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LECTIA 6 ADVERBUL

A. Forma. 1. unele adverbe sunt cuvinte independente often, when?, now, very, soon, always: Marie often sang in the choir. 2. unele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele daily, early, fast, low, straight, well, back, enough, far, little, long, pretty, near, wrong, still, short, late, high, left, right, hard. Comparati: The doctor drove fast. Fast food is popular with teenagers. Julie called daily. Our daily routine is demanding. Jim works pretty hard. I love her pretty face. 3. unele adverbe (in special cele de mod si grad) se formeaza adaugand adjectivelor terminatia -ly: kind, kindly slow, slowly careful, carefully happy, happily simple, simply automatic, automatically NOTA: Unele cuvinte terminate in -ly sunt adjective (nu adverbe!): lonely, lovely, likely, friendly, ugly, silly. This is such an ugly car! B. Ortografie. a. y final se schimba in -i: merry, merrily (EXCEPTIE: shy, shyly) b. -e final se pastreaza: wise, wisely (EXCEPTIE: true, truly) c. daca se termina in consoana + le, -e dispare si se adauga -y: gentle, gently d. cuvintelor terminate in -ic li se adauga -ally: scientific, scientifically (EXCEPTIE: public, publicly) C. Topica topica adverbelor variaza, ea depinzand in primul rand de tipul de adverbe folosit. Exista trei pozitii de baza: 1. la inceput inainte de subiect: Unfortunately, I couldnt identify the thief. 2. la sfarsit dupa complement, sau daca nu exista, imadiat dupa verb: That young man likes Melanie very much. Alexandra was working hard. NOTA: Nu plasati niciodata un adverb intre verb si complement. I drink coffee slowly. I drink slowly coffee.

3. la mijloc: He usually comes for tea. (inainte de verbul principal) She is always smiling. (dupa verbul be) They have rarely come to visit. (dupa primul verb auxiliar) Jonathan could seldom telephone us. (dupa primul verb modal) We certainly have to be more careful. (inainte de used to, have to, ought to) D. Tipuri de adverbe. 1. Adverbe de mod kindly, easily, well, happily, fast, carefully, secretly, beautifully, reluctantly, foolishly, badly etc. Pavarotti sang beautifully. Terry spoke Spanish slowly. NOTA: Adverbele referitoare la character sau inteligenta (foolishly, generously, sweetly, kindly, stupidly etc.) isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitie. I stupidly replied. (= It was stupid of me to reply.) I replied stupidly. (= I gave a stupid reply.) 2. Adverbe de loc here, up, abroad, out, outside, in, away, everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, there etc. They went everywhere. The Crawfords are sending their daughter abroad. NOTA: Adverbele de loc functioneaza adesea si ca prepozitii. Joe ran down the stairs. 3. Adverbe de timp yesterday, now, afterward, still, soon, eventually, recently, then, today, at once, till, tomorrow, since then etc. Tomorrow we will begin the next lesson. The holiday began yesterday. NOTA: De obicei, adverbele au urmatoarea ordine: MOD LOC TIMP. The baby slept well yesterday. Well go there tomorrow. Mark worked hard at school last year. 4. Adverbe de frecventa always, usually, never, hardly ever, often, twice, once, continually, seldom, rarely, periodically etc. Dictators usually live in fear. Repeatedly, the students made the same mistake. Our children walk to school every morning. 5. Adverbe de opinie personally, obviously, frankly, certainly, luckily, actually, probably, definitely, surely etc. You obviously like pizza.

Frankly, I dont like him very much. 6. Adverbe de grad fairly, quite, hardly, too, almost, pretty, rather, barely, completely, enough, nearly, really, just, even, very etc. He is entirely right. The horses galloped very fast. My steak isnt big enough. I liked him a lot. 7. Adverbe interogative when?, where?, why?, how? When did they send the letter? Where is he going? Why is Cindy crying? How do you spell your name? ATENTIE! Farther / farthest se refera numai la distanta. He ran farther than planned. Further / furthest se refera la grad. He inquired further into the matter.

EXERCITII
1. Puneti cuvintele de mai jos in ordinea corecta. 1. (yesterday, away) Moritz, our cat, ran . 2. (last night, the guitar, at the concert, beautifully) Alexandra played . 3. (in lab class, a frog, tomorrow) The students will dissect . 4. (hard, soon, here) Im sure its going to rain . 5. (angrily, him, last night) The speaker answered . 6. (since 1977, here) Teresa has been living . 2. Asezati aceste grupuri de adverbe in pozitia corecta. 1. Sandy glanced around the room. (furtively) . 2. He knew that Ned had hidden the letter in the room. (somewhere, yesterday) . 3. She opened the box and looked. (softly, inside) . 4. Jim was predictable. (usually, very) .

5. Ah, it was! (there) . 6. I would have chosen to hide the letter. (personally, elsewhere) . 7. But she felt relieved that it had been easy. (actually, so) . 8. She heard footsteps coming. (suddenly, upstairs) . 9. Christie thought. (quickly, very) . 10. Should she hide? (where) . 3. Asezati adverbele de mai jos in coloana corespunzatoare. insistently, quite, surely, usually, silently, always, never, vaguely, overseas, today, well, too, fast, outside, everywhere, recently, enough, so, very, soon, even, carefully, up, almost, fiercely, abroad, angrily, fairly, obviously, seldom, downstairs, yesterday, nowhere, here, foolishly Manner Place Time Frequency Opinion Degree