split of the fundamental modes. The underlying equations for electromagnetics are automatically available in all of the application modesa feature unique to COMSOL Multiphysics. This also makes nonstandard modeling easily accessible.

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APPLICATIONS INCLUDE
Wireless Networks / Data Transfer Wireless Analog / Audio Home / Industrial Automation Remote Access / Control Remote Monitoring / Telemetry Long-Range RFID MIDI Links Voice / Music / Intercom Links

PERFORMANCE DATA
These performance parameters are based on module operation at 25C from a 3.0VDC supply unless otherwise noted. illustrates the connections necessary for testing and operation. It is recommended all ground pins be connected to the ground plane. The pins marked NC have no electrical connection.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
The HP3 is a high-performance multi-channel, dual-conversion superhet receiver capable of recovering both analog (FM) and digital (FSK) information from a matching HP Series transmitter. FM / FSK modulation offers significant advantages over AM or OOK modulation methods, including increased noise immunity and the receivers ability to capture in the presence of multiple signals. This is especially helpful in crowded bands, like that in which the HP3 operates. The single-ended RF port is matched to 50-ohms to support commonly available antennas, such as those manufactured by Linx. The RF signal coming in from the antenna is filtered by a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter to attenuate unwanted RF energy. A SAW filter provides significantly higher performance than other filter types, such as an LC bandpass filter. Once filtered, the signal is amplified by a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) to increase the receiver sensitivity and lower the overall noise figure of the receiver. After the LNA, the signal is mixed with a synthesized local oscillator operating 34.7MHz below the incoming transmission frequency to produce the first Intermediate Frequency (IF). The second conversion and FM demodulation is achieved by a highperformance IF strip that mixes the 34.7MHz first conversion frequency with 24.0MHz from a precision crystal oscillator. The resulting second IF of 10.7MHz is then highly amplified in preparation for demodulation. A quadrature demodulator is used to recover the baseband signal from the carrier. The demodulated waveform is filtered, after which it closely resembles the original signal. The signal is routed to the analog output pin and the data slicer stage, which provides squared digital output via the data output pin. A key feature of the HP3 is the transparency of its digital output, which does not impose

balancing or duty-cycle requirements within a range of 100bps to 56kbps. An on-board microcontroller manages receiver functions and greatly simplifies user interface. The
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microcontroller reads the channel selection lines and programs the on-board synthesizer. This frees the designer from complex programming requirements and allows for manual or software channel selection. The microcontroller also monitors incoming signal strength and squelches the data output when the signal is not strong enough for accurate data detection.

POWER SUPPLY
The HP3 incorporates a precision, low-dropout regulator on-board, which allows operation over an input voltage range of 2.8 to 13 volts DC. Despite this regulator, it is still important to provide a supply that is free of noise. Power supply noise can significantly affect the receiver sensitivity; therefore, providing a clean power supply for the module should be a high priority during design.

A 10 resistor in series with the supply followed by a 10F tantalum capacitor from VCC to ground will help in cases where the quality of supply power is poor. This filter should be placed close to the modules supply lines. These values may need to be adjusted depending on the noise present on the supply line.

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INTERFERENCE CONSIDERATIONS
The RF spectrum is crowded and the potential for conflict with other unwanted sources of RF is very real. While all RF products are at risk from interference, its effects can be minimized by better understanding its characteristics. Interference may come from internal or external sources. The first step is to eliminate interference from noise sources on the board. This means paying careful attention to layout, grounding, filtering, and bypassing in order to eliminate all radiated and conducted interference paths. For many products, this is straightforward; however, products containing components such as switching power supplies, motors, crystals, and other potential sources of noise must be approached with care. Comparing your own design with a Linx evaluation board can help to determine if and at what level design-specific interference is present. External interference can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Low-level interference will produce noise and hashing on the output and reduce the links overall range.

High-level interference is caused by nearby products sharing the same frequency or from nearband high-power devices. It can even come from your own products if more than one transmitter
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is active in the same area. It is important to remember that only one transmitter at a time can occupy a frequency, regardless of the coding of the transmitted signal. This type of interference is less common than those mentioned previously, but in severe cases it can prevent all useful function of the affected device. Although technically it is not interference, multipath is also a factor to be understood. Multipath is a term used to refer to the signal cancellation effects that occur when RF waves arrive at the receiver in different phase relationships. This effect is a particularly significant factor in interior environments where objects provide many different signal reflection paths. Multipath cancellation results in lowered signal levels at the receiver and, thus, shorter useful distances for the link.

ACHIEVING A SUCCESSFUL RF IMPLEMENTATION


Adding an RF stage brings an exciting new dimension to any product. It also means that additional effort and commitment will be needed to bring the product successfully to market. By utilizing premade RF modules, such as the LR Series, the design and approval process is greatly simplified. It is still important, however, to have an objective view of the steps necessary to ensure a successful RF integration. Since the capabilities of each customer vary widely, it is difficult to recommend one particular design path, but most projects follow steps similar to those shown at the right.

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In reviewing this sample design path, you may notice that Linx offers a variety of services (such as antenna design and FCC prequalification) that areunusual for a high-volume component manufacturer. These services, along with an exceptional level of technical support, are offered because we recognize that RF is a complex science requiring the highest caliber of products and support. Wireless Made Simple is more than just a motto, its our commitment. By choosing Linx as your RF partner and taking advantage of the resources we offer, you will not only survive implementing RF, you may even find the process enjoyable.

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DECODER

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table). For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 212 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continucontinuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. The 212 series of decoders are capable of decoding informations that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Of this series, the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits, and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information.

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FEATURES
Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology Low standby current Capable of decoding 12 bits of information Binary address setting Received codes are checked 3 times Address/Data number combination HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits HT12F: 12 address bits only Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor Valid transmission indicator Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium Minimal external components Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders 18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package
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APPLICATIONS

Burglar alarm system Smoke and fire alarm system Garage door controllers Car door controllers Car alarm system Security system Cordless telephones Other remote control systems

OPERATION
The 212 series of decoders provides various combinations of addresses and data pins in different packages so as to pair with the 212 series of encoders. The decoders receive data that are transmitted by an encoder and interpret the first N bits of code period as addresses and the last 12_N bits as data, where N is the address code number. A signal on the DIN pin activates the oscillator which in turn decodes the incoming address and data. The decoders will then check the received address three times continuously. If the received address codes all match the contents of the decoder_s local address, the 12_N bits of data are decoded to activate the output pins and the VT pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission. This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received. The output of the VT pin is high only when the transmission is valid.Otherwise it is always low.

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FLOWCHART
The oscillator is disabled in the standby state and activated when a logic _high_ signal applies to the DIN pin. That is to say, the DIN should be kept low if there is no signal input.

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ENCODER

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12N data bits. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bitsvia an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E/EA or a DATA trigger on the HT12A/B/C further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. The HT12A/B/C additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems.

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FEATURES
Operating voltage: 2.4V~5V for the HT12A/B/C 2.4V~12V for the HT12E/EA Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology Low standby current: 0.1mA (Typ.) at VDD=5V HT12A/B/C with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium Minimum transmission word: Four words for the HT12E/EA One word for the HT12A/B/C Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor Data code polarity: HT12A/C/E/EA: Positive polarity HT12B: Negative polarity Minimal external components 18-pin DIP or 20-pin SOP package available for HT12A/12B 14/18-pin DIP or 16/20-pin SOP or 16-pin NSOP package available for HT12E 16/18-pin DIP or 16/20-pin SOP package available for HT12C

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APPLICATIONS

Burglar alarm system Smoke and fire alarm system Garage door controllers Car door controllers Car alarm system Security system Cordless telephones Other remote control systems

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CHAPTER 6

SOFTWARE USED

8051 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT (IDE)


The 8051 IDE combines a text editor, assembler, and software simulator into a single program. All components needed to develop 8051 programs are available and controllable from this single IDE running on Windows 95. Enter and modify the program source code from within the built in editor. Then assemble the source code by selecting the Assemble command. If any errors are located, double clicking on the error listing loads the appropriate source module and the cursor is placed on the line containing the error. Fix the error and move to the next error (if any) by double clicking the next error in the list. Once all errors have been fixed reassemble the code. After successfully assembling the source code use the simulator to step through your program. You can watch registers, flags, ports and memory locations change as your program progresses. In addition to the predefined watch windows (register, internal memory, direct memory, etc) you can create a custom watch window. In this window add entries for any of the 8051 resources. Using the simulator you can see the flow of your program. You are able to verify that it operates as intended. If it does not then return to the editor, reassemble and back to the simulator. MCU 8051 IDE is a free software integrated development environment for microcontrollers based on
8051. MCU 8051 IDE has its own simulator and assembler (support for some external assemblers

is also available). This IDE supports 2 programming languages: C and Assembly language. For C
language it uses SDCC.

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KEY FEATURES

MCU simulator with many debugging features: register status, step by step, interrupt

viewer, external memory viewer, code memory viewer, etc.


Simulator for simple electronic peripherals: leds, displays, matrices, etc. Support for C language Native macro-assembler Support for ASEM-51 Advanced text editor with syntax highlighting and validation Support for vim and nano embedded in the IDE Simple hardware programmer for certain AT89Sxx MCUs Scientific calculator: time delay calculation and code generation, base converter, etc. Hexadecimal editor

An integrated development environment (IDE) also known as integrated design environment or integrated debugging environment is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of:

a source code editor a compiler and/or an interpreter


build automation tools

Sometimes a version control system and various tools are integrated to simplify the construction of a GUI. Many modern IDEs also have a class browser, an object inspector, and a class hierarchy
diagram, for use with object-oriented software development.

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Ch 7

DIGITAL AND ANALOG SIGNALS

Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0, True or False, respectively). Push buttons, limit switches, and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current, where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC representing On, values below 2VDC representing Off, and intermediate values undefined. Initially, PLCs had only discrete I/O.

Analog signals are like volume controls, with a range of values between zero and full-scale. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors, the integer values are limited between -32,768 and +32,767. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. For example, an analog 0 - 10 V input or 4-20 mA would be converted into an integer value of 0 32767.

Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (i.e. from welders or electric motor starts) than

voltage inputs.

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Ch 8

PROGRAM CODE sw0 sw1 sw2 sw3 led org 0000h main: jnb sw0,fwd jnb sw1,rev jnb sw2,left jnb sw3,right mov p0,#11111111b ajmp main equ p2.0 equ p2.1 equ p2.2 equ p2.3 equ p0

fwd:

mov p0,#11111010b ajmp main

rev:

mov p0,#11110101b ajmp main

left:

mov p0,#11110110b ajmp main

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right:

mov p0,#11111001b ajmp main ch 9

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

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CHAPTER 10

APPLICATION
SCIENTIFIC
Remote control vehicales have scientific uses includeing hazardous environments, working in the deep ocean and space exploration . The majority of the probes to the other planet in our solar system have been remote control vehiceles , although some of the more recent ones were partially autonomous. The sophistication of these devices has fueled greater debate on the need for manned space fight and exploration. The voyager one space craft is the first of any kind to leave the solar system. The martian explores spirit and opportunity have provided continuous data about the surface of Mars since January 3, 2004.

MILITARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


Military usage of remotely controlled vehiceles dates back to the first half of 20 th century. Sovient red Army used remotely controlled teletanks during 1930s in the Winter war and early stages of world war 2.There were also remotely controlled cuttees and experimental remotely controlled planed in the Red Army . Remote controlled vehicles are used in law enforcement ant military engagement for some of the same reasons. The exposure of hazars are mitigated to the person who operates the
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vehicles from a location of relative safety . Remote controlled vehicles are used by many Police Department bomb squads to defuse and detonate explosives.

Unmanned aerial

vehicles (UAVs)

have

undergone a dramatic evolution in

capability in the past decade. Early UAVSs were capable of reconnaissance missions alone and then only with a limited range . Current UAVs can hover around possible targets untill they are posituivrly ientified before releasing their payload of waeponry. Backspace sized UAVs will provide ground troops with over the horizon surveillance capabilities.

SEARCH AND RESCUE


UAVs will likely play increased role in search and resue in the US . This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurricanes that struk Louisiana and Texas.

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

The system that we have built is a working prototype of a robot, which should be compact, fast and accurate. This prototype may not have the features and reliability of the original design. It is only being developed to ensure that the design is feasible, not impractical and can be implemented on a much larger scale in a more efficient way. At present, the robot is not a very maneuverable machine that is it may not provide the efficiency to cope with the complex objects or it may not have the capability to maneuver into small places, which is necessary requirement. But it can be used to design such a robot, which can be small in size, fast and accurate in its movements. The gripper as compared to the ones, made by professional companies is not very efficient. But it can still perform some level of object manipulation. Hence the future enhancements may include a much smaller, faster, more reliable machine. It may have the ability to handle a much wider range of objects and the ability to maneuver them to much safer places. Some of these enhancements are described below.

COMPACT DESIGN
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A compact design results in a much faster motion and thus increases the accuracy and efficiency. Therefore the robot can be enhanced to be of much smaller size for the purpose of a faster and accurate operation. Compact design is also required where the situation demands the robot to reach for small places. For example, in the aftermath of an earth quake, the robot has to search for people trapped under the rubble. It has to enter holes where humans cannot enter. Hence a compact robot will easily do the job.

QUICK MOVEMENT
Being a bomb disposal robot, it requires very fast movement. This is required as the bomb disposal squad have very little time in checking out the bomb and then defusing it. Therefore a fast robot is necessary to be successfully used as a Bomb Disposal Robot.

IMPROVED RELIABILITY
At the moment the turning mechanism of the robot is based on the DC motor, which is not that accurate. Also the shoulder of the robotic arm or the base of the robotic arm also depends on the motion of a DC motor, which is not very feasible for the accurate motion of the robotic arm, which is necessary. The robot can be improved to be more reliable and accurate by installing stepper motors instead of the DC motors, which are more accurate and also have the feature of the holding torque, which enables the movement of heavy object with ease.
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REMOVABLE GRIPPER/MULTI-GRIPPER ROBOTIC ARM


The gripper attached to the robotic arm is fixed at the moment that is, it will only work with the specific shaped of objects. Placing a gripper that can be removed and replaced by another gripper can solve this problem or a multi gripper robotic arm can be developed with more than 2 types of grippers for different type of materials and for different shaped of the objects. This will enable the robotic arm to grip and move objects, which are complex and cannot be easily moved with a single or a basic gripper.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
At present the robot does not have the capability to make decisions on its own that is there is no built in artificial intelligence in it. Therefore the robots working is based purely on the decisions made by the end user of the robotic control application. Therefore Artificial Intelligence may be provided to the robot for making the process of decision-making much quicker and reliable. For example a database can be merged in the application, which can be used to construct evaluation by identifying the object with the help of the camera. The camera gives input to the database that is compared with the contents of the database and if a match is found the corresponding entries of the database gives the desired actions to be performed by the robot on the object, which makes the task much easier for the end user. Also AI may provide
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a threat of performing wrong operations in case of identifying the object wrong which may result in hazardous situation. Therefore if Artificial Intelligence is being implemented then it should be made sure that the accuracy rate of AI engine is almost 100% accurate otherwise it can be dangerous in such a situation.

NIGHT VISION CAMERA


The robot equipped with a wireless camera, which is not very useful in situations where the visibility or light level is very low. For night mode it will be almost impossible for identifying objects because the lights, which are provided on the robot, are fixed therefore it may not be possible toview those objects which are in the dark. For night mode or places where light is low a night vision camera can be mounted on the robot instead of a standard camera, which will increase the visibility in case of no light at all.

Ch 12

Conclusion

The Wireless spy camera Robot has been designed in such a way that it can cater to the needs of the military, the police and armed forces. It has countless applications and can be used in different environments and scenarios.
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For instance, at one place it can be used by the armed forces, military puposes, while at another instance it can be used for spy purposes. While another application can be to provide up to date information in a hostage situation.

One of the major advantages of this robot are, It can be altered to suit the needs of the user It is fast and robust. It can be controlled remotely. It has video feedback. It has its own power supply.

Ch 13

REFERENCES
[1] www.dawn.com/2004/01/19/top14.htm [2] newsarchives.indiainfo.com/spotlight/gujcrisis/29defuse.html

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Miscellaneous Books 1. Robotics by James L. Fuller 2. The 8051 Microcontroller by Scott McKenzie .

On the Web 1. www.rentron.com 2. www.iguanalabs.com/7805kit.htm 3. www.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit/

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