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Definition

Arc welding (AW) is a fusion-welding process in which coalescence of the metals is achieved by the heat of an electric arc between an electrode and the work. A generic AW process is shown in Figure 30.1. An electric arc is a discharge of electric current across a gap in a circuit. It is sustained by the presence of a thermally ionized column of gas (called plasma) through which current flows. To initiate the arc in an AW process, the electrode is brought into contact with the work and then quickly separated from it by a short distance. The electric energy from the arc thus formed produces temperatures of 5500oC (10,000oF) or higher, sufficiently hot to melt any metal. A pool of molten metal, consisting of base metal(s) and filler metal (if one is used) is formed near the tip of the electrode. In most arc welding processes, filler metal is added during the operation to increase the volume and strength of the weld joint.

Types of Arc Welding


There are many types of arc welding; basic three types are as under: 1) Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) 2) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 3) Sub-merged Arc Welding (SAW)

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1) Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)


Shield metal arc welding (SMAW) is a process that melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a sticklike covered electrode and the metals. The core wire conducts the electric current to the arc and provides filler metal for the joint. The electrode holder is essentially a metal clamp with an electrically insulated outside shell for the welder to hold safely. The heat of the arc melts the core wire and the flux covering at the electrode tip into metal droplets. Molten metal in the weld pool solidifies into the weld metal while the lighter molten flux floats on the top surface and solidifies as a slag layer. Shielding gas is a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2.

Advantages of SMAW

Simple welding equipment Portable Inexpensive Less sensitive to wind Suitable for most commonly used metals and alloys Used for maintenance, repair, and field construction

Disadvantages / Limitations of SMAW


Not clean enough for reactive metals such as aluminum and titanium The deposition rate is limited Not as productive as continuous wire processes Likely to be more costly to deposit a given quantity of metal Frequent stop/starts to change electrode Relatively high metal wastage (electrode stubs) Current limits are lower than for continuous or automatic processes (reduces deposition rate)

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2) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)


Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is defined as "an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal electrode and the work piece." Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas. GMAW is also commonly referred to as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) or Metal Active Gas (MAG). GMAW is used to weld all the commercially important metals, including steel, aluminum, copper, and stainless steel. The filler metal selection has a chemical composition that is closely matched to the base material being welded. The process can be used to weld in any position, including flat, vertical, horizontal, and overhead. Shielding gas can be Ar, CO2, He.

Superior weld quality High deposition efficiency Used with or without filler metal No Slag to chip Excellent control of root pass weld penetration Precise control of welding variables

Disadvantages / Limitations of GMAW


Less economical Needs Shielding Gas No slag system so out of position welds are sometimes more difficult The gun is difficult to get into tight places Is not suitable for windy conditions i.e. outdoor limitations

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Advantages of GMAW

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3) Sub-merged Arc Welding (SAW)


Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a process that melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a consumable wire electrode and the metals, with the arc being shielded by a molten stag and granular flux. The arc is submerged and invisible. The flux is supplied from a hopper, which travel with the torch. The shielding gas may not be required because the molten metal is separated from the air by the molten slag and granular flux.

Advantages of SAW
High industrial applications High deposition rates High weld quality Good penetration Clean welds are obtained due to protecting and refining action of the slag At high welding current, spatter and heat loss are eliminated because the arc is submerged Can weld thick section

Disadvantages of SAW
Specific metals can weld only Not recommended for thin sections Cannot weld in a flat-position and circumferential (pipe) High heat input can reduce the weld quality and increase distortions Flat or horizontal position welding only Care required to preserve correct electrode alignment

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Definition
Resistance welding is welding parts to be pressed between two electrodes, and through the current use of current flowing through the workpiece and the contact resistance of heat generated by adjacent areas will be heated to melt or its plastic state, so as to form metal-binding methods.

Types of Resistance Welding


There are two main types of resistance welding: 1) Resistance Spot Welding 2) Resistance Seam Welding

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1) Resistance Spot Welding


Resistance spot welding is by far the predominant process in this group. It is widely used in mass production of automobiles, appliances, metal furniture, and other products made of sheet metal. If one considers that a typical car body has approximately 10,000 individual spot welds, and that the annual production of automobiles throughout the world is measured in tens of millions of units, the economic importance of resistance spot welding can be appreciated.

Advantages of Resistance Spot Welding


Process is simple The heating time is short Do not need to wire, welding filler metal, etc Simple, easy to mechanization and automation, improved working conditions. The production rate, and no noise and harmful gases Spot welding can be performed without any special skill Spot welding can be used to join many different metals, and can join different types to each other

Disadvantages of Resistance Spot Welding


There is a lack of reliable non-destructive testing methods Higher equipment costs than arc welding Power line demands Low tensile and fatigue strength Not portable Electrode wear

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2) Resistance Seam Welding


In resistance seam welding (RSEW), the stick-shaped electrodes in spot welding are replaced by rotating wheels, as shown in figure and a series of overlapping spotwelds aremade along the lap joint.The process is capable of producing air-tight joints, and its industrial applications include the production of gasoline tanks, automobile mufflers, and various other fabricated sheet metal containers.

Advantages of Resistance Seam Welding

Disadvantages of Resistance Seam Welding


High initial equipment costs Difficulty of access to the component Limited by the components geometry

Applications of Resistance Seam Welding


Domestic radiators Vehicle fuel tanks Plastic bags

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High speed, from 1 to 10 m/min Easily automated Suitable for high production rate

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Definition
Oxyacetylene welding (OAW) is a fusion-welding process performed by a high-temperature flame from combustion of acetylene and oxygen. The flame is directed by a welding torch. A filler metal is sometimes added, and pressure is occasionally applied in OAW between the contacting part surfaces.

High industrial applications It's easy to learn The equipment is cheaper than most other types of welding The equipment is more portable than most other types of welding OAW equipment can also be used to "flame-cut" large pieces of material The welder has considerable control over the temperature of the metal, filler-metal deposition rate Clearly view the weld area. Heat can be applied preferentially to the base metal or the filler metal without removing either from the flame envelope No need to electricity. Thin metals with poor fit-up can be welded Small diameter pipes can be welded

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Advantages of OAW

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Disadvantages of OAW
A wide heat affected zone Slow process Gases are expensive Work-piece thickness is limited up to 6 mm OAW require more finishing if neatness is required. OAW is a manual process thus a very skilled welder is required for the process

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Definition
It is an interruption of the typical structure of a material, such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical, or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.

Definition
Welding defect is an excessive condition that is outside the parameter of the required weld, the defect will compromise the stability and functionality of the weld. It is a flaw or flaws by nature or accumulated effect renders a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. This term designates reject-ability.

I.

Design Related Incorrect detail Wrong joint application Undesirable change in cross section These are Engineering Problems Lack familiarity with welding Misinterpret design intent Applied stresses Fabrication sequence Weld process capabilities TYPICALLY show up in first-part manufacture OR After service failure Typically beyond the realm of INSPECTOR knowledge unless a specific code applies

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Classification

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II.

Weld Process Related Undercut Groove melted in base metal adjacent to weld edge and left unfilled

Slag Inclusion Nonmetallic solid entrapped in weld

Tungsten Inclusion Tungsten electrode entrapped in weld

particles

Porosity Gas cavity solidification

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trapped during Overlap Weld metal protrusion beyond toe, face or root Melt-through Condition where arc melts through weld root

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Oxide Inclusions Un-melted surface oxide particles

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Spatter Metal particles expelled during welding that do not become part of the weld Shrinkage Voids Cavities formed by shrinkage at solidification Lack of Fusion (LOF) Less than complete fusion

Craters Depressions at the termination of the weld bead Arc strikes Localized re-melted or heat affected metal resulting from an errant arc Under fill A depression of the weld below the intended profile

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Lack of Penetration Less than penetration

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III.

Metallurgical Cracks Fracture type discontinuities characterized by a sharp tip and a high length to depth ratio Fissures Small crack-like discontinuities with only slight separation of the fracture surfaces Fisheye Discontinuity found on the fracture surface of a steel weld consisting of a small pore surrounded by a bright round area Segregation Non-uniform distribution or concentration of impurities or alloying elements during solidification Lamellar Tearing Cracking that occurs in the base metal or heat affected zone of restrained weld joints

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This is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the crosssection of a work-piece by compressive forces exerted by a pair of rotating rolls. The products are flat products, like: plates & sheets. Plates are used for structural applications like bridges, ships & nuclear vessels. Sheets (generally 6mm or less in thickness) are used for automotive, beverage cans, office & kitchen equipment.

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Definition

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The bulk deformation processes refine the starting shapes, sometimes improving mechanical properties, and always adding commercial value. Deformation processes work by stressing the metal sufficiently to cause it to plastically flow into the desired shape. Bulk deformation processes are performed as cold, warm, and hot working operations. Cold and warm working is appropriate when the shape change is less severe, and there is a need to improve mechanical properties and achieve good finish on the part. Hot working is generally required when massive deformation of large work parts is involved. There are the following types of the bulk deformation processes: 1. Rolling 2. Forging 3. Extrusion 4. Wire & Bar Drawing But here we cover only first two types i.e. rolling and forging.

Types
Rolling is carried out in many different ways. o By geometry of work: a) Flat Rolling used to reduce thickness of a rectangular crosssection b) Shape Rolling a square cross-section is formed into a shape such as an I-beam o By temperature of work: a) Hot Rolling most common due to the large amount of deformation required b) Cold Rolling produces finished sheet and plate stock

Hot Rolling
With hot rolling the material is heated, causing it to re-crystallize which results in a tougher (ductile) material. Hot rolling is primarily concerned with manipulating material shape and geometry rather than mechanical properties.

Larger deformation can be accomplished and more rapidly by hot working since the metal is in plastic state Porosity of the metal is considerably minimized Concentrated impurities, if any in the metal are disintegrated and distributed throughout the metal Grain structure of the metal is refined and physical properties improved

Disadvantages
Due to high temperature a rapid oxidation or scale formation takes place on the metal surface, leading to poor surface finish and loss of metal On account of the loss of carbon from the surface of the steel piece being worked the surface layer loses its strength, which is a disadvantage when the part is put to service.

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Advantages

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This weakening of the surface layer may give rise to crack which may ultimately result in fatigue failure of the part Close tolerances cannot be maintained It involves excessive expenditure on account of high cost of tooling. This, however, is compensated by the high production rate and better quality of products

Cold Rolling
Cold rolling takes place at roomtemperature causing cold-re-enforcement and an improved surface quality. However, it also causes internal stresses and anisotropy; the material characteristics in the roll direction differ from the characteristics perpendicular to it.

Better dimensional control than hot working is possible because the reduction in size is not much Surface finish of the component is better because no oxidation takes place during the process Strength and hardness of the metal are increased It is an ideal method for increasing hardness of those metals which do not respond to the heat treatment

Disadvantages
Only ductile metals can be shaped through cold working Over-working of metal results in brittleness and it has to be annealed to remove the same Subsequent heat treatment is mostly needed to remove the residual stresses set up during cold working

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Advantages

Definition
Forging is manufacturing process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings. Use of a proper lubricant during the process helps to prevent sticking of the work-piece with the die. It also acts as a thermal insulator and helps the wear and tear on the die.

Types
Forging is carried out in many different ways. o By geometry of work: a) Open Die Forgings or Hand forgings in this process the forgings are made with the help of repeated blows in an open die. Here the operator manipulates the work piece in the die during the blow process, similar to the traditional manufacturing process used by a blacksmith. b) Impression Die Forgings or Precision Forgings these forgings are the refined form of blocker forgings. The finished metal part much more identical to the die impression. c) Upset Forgings these forgings increase the cross-section by reducing the length of the metal. The process is used to make heads on valves, bolts and fasteners, and other similar parts. o By temperature of work: c) Hot Forging the temperature reaches above the recrystallization point of the metal, this kind of extreme heat is necessary in avoiding strain hardening of the metal during deformation. d) Cold Forging it actually occurs at or near room temperature. The most common metals in cold forging applications are usually standard or carbon alloy steels.

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Advantages
The forgings are consistent in shape and do not have any voids, porosity, inclusions, or defects This is especially helpful in later finishing and coating operations as surface preparation is minimized Parts that are produced by this method have high strength to weight ratio and therefore used in the design of the aircraft frames It offers low cost for moderate to long runs

Disadvantages
Hot forging prevents work hardening and hence increases the difficulty of performing other machining operations on the part Producing forged parts involves a lot of expenditure for the machinery, dies, tools and personnel Some forging requires metal-forming dies, which are required to be precisely machined and heated to properly shape the piece. This is not always achievable by novices or not very-high experienced engineers

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