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INCAS: (http://www.machupicchu-inca.com/inca-clothing.html) Clothing was an important aspect in Inca society.

By looking at the clothing , you can easily determine the class of that person. Although their clothing was intinially common like all the coastal peoples, they later began to excel in it. Most grave finds such as pottery vessels provide enormous information on Inca costume because of the paintings on them. General Trends Obviously, warmer clothing was worn in the highlands than that of the coast. In the beginning, some regions only had wool then later found cotton. At first, clothing everywhere consisted of woven or knitted material. These were always worn whole, never cut or tailored and were held together by large pins made from metal. The clothing/garments of the common citizens were made from coarse, rough textiles. Inca Emperor Sapa Inca wore each cloth for only once. Afterwards the worn clothes were burnt. So you know, they need to supply lots of cloth for Sapa Inca. As you know "chosen women" were the ones who prepared clothes for Sapa Inca. So they had to remain busy on this purpose. Only the Inca could wear a headdress with his special fringe of gold and feathers. His headdress was of different kind: round his head was wreathed a turban of many colored folds, called the llautu, with a tasseled fringe, like that worn by the prince, but of a scarlet color, while two feathers of a rare and curious bird, called the coraquenque, placed upright in it, were the distinguishing insignia of royalty. His coat was covered with jewels and pieces of turquoise. Sapa Inca wore gold and jewelries on different parts of his body. He wore heavy gold shoulder pads and heavy gold bracelets and earrings. His earrings were so heavy that they pulled his earlobes down until they rested on his shoulder pads. His shoes were made of leather and fur. He wore a royal shield and a royal badge. The shield on his chest was engraved with a picture of the sun god and the badge was made of hummingbird feathers, framed with gold. Inca Nobility Inca nobles wore rich costume, but a bit sober than Emperor. His dress was of the finest wool of the vicuna, richly dyed, and ornamented with a profusion of gold and precious stones. Nobles also wore the llautu, with a tasseled fringe. The birds
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from which these feathers were obtained were found in a desert country among the mountains. Those birds were reserved for the exclusive purpose of supplying the royal head gear during those days.. Every succeeding monarch was provided with a new pair of these plumes, and his credulous subjects fondly believed that only two individuals of the species had ever existed to furnish the simple ornament for the diadem of the Incas. All people during that regime wore jewelry. Inca and Nobles always wore gold jewelry. Man Man usually wore a sleeveless tunic, generally made of a broad piece of cloth doubled and sewn together along the edges, the bottom being left open, was also worn. A large cloak, worn over the shoulders with two corners tied in front, completed the man's attire; sometimes this passed under one arm to leave the latter free for activity. Breech cloth, tunic, and cloak were all of cloth woven with colored ornamentation, the latter of course varying in quality according to the man's social position. Inca sandals were of untanned llama hide, but sandals of other materials such as braided fiber are known archaeologically from some regions. Every man used a small bag in which he carried his coca leave, amulets, and other such small personal effects. Hair styles varied greatly from tribe to tribe, but Inca men cut their hair, leaving it short in front, medium long behind, and confined it with either the utilitarian sling or with a narrow ornamented woven band.

Woman Woman wore a one-piece dress that combined skirt and blouse, reaching to the ankles and bound at the waist by a long, wide, woven, and ornamental sash. At the top, it reached to the neck, the upper edges fastened together over the shoulders by long pins and passing under the arms at the sides. Like all garments, this dress was a large rectangular piece of woven cloth, merely wound around the body. The analogue of the man's cloak was a large mantle, worn over the shoulders and fasted at the front with a large straight metal pin known astopo. These pins of copper, silver, or gold, have large heads of various types, sometimes in the form of animal or human figures, but most commonly ending in a large, thin, circular, or semicircular disk, the sharp edges of which could be used as a knife. The women wore sandals and head bands similar to the ones
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men used. Usually they wore a large piece of folded cloth on the head. They did not cut their hair but parted it in the middle and wore it hanging down the back; it was cut, however, as a sign of mourning. Body Adornment Inca used different type of paint on face and body. During war they used war paint. On every special or ceremonial occasion they painted their faces. When mourning they would paint their faces black. For ceremonies and other occasions they used red and purple paint.

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(http://www.about-peru-history.com/inca-clothing.html) Inca clothing was made from llama, alpaca and vicua wool in the highlands. Inca officials would wear fashionable tunics to display their status. Women used to wear ankle length skirts, garments as wear as footwear such as grass shoes. for the men as well. The Incan women were in charge of not only making their own clothing, but clothing

Wealthy Incas could wear a specially woven cloth called CUMBI. Cumbi was made from baby Alpaca and was highly valuable. For Incans with poorer status, their clothes were extremely bare and plain. Apart from the tunic, a person of great importance would also wear a llawtu, which is a bunch of cords wrapped around the head.

The men wore knee-length tunics, grass shoes or an additional choice of leather sandals. There was also a variety of headbands, headdresses, belts and bags.

The Incan Government would control clothing. Clothing could not be changed without confirmation or permission from the government. This is why women would spend long hours styling their hair, in order to look better in society.
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http://incakidsontario.tripod.com/id11.html http://www.crystalinks.com/incan.html INCA WORK: Men and women would toil in the fields. Women would also have to weave clothing for the entire family. The women were also handed the task of taking good care of the children when the fathers were out. Aside from that, they also had to cook all the family meals! Not only this, but women would be required to teach daughters about mother-hood and how to take proper care of a family. The women lived a tough life, didnt they? The men mostly ploughed the fields and made buildings, homes and bridges for the public. Men made their footwear too! This category mainly consisted of slippers made from grass or llama hide. A crucial role for men would be to provide meat for the family by hunting normally small animals or llama. Unlike now, in the 21st Century, back then the children were forced to begin working at a very young age, usually around 5 9 years old. Children also helped to scare away animals from crops. One rule would be that sons would be taught by fathers while girls would be taught by mothers. The secret of the Incas wealth was the mita. The mita was a labour program established upon Incans by each single Incan ruler. Each family took only approximately 65 days working on the farm in order to grow and produce all their own needs. Therefore, the remaining time was spent devoted to working on temple-owned fields, bridges, terraces and extracting gold and silver from mines.

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Kickapoo Clothing: (http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/kickapoo.htm)


Traditionally, deerskin was used for clothing and moccasins. The men would decorate their clothing with silver brooches or exquisitely crafted beadwork. This would be applied by the women. Normally the women would wear fine tanned garments. However, the Kickapoo tribe moved often and therefore their style of clothing changed constantly. Originally men would wear breechcloth and leggings and women would wear wrap-around skirts. In Kickapoo culture, shirts were not a necessity. They also wore moccasins on their feet and fur caps or a well-beaded headband. The Kickapoo warriors would occasionally wear caps made from porcupine. (Luckily it was made from the hair and not the sharp quills). Over time, the tribe adapted to different styles of clothings/garments from other tribes. This included feather headdresses, fringed deerskin dresses and silver jewellery. Despite the adaptation, the tribe would ignore most European or American customs. (e.g. blouses and tiered skirts). Kickapoo Work: The men were hunters and would learn to fight. This was because, occasionally they were required to participate in wars in order to defend their families. The women were farmers and grew crops. The women also looked after the children and also cooked meals for the entire family. Apart from these, mothers would make cornhusk dolls for daughters and carried their babies in cradleboards on their backs. This was a custom that has been adopted by Western countries. However, both men and women would take part in storytelling to the kids, creating artworks and music, as well as making traditional medicine. The children would do anything any other child would do play with each other and go to school. They would also help around the house and with chores. Many children also enjoyed hunting and fishing for the family and for fun.

INCA CONTACT WITH EUROPEANS: The major contact Incas had with Europe was with the Spain. This led to the devastating destruction of the Inca Empire and the death of the Incan emperor Atahualpa. The man who headed this was Francisco Pizarro, born in 1474 in Spain as an illegitimate son. He later became fairly wealthy. He led several expeditions. The first expedition yielded nothing useful. The second expedition ventured to a northern outpost of the Incan empire. There, he found 3 Incan teenagers and trained them to become interpreters for him. In late 1530, Pizarro sailed once again to the Incan Empire. He commanded 180 men. Upon arriving, it was obvious to Pizarro that the Incans were engaged in a civil war of some sort. The Incans were also suffering from a new smallpox epidemic. During this time, the current ruler Huayna Capac passed away from smallpox. His two sons fought for the throne. Eventually, Atahualpa became the new emperor. After his fight for the crown, Atahualpa executed his brother. The Incas were at first a little curious about Pizarro. However, they were not disturbed by the thought of Europeans. They could not possibly imagine what was lying in wait for them.

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Pizarro and his men set a trap and effectively captured Atahualpa and kept him prisoner. Atahualpa assumed the Spanish wished to raid the empire. Therefore, he presented them a ransom. This consisted of 13,420 pounds of gold and 26,000 pounds of silver for his release. Pizarro agreed. But when the ransom was delivered he executed Atahualpa. He thought that the ruler could gain support and launch a war on Pizarro and the army. After the execution, Pizarro laid his sights on lotting Cuzco, the Incan capital. In 1535, having consolidated his control, Pizarro established a new capital city now known as Lima. He enlistened a man named Almagro as his chief ally. His relationship with Almagro later turned into one of bitter rivalry. Pizarro ordered Almagros execution. Almagros family, in turn, assassinated Pizarro in 1541. Finally, King Charles the First, appointed Christobal Vaca de Castro as Governor of Peru. This ended the political crisis. INCAN SITE OF IMPORTANCE: The most important site of historical importance is Machu Picchu. This site was built by Incans at around AD 1400. The site is 2,430 metres about sea level and stands on a ridge above Urubamba Valley in Peru. The site was believed to have been build for the Incan emperor Pachacuti. Nowadays, Machu Picchu is commonly referred to as The Lost City of the Incas. It is the renowned icon of Incans. The site was abandoned at the time of the Spanish conquest. The locals had known of the existence of Machu Picchu early on. However, the site was not officially known until 1911 when an American historian Hiram Bingham unveiled this site ot the world. Since then, it has become a significant and popular tourist attraction. It retains its majestic feel seeing as the Spanish had not plundered this site as they couldnt find it. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Sanctuary in 1981 and a World Heritage site 2 years after this. During a international poll in 2007, Machu Picchu or Lost City of the Incas became one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Kikapoop contact with European: The Kickapoop tribe was filled with mighty warriors whod plunder lands far away from their villages. The Kickapoop men also served as mercenaries for the French, British, Spanish and Mexican. Despite this, the Kickapoop tribe strongly resisted European culture and religion to a large degree. This meant that they rejected to follow Christianity. After githing with the Iroquois in late 1600s, the Kickapoop tribe was forced to move to part of Southern Wisconsin. They were pressed to continue further south due to aggressive settlement by Europeans. The Kickapoo Indians eventually obtained horses from European settlers. This enabled them to bring out more potential as the Kickapoo quickly learnt to become skilled riders. These horses were used not only for migration, but also for fighting and hunting buffalo. The Kickapoo were extremely distrustful of European settlers. But, amazingly, the Kickapoop allied with the French in the 1700s. This occurred during the American Revolution and the Kickapoop decided to side with the British in hope of keeping American land.

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Kickapoop Land: (http://www.ehow.com/about_4570686_did-kickapoo-indians-live.html) (http://www.texasindians.com/kickapoo.htm) (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-kickapoo-tribe.htm) The name Kickapoop comes from the Shawnee word for wanderer. The Kickapoo Tribe is a group of Native Americans who first inhabited northwest Ohio and southern Michigan. They were nomads and often moved around. After the fight with Iroquois, they moved to southern Wisconsin as well as Illinois in the early 1700s. Then, in the late 1800s, the Kickapoo Tribe settled in Kansas, Texas, Oklahoma and Chihuahua, Mexico. They still reside in these places to this day. The Kickapoop tribe in Kansa owns Plum Creek Reseration in north-eastern Kansas. They have a current population of 1600 people living there.

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INCA LAND: (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Where_did_the_Inca_live)

(http://wiki.answers.com/Q/In_which_continent_did_the_Incas_live) (http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081011170231AATP6GW)

The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America and was centred Andes highlands and mountain range of Cuzco, Peru. This is equivalent to the modern day Southern Ecuador, Peru, Western Bolivia and Northern Chile. Between 1438 and 1533, the Incas would conquest or use peace methods in order to rule a large portion of western South America.

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KICKAPOO SITE OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE: You must remember that the Kickapoos were vagabonds. They constantly moved about. This meant that there is not a site that is historically important. However, there have been important sites named after them by the government. One such region is the Kickapoo River. This river starts midway between Wilton and Wisconsin and runs through a deep valley and into the hilly Driftless Zone. Driftless Zone also lies in Wisconsin. The river is a staggering 210 Kilometres long and covers 492,000 acres in southwest Wisconsin. This river houses a large population of trout. The brown trout and brook trout are the most common two trouts. This river is also the habitat of families of beavers and flocks of Canada geese. Not only these, but the river holds wood ducks, trumpeter swans and a diversity of insects and small mammals.

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INCA CONTACT WITH EUROPEANS AFTER 1900s: Unfortunately, there was no contact. This is because many of the Incas died out due to smallpox. Also, many passed away during the Spanish conquest which also caused to Incan nations abrupt collapse in 1532. KIKKAPOO CONTACT AFTER 1900s: Very little contact was recorder after the 1900s. There was one significant record of contact. This was when the Kickapoo Indians applied for US citizenship in 1983 and were finally recognised as true American citizens. BIBLIO: http://www.texasindians.com/kickapoo.htm http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Kickapoo-Economy.html (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Where_did_the_Inca_live) (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/In_which_continent_did_the_Incas_live) (http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081011170231AATP6GW) http://www.ehow.com/about_4570686_did-kickapoo-indians-live.html) (http://www.texasindians.com/kickapoo.htm) (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-kickapoo-tribe.htm) (http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/kickapoo.htm) (http://bigorrin.org/kickapoo_kids.htm) http://incakidsontario.tripod.com/id11.html http://www.crystalinks.com/incan.html (http://www.about-peru-history.com/inca-clothing.html) (http://www.machupicchu-inca.com/inca-clothing.html) The Incas by Nicholas J. Saunders (Published in 2000) Indians of North America by Geoffrey Turner (Published 1979) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickapoo_River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickapoo_people

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