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APPLICAITION GUIDE FOR ECHO KEYING LOGIC ON PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP SCHEMES

April 17, 2007 This guide was prepared by the WECC Relay Work Group.

1.0

Purpose
The purpose of this guide is to provide power system relay engineers with basic criteria to allow reliable (secure and dependable) application of echo keying on permissive overreaching transfer trip (POTT) protection schemes. It is not a detailed design specification. The need for this guide was determined following the analysis of multiple system disturbances where, one factor contributing to the disturbance was the application of an echo keying scheme without sufficient security.

2.0 General Comments


Pilot protection schemes, like POTT, are applied when faster clearing times are needed to maintain the Bulk Electric System (BES). The POTT scheme logic requires each terminals relays to detect faults forward, relative to the installed relay location. If each relay makes a forward decision, the fault is on the protected transmission line. Each relay sends its forward decision, or permission, to the remote terminal over a communications channel, which is then allowed to trip. Without a pilot protection scheme, faults at the ends of the line would require time delayed relay operation to isolate faults.

2.1 Security
Security is (a measure of the certainty not to operate falsely) is the assurance that a relay system will respond correctly for to faults or conditions within outside its intended zone of protection or operation. POTT schemes need to be secure when subjected to emergency loading, external faults, or power swings and care needs to be exercised when setting and applying POTT schemes to prevent unintended operation. [1].

2.2 WECC/NERC Criteria


In addition to the recommendations in this guide, the protection system designs must meet all applicable WECC Minimum Operating Reliability Criteria [2], NERC Reliability Standards, and NERC Relay Loadability criteria[3]. This applies to all elements of the Bulk Electric System under WECC jurisdiction.

3.0 Echo Key Application


Prior to the application of communications assisted tripping schemes, like POTT, the relay engineer should work in conjunction with the appropriate personnel (planning, operations and maintenance) to determine the clearing requirements for the transmission line or lines. If the planning, operations and maintenance personnel determine that clearing times with the remote breaker open must occur faster than a backup operation to maintain reliable operation of the BES, a method, such as echo keying, should be employed. When it is determined that echo keying will be applied, the engineer should focus on methods to increase security based on: Reverse elements may not detect power swings that could cause failure to block echo keying.

GUIDE FOR THE APPLICAITON OF ECHO KEYING LOGIC ON PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP SCHEMES IN PROTECTIVE RELAYING APPLICATIONS

Reverse elements may not detect emergency power transfer conditions (high

current at a mostly resistive angle) that could cause failure to block echo keying. Apply it to only operate for unbalanced faults, thus, eliminating the above two concerns. Apply permissive key extension to ensure the permissive signal is maintained during the opening of the local breaker.

The dependability (a measure of certainty to operate when required) of the echo keying could be limited when the permissive signal drops out due to communications channel noise and will not reset until the line breaker is closed due to guard before trip logic.

3.1 0 POTT Protection


Pilot protection schemes, like POTT, are applied when faster clearing times are needed to maintain the Bulk Electric System (BES). The POTT scheme logic requires an overreaching element at each terminal to detect forward faults, relative to the installed relay location. Each relay sends permission to the remote terminal over the communications system, indicating the fault is on the protected transmission line, allowing each terminal to trip. Without a pilot protection scheme, faults at the ends of the line would require time delayed relay operation to isolate faults. A POTT scheme is intended to provide 100% line coverage for faults on the protected transmission line. There are several conditions that require a modification in the POTT scheme to provide dependability. When the local terminal is open or opening, the relays have no knowledge about the state of the protected transmission line or will lose the line information when the local breaker opens. Faults will not be detected by the open terminal, therefore, no permission will be sent. In addition, if the local terminal opens prior to the remote end sensing the fault the permissive element from the local end may turn off before the remote end operates. To get high speed clearing for these conditions the POTT scheme can use an echo keying feature. For example, with the local terminal open, it is common to echo key the received permissive signal. If a fault occurs on the line, the permissive signal from the closed end of the line is echoed back by the relays at the open end of the line. This allows high speed protection for 100% of line. To add security to the echo key, relays often employ current reversal guard logic. If a reverse fault is detected by the relay, this logic prevents the echo of the permissive signal. The relay engineer will set the reverse reaching elements used in the current reversal logic. Since these settings are not automatic, the relay engineer must ensure that these elements will be asserted for not only for reverse faults, but also power swings in the reverse line or lines, and any other abnormal power flow conditions. These abnormal conditions may not be well defined and can lead to misoperations. The current reversal logic may still be used, as it is needed on parallel line applications, but the echo keying can be made more secure by considering either of the following options/modifications: 1. Enable the echo key only when the local breaker is open or 2. Send permission continually if the local breaker is open, aka open end permissive keying.

3.2 Weak Terminal Echo Key 3.1 Echo Key Application


Prior to the application of communications assisted tripping schemes, like POTT, the relay engineer should work in conjunction with the appropriate personnel (planning, operations and maintenance) to determine the clearing requirements for the

GUIDE FOR THE APPLICAITON OF ECHO KEYING LOGIC ON PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP SCHEMES IN PROTECTIVE RELAYING APPLICATIONS transmission line or lines. If the planning, operations and maintenance personnel determine that clearing times with the remote breaker open must occur faster than a backup operation to maintain reliable operation of the BES, a method, such as echo keying, should be employed. When it is determined that echo keying will be applied, the engineer should focus on methods to increase security based on: Reverse elements may not detect power swings that could cause failure to block echo keying. Reverse elements may not detect emergency power transfer conditions (high current at a mostly resistive angle) that could cause failure to block echo keying. Apply it to only operate for unbalanced faults, thus, eliminating the above two concerns. The dependability (a measure of certainty to operate when required) of the echo keying could be limited when the permissive signal drops out due to communications channel noise and will not reset until the line breaker is closed due to guard before trip logic. Apply permissive key extension to ensure the permissive signal is maintained during the opening of the local breaker.

3.2 Weak Terminal Echo Key Application


Weak source, or weak infeed, conditions at one terminal may not allow a reliable determination of a fault condition. If a reliable fault decision cannot be made, weak source logic with echo keying may be used. The weak source logic will convert the received permissive signal to a local trip and echo key the initiating terminal. In order for the weak terminal to convert the received permissive signal to a local trip, several supervisory conditions should be met [4]: 1. No reverse elements are asserted 2. One or more phase-to-phase undervoltage elements are asserted or a residual overvoltage element is asserted 3. The local breaker is closed and 4. The remote terminal permissive signal is received for a specified time A possible exception to (2) exists if the protected line includes line sectionalizing switches, the status of which is not monitored by the scheme. An open switch may prevent voltage elements from sensing a fault condition on the far side of the open switch. Each of the disturbances in [1] was caused by the local relay echo keying the remote terminal when it no longer detected a fault. Use of either of the two options above would have prevented the unwanted trip. Settings Coordination

3.3 Relay Qualification Testing


It is recommended that any new relay to be installed on the BES should be tested and installed using the

GUIDE FOR THE APPLICAITON OF ECHO KEYING LOGIC ON PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP SCHEMES IN PROTECTIVE RELAYING APPLICATIONS Guideline[5]. In addition, any new relay or relaying system should be tested and its performance accepted for extreme loading conditions and swing conditions. Acceptable loadability compliance methods are set forth in [3] and [6].

3.4 Installed Scheme Review


Existing relay applications on the BES or operationally significant lines should have been reviewed by the time of publication of this document, as required by NERC. Use of this guide on lines not defined by NERC as operationally significant or on the BES may improve system security and reliability.

GUIDE FOR THE APPLICAITON OF ECHO KEYING LOGIC ON PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP SCHEMES IN PROTECTIVE RELAYING APPLICATIONS

4.0 References
[1] Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Relay Work Group, WECC Disturbances Illuminate Protection Tribulations, Western Protective Relay Conference, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington, October 2005. [2] Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Minimum Operating Reliability Criteria, April 6, 2005. [3] North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Standard PRC-023-1, Transmission Relay Loadability [4] P.M. Anderson, Power System Protection, 1st edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, 1998. [5] Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Relay Work Group, Installation and Maintenance Guideline for Protective Relay Systems, May 7, 2001 [6] North American Electric Reliability Corporation, PRC-023 Reference, Determination and Application of Practical Relaying Loadability Ratings