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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES LOS BAOS College of Human Ecology Institute of Human Nutrition and Food



January 30, 2013

HNF 151 B2-4L Saulon, Charity Joy S.


The food and nutrition system refer to the processes and conditions by which food is produced, processed and stored, marketed and distributed, prepared and consumed in order to attain food security, proper nutrition and good health. Depending on the situation, it can be positive where good nutrition leads to development, or it can be negative where malnutrition leads to underdevelopment. Food supply, food distribution, food consumption and biological utilization of food are the components that make up the food and nutrition system. The primary goal of the system is to achieve good nutritional status. Food availability, food utilization and nutritional status are interrelated with each other because they all contribute to good nutritional status. When an individual has good nutritional status, it implies that he has food security. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's economic access to it. A household is considered foodsecure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. Food security happens when all people at all times have access to enough food that is affordable, safe and healthy, is culturally acceptable, meets specific dietary needs, is obtained in a dignified manner, and is produced in ways that are environmentally sound and socially just. Food insecurity exists whenever there is limited or uncertain availability of foods, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. A severe form of insecurity is hunger, which is the painful sensation of inadequate food intake. If hunger persists overtime it can lead to malnutrition. The food requirement of the human body in order to sustain life can be compared to the nutritional requirement for the production of foods, crops, or that of the animal production. The common fact in all is their need for food to sustain life. There are various factors that determine the kind and amount of foods that are consumed by different families in specific geographic areas and some of these are food

production, cash cropping environmental factors, social and cultural practices and personal factors. These factors must be analyzed and understood in order to be able to attribute nutritional status of people in the region to their food ways and in consideration on its impact, it must always be the availability of enough good food to eat (Eusebio). In the Philippines, one out of four children is considered underweight or stunted telling signs of nutritional problems. In the early 1990s, 30 to 40 percent of the same age group were found to be either underweight, stunted or in a worse physical condition. With the surge in global food prices, however, these gains are at risk. The Philippines is one of the worlds largest importers of rice and food security is one of the major determinants of nutritional status, according to specialists. Among the provinces in the region of CALABARZON Philippines, palay and corn are the number one crop as of 2002 except in the province of Batangas where sugarcane is their primary crop followed by palay. Palay is the primary crop while coconut was the dominant crop in the region in terms of the number of trees and vinehills. Theornamental and flower gardening and communal system of irrigation was common in CALABARZON. Laguna has 38,445 farms with an area of 62,555sq m as of 2002. Male operators dominated the agriculture industry and Majority of the household members engaged in agricultural activity were working in own agricultural holding. There are twelve steps in rice production

(http://www.da.gov.ph/12%20Steps/rice1-2.html). These are the following: 1. Choosing the right variety 2. Raising Seedlings in either Wetbed method or Dapog method 3. Prepare land thoroughly 4. Pest management manage pests before transplanting

5. Nutrient Management 6. Transplanting and Replannting 7. Water Management after Transplanting 8. Pest Management at Vegetative State 9. Nutrient Management at Vegetative State 10. Nutrient Management at Reproductive Stage 11. Pest Management at Reproductive Stage During this stage, most pests are still present but pose no significant damage to the rice crop. However, late attack of stem borers at booting results to many whiteheads, which cause significant yield loss if left unchecked. Rice bug attacks during the late reproductive and up to the ripening stages of the crop must be checked. Leaf folders and mites must also be checked if found numerous at this stage. BPH may cause hopper burn if their population remains unchecked, while GLH may spread the tungro virus if there is a source of inoculums in the field. 12. Harvesting and Post-Harvest Operations Palay should be harvested when 80 percent of the grains are mature. Grains at the tip of the panicle must be hard and golden yellow, even while grains near the base of the panicle are less mature. Delay in harvesting will cause the grains at the tip to shatter. During the wet season, drain field 2 weeks before harvest. However, during the dry season and depending on your soil type, gradually drain the field up to saturation point, preventing drying up of the soil, as this will affect grain quality. Harvested palay must be threshed immediately to minimize field losses and grain quality problems.

Thresh, clean, and dry grains immediately to 14 percent moisture content (MC), or lower, before storage.

OBJECTIVES The paper aims to: Identify and discuss the factors affecting food production and food availability Determine socio-cultural factors and personal factors that affect food consumption of farm families Discuss the relationships of food availability, food consumption and utilization to nutritional status.


Locale of the Study This case study was done at the College of Human Ecology, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food was accomplished at Los Baos, Laguna from January 23 to January 29, 2013. Respondent and Data Gathering Technique

Figure 1. Location o

The respondent was a resident in Hanggan II, Bgy. Dila, Bay, Laguna who is engaged in agricultural production crop production rice.

The sampling technique was a purposive sampling wherein the respondent was selected. A direct interview with the respondent was done using the formulated questionnaire. (Please see Appendix 2 for the sample questionnaire).


Agricultural Produce The country's main agricultural crops are rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, coffee, mangoes, tobacco, and abaca (a banana-like plant). Secondary crops include peanut, cassava, camote (a type of root crop), garlic, onion, cabbage, eggplant, calamansi (a variety of lemon), rubber, and cotton. The respondent, Mang Noel, produces one of the main agricultural crops which is rice.

Rice production in the Philippines is important to the food supply in the country and economy. Rice is the most important food crop, a staple food in most of the country. It is produced extensively in Luzon, the Western Visayas, Southern Mindanao, and Central Mindanao. Food Sufficiency Food sufficiency must be met in raising agricultural produce. In case of Mang Noel, the food is enough for the household needs. For the household size of six, their harvest and their income is sufficient for their needs.

INPUTS: FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD PRODUCTION AND AVAILABILITY Land Ownership One factor that affects food production and availability is the land ownership. In cases that the land is owned, the family is the landlord and thus, the income that will be generated from the produce will be spent for their familys and farms use. In this matter, the Sacdalan family somehow owns the land. Mang Noel said that his deceased father owns their 8 hectares of rice field, however, when his father died, the ownership wasnt transferred to his name but the family considers it as their own. The 8 hectares are in different places, the 3 hectares rice field is at sabungan and the other 5 hectares is at the back of their house. Now, the land in sabungan is at pawn. Agricultural Method Agricultural methods are practices and techniques employed in agriculture to improve yields and productivity. This includes the following processes tilling, sowing and harvesting have become increasingly mechanized, and the methods of applying fertilizers and pesticides

Mang Noel uses ordinary kinds. He uses RC 18 for the rice field at sabungan and 222 for the field at their back. Before, the seeds that they use were bought from their neighbor, now the seeds are coming from their own harvest. Mang Noel prefers ordinary seeds because for him, they are much better that high yielding variety. He also uses different fertilizers for the rice. a. complete first 2 weeks (unang sabog) b. urea pangalawang sabog c. mixed (urea + complete) He uses machinery equipments like hand tractor, thresher, and pagong para sa pamputik. He also alleged that irrigation is not a problem in the farm. There is an irrigation provided by the cooperative 500 hectares per day. Land Quality and Amount With the evident climate change the country is experiencing right now, it affected the soil fertility and thus affecting the total amount of crop yields. In case of Mang Noel, he said that there is no problem with land quality of their rice fields. It is irrigated properly. However, in rainy seasons, the harvest is lessen but does not affect much their food supply. Pattern of Production In every season, there is only one distinct kind of rice variety planted in each rice fields of the family, RC 18 for the sabungan and 222 for the field at their back. The crops are harvested every after 3 months. Storage Methods Rice storage facilities take many forms depending on the quantity to be stored, the purpose of the storage and the location of the store. It is important to take consideration the grain quality. As self-sufficiency in rice production is reached, better quality rice has increased.





The figure shows the process of how the harvested rice of Mang Noel reach to the consumers. Their produce is directly brought to their wholesale buyer then the remaining cavans are stored in their house for their own use, approximately 20 cavans which is enough for their supply of rice for the whole 3 months. Locality Locality is another consideration in the production and availability of foods. Accessibility to resources greatly affects the farming system and it makes it easier because there is a nearby place that would provide and that sells inputs to farms (fertilizers, etc.). Mang Noel affirmed that their farm is accessible to resources. Mang Noel said that there are pests especially during rainy season. They call it tongro (when rice grains become yellow). Sometimes there are rats and for them to control it, they put poison on the rice. These pests can affect the production of not prevented and treated.

Incentives to Produce Incentives to produce also affect the food production and availability in the community of the products. Mang Noel said that there are no incentives from the municipality. There is always a seminar being called but nothing happens after it. Market is available for the produce, but in Mang Noels case, their harvest is brought directly to their buyer. Social Roles

Social roles are the part people play as members of a social group and it affects food production and availability. Women and children are not required to work in the fields as Mang Noel said. Those who are willing and would like to help are appreciated; the work is done by males. Income Levels The farm earns about 60-70 cavans of rice every harvest. The monthly income from the crop production only is Php30,000.00 which is, Mang Noel said, enough for the purchasing power of food and needs of the household members. They also have 15 workers, 5 at the sabungan and 10 at their back field. The usual pay of the workers is Php180 per day. Sometimes, the workers are bumabali ng bigas rather than the monetary. Other source of the family income is from the work of Mang Noels sister -in-law who also lives in their house.

SOCIO-CULTURAL PATTERNS The socio-cultural patterns of Filipino farmers affect their eating habit. This may be characterized by the demographical area that they are in, and the food supply they have. Pattern of eating may be affected by the status of a member in the family. If they are working, one may miss a meal for the day for he/she will prioritize his/her work. Meal and time pattern of the Filipino farmers are as follow:

breakfast 6:00am

snack 9:00am

lunch 12:00nn

snack 3:00pm

dinner 6:00pm

The family of Mang Noel does not follow the same trend as he is not the one directly working in the rice fields; rather, this is the pattern of his workers. Mang Noels family eats the normal times a common family eats, three times a day breakfast, lunch, dinner. Breakfast is usually at 10:00am, sometimes they dont eat breakfast, they call it brunch (breakfast and lunch in one). They are not short in food, this is just their usual eating lifestyle. In the Philippines, the staple in every meal is rice. Rice is available in Mang Noels table every meal since they are growing rice in their field. They also prefer rice as their staple food. They are six in the family his mother, Mang Noel, his brother, his sister-in-law, his nephew, and his sister. Since their family has enough food, there is no member who is best or poor fed. The amount of food intake also does not affect the status and age of a member in the family, as for the size of the family. However, there are some food restrictions. They do not eat blood because it is forbidden in their religion (Iglesia ni Cristo). His mother does not eat squid because she is allergic with it. Other than the blood and the squid, there are no more food restrictions.

PERSONAL FACTORS There are number of personal factors and preferences which influence the amount and kind of food people eat, knowledge of nutrition, personal preferences and state of health. Traditional diets such as white rice and flour are inferior to staples such as bread fruit and taro. Soft drinks, candies and sugar have little nutritional value apart from fiber rich traditional fresh foods which are replaced by fiber poor highly processed imported foods. These can be major factor in nutrition related communicable disease e.g.

diabetes, obesity and hypertension. The replacement of this valuable food crops with commercial cash crops has resulted in the increase of consumption of imported goods and these alteration can lead to malnutrition. There is no common best liked food at the area, but Mang Noels favorite food is kare-kare. He also prefers to eat vegetables, adobo, and sinigang. He likes food with soup. The family members eat whatever food is available on the table. There is no existing and recently experienced illness by the family. However, Mang Noels 29-year old sister had an accident when she was only seven years old. Because of the accident, her sister cant walk properly until now. At first, there are prescribed foods because she is under medication but as time passed by, she eats anything she wants. Mang Noel said that her sister is fond of eating junk foods and soft drinks.
He is aware of its bad effects but they still allow her to do it so.


Consumption of foods in various areas is chiefly derived from the consumers farm of procurement. The amount and kind of foods consumed by different families in specific geographic areas depend on the factors affecting food availability, socio-cultural patterns and personal factors. Consequently, these determinants influence the nutrition status of individuals, households or community. The food eaten by a family is either

produced or cooked in the home; they can also be received as payments or gifts; but most of the time, they are purchased. On a family that owns a farm, which is their primary source of food and income, food is not always purchased. Crops are being planted and they get their food from their produce from the farm. Geographical factors determine a familys food consumption. It is mainly derived from the individual or family own farm on livelihood. It can limit the use of food available in a community, some that lives in low land areas consume foods that are easily planted on their backyard. While those living in coastal areas can have foods found on the body of water nearby. When food is available, there is a supply of food to the family. Availability comes with affordability. An available and affordable food makes the family utilize enough food appropriate to their nutritional needs. An adequate supply of food at the national or international level does not in itself guarantee household level food security: enter food utilization. Having food to eat, whether the food was purchased at the store or grown at home, is not the end of food security. A persons body must be in good physical condition in order to properly use the food this is called food utilization, the ability to use food efficiently in order to live to the fullest. Sufficient energy and nutrient intake by individuals is the result of good care and feeding practices, food preparation, and diversity of the diet and intra-household distribution of food. Combined with good biological utilization of food consumed, this determines the nutritional status of individuals. RECOMMENDATION

Almost all of the parameters given affect the food consumption of the family, except for incentives to produce. Although the respondent does not have a place in the market, it is not a hindrance to their food consumption because there is a loyal buyer,

who is the wholesaler. Assistance from the municipality is also not well experienced by the respondent but it doesnt affect the production and their food consumption. Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of developing countries, and provides the main source of food, income and employment to their rural populations. Improvements in agriculture and land use are fundamental to achieving food security, poverty alleviation, and overall sustainable development. Agriculturists must find new ways of information dissemination and learning methods, such as the use of communications technology in extension services, and promote adoption and profitable cultivation among farmers. Agriculture can also be an engine of growth and employment opportunities for the rural non-farm economy because of its linkages with small cities and rural areas. Rural development and community-driven development can assist in this process. The government will need to play an important role. It should not, however, be the only source. The private sector will be the main source of investment funds and a supplier of services. The government must support farmers and give them incentives to produce more. They can also encourage every household to plant crops and vegetables in their backyard. Agriculture must also increase food availability improving of yields traditional crops, introducing new crops and using natural resources in a sustainable manner.


Eusebio, J. Agriculture Food and Nutrition in the Pacific Islands: Curiculum Gudelines for Integrating Nutrition into Agricultural Training. University of South Pacific School Of Agriculture and Institute of Research, Extension and Training in Agriculture.



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