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DESIGN OF BOX TYPE CULVERT

2 Super imposed load


3 Live load
4 Wieght of soil
5 Angle of repose
6 Nominal cover top / bottom
6 Cocrete

Mscbc

12000
45000
18000
30
50
20
7

Thickness of top slab


Thickness of bottom slab

3.50

N/m2
N/m2
Degree
mm

Nominal cover side


wt. of concrete

330
320
350

8 Thickess of side wall

x
N/m

Water side sst

415

7 Steel

3.50

1 In side diamentions

N/m2

m
N/m2 sst

150

50
25000
13
190

mm

thickness of side wall is OK

mm

O.K.

mm
kg/m3
N/m2

mm

9 Reinforcement
Top slab

20
8

mm F @

Vertical

8
20
8
8
20

mm F @

Distribution

mm c/c

mm F @

130
130
200
120
120
300
300

mm F @

130

mm c/c

260

mm c/c

Main
Distribution
At supports

Bottom slab

Main
Distribution
At supports

Side vertical wall

20 mm F @

mm F @
mm F @
mm F @
mm F @

8 mm F @

200

8 mm F @

mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c

Through out slab at bottom

mm c/c

Both side

mm C/C
130

mm C/c

320
700
20 mm F @
300 mm C/C

20 mm F @
130 mm C/C

3.50

8 mm F @
130 mm C/C
20 mm F @
120 mm c/c
350
20 mm F @
240 mm c/c
330
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

8 mm F @
200 mm C/C
3.50

8 mm F @
130

mm C/c
330

O.K.

1
2
3
4
5
6
6

In side diamentions
Super imposed load
Live load
Wieght of soil
Angle of repose
Nominal cover top/bottom
Cocrete

7 Steel
1 Solution

DESIGN OF BOX TYPE CULVERT


3.5
x 3.5 m
12000
N/m3
45000
N/m2
18000
wt. of water
N/m2
30
Degree
50
mm
Nominal cover Side
20
wt. of concrete
M2
7
m
scbc
N/m
Out side sst
415
Fy
water side side sst

9800

N/m3

50
mm
25000 N/m3
13
190
N/m2
150
N/m2

Genral

For the purpose of design , one metre length of the box is considered.
The analysis is done for the following cases.
(I) Live load, dead load and earth prssure acting , with no water pressure from inside.
(II) Live and dead load on top and earth pressure acting from out side, and water pressure acting from inside,
with no live load on sides
(III) Dead load and earth pressure acting from out side and water pressure from in side.
Let the thicness of Horizontal slab
Vertical wall thicness
Effective slab span
Effective Height of wall

330
320
3.5
3.5

mm
mm
+ 0.33
+ 0.32

=
=
=
=

0.33
0.32
3.83
3.82

m
m
m
m

2 Case 1 : Dead and live load from out side of while no water pressure from inside.
8250
Self weight og top slab =
0.33 x
1x
1 x #### =
57000
Live load and dead load =
45000 + ####
=
65250
Total load on top =
30560
Weight of side wall =
3.82 x
0.32 x ####
=
\ Upward soil reaction at base = ( 65250 x
3.83 )+(
2 x #### )=
81208.2
3.83
1 - sin 30
10.5
0.5 = 1 =
Ka =
=
=
1 + sin 30
1+
0.5
3
1.5
\ Latral pressure due to dead load and live load = Pv x Ka
19000 N/m2
p = #### x
0.33 =
Latral pressure due to soil Ka x w x h
=
0.33 x #### h = 6000 h
Hence total pressure
= #### + 6000 h
19000 N/m2
Latral presure intencity at top
=
41920
Latral pressure intencity at bottom
= #### + 6000 x 3.82 =
Fig 1 show the box culvert
frame ABC D, along with the
external loads, Due to symmetry,
half of frame (i.e. AEFD ) of box
culvert is considered for moment
distribution. Since all the members
have uniform thickness, and uniform
diamentions, the relative stiffness
K for AD will be equal to 1 while the
relative stiffness for AE and DF will
be 1/2.

w=

65250 N/m

N/m2
0.33

N/m2

19000

19000
A

3.83

h
19000

3.82

6000 h
D

C
19000

41920
w

81208 N/m

Fig 1
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

N/m2
N/m2
N/m2
N/m

22920

Distribution factore for AD and DA=

1
=
1+1/2

Fix end moments will be as under : MFAB=


Mfdc=
MFAD = +
MFAD = +

pL2
12
19000

+
x
12

WL
15
3.82

2/3
wL2
12

1/2
=
1+1/2

Distribution factore for AB and DC=

1/3

#### x
3.82 2=
-79346 N - m
12
#### x
wL2
3.82 2= 98751.9 N - m
+
=
12
12
Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.
2

+ #### x
2

3.82

3.82 =
15

34254

WL
pL2
12
15
19000 x
3.82 2-- #### x 3.82
3.82 = -23105
MFDA = x
12
2
10
The Moment distribution is carried out as illustrate in table

N-m

MFDA = -

-16723

-39828

Fixed End Moments


Member

DC
98751.91

DA
-39828

AD
34254

AB
-79346

The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1


D
A
Joint
DC
DA
AD
AB
Member
0.33
0.67
0.67
0.33
Distribution factore
98751.91
-39828
34254
-79346
Fix end moment
-19641
-39283
30061
15031
Balance
15031
-19641
Carry over
-5010
-10020
13094
6547
balance
6547
-5010
Carry over
-2182
-4365
3340
1670
balance
1670
-2182
Carry over
-557
-1113
1455
727
balance
727
-557
Carry over
-242
-485
371
186
balance
186
-242
Carry over
-62
-124
162
81
balance
81
-62
Carry over
-27
-54
41
21
balance
21
-27
Carry over
-7
-14
18
9
balance
71023
-71023
55075
-55075
Final moment

55075

65250

55075

46852

124627.5

124627.5

46852
19000

55075

64569

55075

1.91
7197
3.82 m

71023

1.91

22920 D
41920

D
69810

71023

155514

77881

155514

69810

81208

Fig 2

65250 N/m2.
For horizontal slab AB, carrying UDL @
65250 x 3.82 = 124628 N/m2
Vertical reactionat a and B =
0.5
x
Similarly, for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.D.L.loads @ #### N/m2
81208.2 x 3.83 = 155514
Vertical reaction at D and C = 0.5
x
N
The body diagram for various members, including loading, B.M. And reactions are shown in fig.2
For the vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D.Thus
( -ha x 3.83
) + 55075 - #### + #### x 3.83 x 3.83 x 1/2
1/2
22920 x 3.83 x 3.83 x 1/3
+
x
-15948
139355 + 56035.2
-ha x 3.83 +
+
From which, ha = 46852
Hence , hd =( 19000 + #### )x 3.83 #### = 69810 N
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
2

x 3.83 2=
119644 N-m
8
119644
55075
64569 N-m
Net B.M. at E =
=
81208.2245 x 3.83 2=
Similarly, free B.M. at F =
148904 N -m
8
71023
77881 N-m
Net B.M. at F = 148904.416 =
For vertical member AD , Simply supported B.M. At mid span
19000
x 3.83 2+
1/16 x #### x 3.83 2= 55852
Simply supporetd at mid sapn =
8
71023
+ 55075
Net B.M. =
=
63049 - #### = 7197 N-m
2
3 Case 2 : Dead load and live load from out side and water pressure from inside.
In this case , water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and
9800 x 3.82 = 37436 N/m2
At D, is acting, in addition to the pressure
considered in case 1. The various pressures
w=
65250 N/m2
are marked in fig 3 .The vertical walls will thus
19000
19000
19000
be subjected to a net latral pressure of
2
14516
= 19000 N/m At the Top
Itensity
A
E
B
And
= 41920 37436
3.83
=
4484 N/m2 at the bottom
3.82

41920

41920
w

Fig 3
= #### x
3.83 2=
-79762 N - m
12
#### x
wL2
3.83 2= 99269.6 N - m
=
12
12
Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.

Mfdc=

MFAD = +

pL2
12
4484

+
x
12

WL
10
3.83

4484

81208 N/m2

wL2
12

Fix end moments will be as under : MFAB=

MFAD = +

Net latral pressure diagram

65250

Free B.M. at mid point E =

+ #### x
2

3.83

3.83 =
10

WL
pL2
12
15
4484 x
3.83 2- #### x 3.83
3.83 =
MFDA = x
12
2
15
The moment distribution is carrired out as illustred in table.

16128

N-m

MFDA = -

-12579 N -m

Fixed End Moments


Member

DC
99269.61

DA
-12579

AD
16128

AB
-79762

The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1


D
A
Joint
DC
DA
AD
AB
Member
0.33
0.67
0.67
0.33
Distribution factore
99269.61
-12579
16128
-79762
Fix end moment
-28897
-57794
42423
21211
Balance
21211
-28897
Carry over
-7070
-14141
19265
9632
balance
9632
-7070
Carry over
-3211
-6422
4714
2357
balance
2357
-3211
Carry over

45069

65250

45069

23451

124627.5

19000

124627.5
45069

73951

23451

45069

1.91
30523
3.82

58813
4484 D

1.91
D

-786

balance
Carry over
balance
Carry over
balance
Carry over
balance
Carry over
balance
Final moment

-357
-87
-40
-10
58813

-1571
1070
-714
262
-175
119
-79
29
-19
-58813

2141
-786
524
-357
238
-87
58
-40
26
45069

1070

21404

262

89315

58813

155108

155108

21404

119
81208

29

Fig 4

13
-45069

65250 N/m2.
For horizontal slab AB, carrying UDL @
65250 x 3.82 = 124628 N/m2
Vertical reactionat a and B =
0.5
x
Similarly, for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.D.L.loads @ #### N/m2
81208 x 3.82 = 155108
Vertical reaction at D and C = 0.5
x
N
The body diagram for various members, including loading, B.M. And reactions are shown in fig.3
For the vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D.Thus
( -ha x 3.82
) + 45069 - #### + 4484 x 3.82 x 3.82 x 1/2
1/2
14516 x 3.82 x 3.82 x 2/3
+
x
-13744
32716.2 + 70607.8
-ha x 3.82 +
+
From which, ha = 23451
Hence , hd =( 4484 + #### )x 3.82 #### = 21404 N
2
65250
x 3.82 2=
Free B.M. at mid point E =
119020 N-m
8
119020
45069
73951 N-m
Net B.M. at E =
=
2
81208
x 3.82 =
Similarly, free B.M. at F =
148128 N -m
8
58813
89315 N-m
Net B.M. at F = 148127.862 =
For vertical member AD , Simply supported B.M. At mid span
4484
x 3.82 2+
1/16 x #### x 3.82 2= 21418
Simply supporetd at mid sapn =
8
58813
+ 45069
Net B.M. =
=
51941 - #### = 30523 N-m
2
4 Case 3 : Dead load and live load on top water pressure from inside no live load on side.
in this case, it is assume that there is no latral oressure due to live load . As before .
The top slab is subjected to a load of '=
65250 N/m2
w=

65250 N/m2

4000

4000
A

N/m

N/m

4000

3.83
3.82

Hence earth pressure at depth h is =


4000

6000

26920

Earth pressure intensity at top

4000

N/m2

26920
37436

w=

14516

81208 N/m237436

Fig 5
26920 N/m2
Earth pressure intensity at Bottom= 4000 + 6000 x 3.82
=
In addition to these, the vertical wall lslab subjectednto water pressure of intensity ZERO at top and
N/m2 at Bottom, acting from inside . The lateral pressure on vertical walls Is shown in fig 5 and 6
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Net latral pressure diagram

and the bottom slab is subjected to a load


= 81208 N/m2
Itensity
Lateral pressure due to dead load =
1/3 x 12000 = 4000
Lateral pressure due to soil
=
1/3 x 18000 = 6000

37436

wL2
12

#### x
3.83 2=
-79762 N - m
12
#### x
wL2
3.83 2= 99269.6 N - m
=
12
12
Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.

Fix end moments will be as under : MFAB=


Mfdc=
MFAD = +
MFAD = +

pL2
12
4000

x
12

WL
15
3.83

#### x
2
4890 -

3.83

3.83 =
15

WL
7098
pL2
+
12
10
4000 x
3.83 2- #### x 3.83
3.83 =
MFDA = x
12
2
10
The moment distribution is carrired out as illustred in table.
MFDA = -

-2209

N-m

5757

N -m

Fixed End Moments


Member

DC
99269.61

DA
5757

AD
-2209

AB
-79762

The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1


D
A
Joint
DC
DA
AD
AB
Member
0.33
0.67
0.67
0.33
Distribution factore
99269.61
5757
-2209
-79762
Fix end moment
-35009
-70018
54647
27324
Balance
27324
-35009
Carry over
-9108
-18216
23339
11670
balance
11670
-9108
Carry over
-3890
-7780
6072
3036
balance
3036
-3890
Carry over
-1012
-2024
2593
1297
balance
1297
-1012
Carry over
-432
-864
675
337
balance
337
-432
Carry over
-112
-225
288
144
balance
144
-112
Carry over
-48
-96
75
37
balance
37
-48
Carry over
-12
-25
32
16
balance
49646
-49646
35902
-35902
Final moment

35902

65250

35902

=
124627.5

124627.5

4000
A
35902

35902

83742
A
1.91

48748
3.82

49646
0D
14516

1.91

D
49646

155108
5200

99258
155108

81208
Fig 4

65250 N/m2.
For horizontal slab AB, carrying UDL @
65250 x 3.82 = 124628 N
Vertical reactionat a and B =
0.5
x
Similarly, for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.D.L.loads @ #### N/m2
81208 x 3.82 = 155108
Vertical reaction at D and C = 0.5
x
N
The body diagram for various members, including loading, B.M. And reactions are shown in fig.6
For the vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D.Thus
( ha x 3.82
) + 35902 - #### + 4000 x 3.82 x 3.82 x 1/2
1/2
14516 x 3.82 x 3.82 x 1/3
x
-13744
29184.8 35304
-ha x 3.82 +
+
5200
From which, ha =
Hence , hd =( 14516 x 3.82 )- 4000 x
3.82 - 5200 = 7245.6
2
65250
x 3.83 2=
Free B.M. at mid point E =
119644 N-m
8

35902
83742 N-m
=
x 3.83 2=
Similarly, free B.M. at F =
148904 N -m
8
49646
99258 N-m
Net B.M. at F = 148904.416 =
For vertical member AD , Simply supported B.M. At mid span
4000
x 3.83 2+
1/16 x #### x 3.83 2= 5973.9
Simply supporetd at mid sapn =
8
49646
+ 35902
Net B.M. =
=
42774 + 5974 = 48748 N-m
2
Net B.M. at E =

119644
81208

5 Design of top slab :

Case
(i)
(II)
(II)

Mid section
The top slab is subjected to following values of B.M. and direct force
B.M. at Center (E)
B.M. at ends (A)
Direct force (ha)
64569
55075
46852
73951
45069
23451
83742
35902
5200

83742 N -m
The section will be design for maximum B.M. =
for water side force
wt. of concrete = #### N/m3
= 150 N/mm2
sst =
2
wt of water = 9800 N/mm2
7
=
N/mm
scbc =
for water side force
m
= 13
m*c
13
x 7
k=
=
= 0.378
K =
0.378
13 x
7
+ 150
m*c+sst
0.874
j=1-k/3 =
1 0.378 /
3
= 0.874
J =
1.155
R=1/2xc x j x k
x
7
x 0.87 x 0.378 = 1.155
R =
= 0.5
Provide over all thickness
= 320 mm so effective thicknesss
= 270
mm
84216794
83742000
1000 x 270 2=
>
O.K.
Mr = R . B .D2
= 1.155 x
2
83742000
= 2365 mm
BMx100/sstxjxD=
Ast =
150 x 0.874 x 270
3.14 x 20 x 20
3.14xdia2
using
20 mm F bars
A
=
=
= 314 mm2
4 x100
4
130 mm
Spacing of Bars =Ax1000/Ast
314 x 1000 / 2365 =
133
say
=
Hence Provided
20
130 mm c/c
mm F Bars @
Acual Ast provided 1000 x
314 /
130 = 2415
mm2
Bend half bars up near support at distance of L/5
=
3.83 /
5 = 0.80 m
0.1 x(
320 100
%
Area of distributionn steel =
0.3
= 0.24
450 100
Ast
=
0.24
x
320 x 10 = 759 mm2
area on each face= #
mm2
2
3.14 x
8
x 8
3.14xdia
using
8 mm F bars
A
=
=
= 50 mm2
4 x100
4
130 mm
Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast =
50
x 1000 / 380 =
132
say
=
mm F Bars @
130 mm c/c on each face
Hence Provided
8
Section at supports :55075 N-m. There is direct compression of
46852 N also.
Maximum B.M.=
But it effect is not considered because the slab is actually reinforced both at top and bottom .
sst =
Since steel is at top
190 N/mm2
concrete M
20
k = 0.324
J = 0.89
R = 1.01
55075000
=
=
1204
\
Ast
mm2
190 x
0.892 x
270
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Area

2415 /
available from the bars bentup from the middle section =
2 = 1208
mm2
1204 < 1208 Hence these bars will serve the purpose. However, provide 8 mm dia.
Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c

6 Design of bottom slab:


The bottom slab has the following value of B.M. and direct force.
Case
B.M. at Center (F)
B.M. at ends (D)
Direct force (ha)
(i)
77881
71023
69810
(II)
89315
58813
21404
(II)
99258
49646
7246
99258

The section will be design for maximum B.M.


for water side force
wt. of concrete
= 150 N/mm2
sst =
2
wt of water
7
=
N/mm
scbc =
m
= 13
m*c
13
x 7
k=
=
13
x
7
+ 150
m*c+sst
j=1-k/3 =
1 0.378 /
3
R=1/2xc x j x k
x
7
x 0.87 x 0.378
= 0.5
99258416
=
294
mm
\ d =
1000 x
1.155
Provide thickness of bottom slab D= 350 mm so that d =
99258416
BMx100/sstxjxD=
Ast =
150 x 0.874 x 300

3.14xdia2
4 x100
Spacing of Bars =Ax1000/Ast
314 x 1000 / 2523
Hence Provided
20
mm F Bars @
Acual Ast provided 1000 x
314 /
120
Bend half bars up near support at distance of L/5
=
3.83
0.1 x(
350
Area of distributionn steel =
0.3
450 100
Ast
=
0.23
x
350 x 10 = 800

20 x 20
= 314 mm2
4
120 mm
=
124
say
=
120 mm c/c
= 2617
mm2
/
5 = 0.80 m
100
= 0.23 %

using

20

mm bars

= #### N/m3
= 9800 N/mm2
for water side force
= 0.378

0.378

= 0.874
= 1.155

J
R

=
=

0.874
1.155

mm bars

344

mm

300 mm
= 2523 mm2
=

mm2

using 8

N -m

3.14xdia
=
4 x100
x 1000 / 400 =
mm F Bars @
8
=

3.14 x

400 mm2
area on each face=
3.14 x
8
x 8
= 50 mm2
4
120 mm
126
say
=
120 mm c/c on each face

Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast =


50
Hence Provided
Section at supports :71023 N-m. There is direct compression of
69810 N also.
Maximum B.M.=
But it effect is not considered because the slab is actually reinforced both at top and bottom .
sst =
Since steel is at top
190 N/mm2
concrete M
20
k = 0.324
J = 0.89
R = 1.01
71023000
=
=
1397
\
Ast
mm2
190 x
0.892 x
300
2617 /
Area available from the bars bentup from the middle section =
2 = 1308
mm2
1397 >

1308 Fail , hence additional reinforcement will provided.


88.7
mm2
3.14 x
8
x 8
3.14xdia
A
=
=
= 50 mm2
4 x100
4
560 mm
50
x 1000 /
89 =
567
say
=
300 mm c/c throught out the slab, at its bottom.

Additional reinforcemet required


2

using 8

mm bars

Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast =


Hence Provided 8 mm F Bars @

7 Design of side wall:


The side wall has the following value of B.M. and direct force.
B.M. at Center (F)
B.M. at ends (D)
Direct force (ha)
7197
71023
155514
30523
58813
155108
48748
49646
155108

Case
(i)
(II)
(II)

71023 N -m, and direct force =


155514
N
1000
x
=
457
mm
155514
proposed thickness of side wall '=
330 mm
457 /
330 = 1.38 < 1.5 OK
\ e/D
thickness of side wall is OK
Let us reinforce the section with
20 mm F bars @
300 mm c/c provided on both faces, as shown
and D = 330 mm
in fig xxx . With cover of
50 mm
1000
3.14 x
20 x
20
Asc = Ast =
x
=
1047
mm2
300
4
The depth of N.A. is computed from following expression:
b n D - dt - n + (m - 1)Asc 1 (n - dc)(D - dt- dc)
n
3
3
D
= e+
- dt
b n + (m -1) Asc n - dc
D - dt - n
2
- m Ast
n
n
The section will be design for maximum B.M. =
71023
Eccentricity =

1000 n
2
1000 n+
2

or

500 n

330

12

280

12560
500 n+
n

50

1047
x
n
n
3

n
3

12

50

50

####
n

50

167

n2

+ -1256000

140000 n

500 n

12560

multiply by n
140000 n2
500 n2

167 n3
12560

140000 n2
286000 n2

167 n3
+ -1256000 n
14967333 n
-

-146000 n2

13711333 n

82268
-876 n2
+
Solwing this trial and error we get, n
\ c'

= (

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

500

628000
n

+ -1256000 n
n- 628000 -

n
=

91.47 +

x(

330 -

1047
x
n
13

50

1047
x 330 n

-1E+06
n
280

-100

50

-n

= 457 + 115
n

-62800000
n
=
3809867
+ ####
n

572

-62800000
3809867 +

#### n

-62800000
2538459733

572

= 167 n3

-2475659733

14853958
91.47 mm
12 x
1047
( 91.47 91.47
50 - 91.47 )

= n3

50

)-

13 x 1047
91.47

188.53 =
23383
45734 +
137.3 x 41.47 149 x
155514
=
<
\ c' =
6.65
7
N/mm2 Stress is less than permissiable
23383
m c'
13 x
6.65
Also stress in steel t =
(D-dc-n)
=
x ( 330 50
- 91.47
)
91.47
n
= 178.2 N/mm2
< 190 N/mm2
O.K.
Stress in steel is less than permissiable Hence section is O.K.
or

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Box culverts

20 mm F @

260

mm c/c

8 mm F @

200

8 mm F @

mm C/C
130

mm C/c

320
700
20 mm F @
300 mm C/C

20 mm F @
130 mm C/C

3.50

8 mm F @
130 mm C/C
20 mm F @
120 mm c/c
350
20 mm F @
240 mm c/c
330

8 mm F @

8 mm F @

200 mm C/C

130 mm C/c

3.50

330

Table 1.15. PERMISSIBLE DIRECT TENSILE STRESS


Grade of concrete
M-10

Tensile
stress

1.2

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

2.0

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

4.4

Table 1.16.. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Grade of
concrete
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

Permission stress in compression (N/mm 2)


Bending acbc
Direct (acc)
(N/mm2)
3.0
5.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
16.0

Kg/m2
300
500
700
850
1000
1150
1300
1450
1600

(N/mm2)
2.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

Kg/m2
250
400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
1200

Permissible stress in bond (Average) for


plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
2
(N/mm2) in kg/m
--0.6
60
0.8
80
0.9
90
1.0
100
1.1
110
1.2
120
1.3
130
1.4
140

Table 1.18. MODULAR RATIO


Grade of concrete
M-10

Modular ratio m31


(31.11)

M-15
19
(18.67)

M-20
13
(13.33)

M-25
11
(10.98)

M-30
9
(9.33)

M-35
8
(8.11)

M-40
7
(7.18)

Table 2.1. VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS


Grade of concrete

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

Modular Ratio
scbc N/mm2

18.67
5

13.33
7

10.98
8.5

9.33
10

8.11
11.5

7.18
13

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

kc

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

jc

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

Rc

0.867

1.214

1.474

1.734

1.994

2.254

Pc (%)

0.714

1.214

1.429

1.643

1.857

kc

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.89
0.732

0.89

0.89

0.89

0.89

0.89

1.025

1.244

1.464

1.684

1.903

0.433

0.606

0.736

0.866

0.997

1.127

kc

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

jc

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

Rc

0.653

0.914

1.11

1.306

1.502

1.698

Pc (%)

0.314

0.44

0.534

0.628

0.722

0.816

m scbc

(a) sst =
140
N/mm2
(Fe 250)

(b) sst = j
c
190
Rc
N/mm2
Pc (%)
(c ) sst =
230
N/mm2
(Fe 415)

Grade of concrete M
tbd (N / mm2)

Shear stress tc
100As
M-20
bd
0.15
0.18
0.16
0.18
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.2
0.19
0.21
0.2
0.22
0.2
0.23
0.2
0.24
0.21
0.25
0.21
0.26
0.21
0.27
0.22
0.28
0.22
0.29
0.22
0.3
0.23
0.31
0.23
0.32
0.24
0.33
0.24
0.34
0.24
0.35
0.25
0.36
0.25
0.37
0.25
0.38
0.26
0.39
0.26
0.4
0.26
0.41
0.27
0.42
0.27
0.43
0.27
0.44
0.28
0.45
0.28
0.46
0.28
0.47
0.29
0.48
0.29
0.49
0.29
0.5
0.30
0.51
0.30
0.52
0.30
0.53
0.30
0.54
0.30
0.55
0.31
0.56
0.31

Reiforcement %
100As
M-20
bd
0.18
0.15
0.19
0.18
0.2
0.21
0.21
0.24
0.22
0.27
0.23
0.3
0.24
0.32
0.25
0.35
0.26
0.38
0.27
0.41
0.28
0.44
0.29
0.47
0.30
0.5
0.31
0.55
0.32
0.6
0.33
0.65
0.34
0.7
0.35
0.75
0.36
0.82
0.37
0.88
0.38
0.94
0.39
1.00
0.4
1.08
0.41
1.16
0.42
1.25
0.43
1.33
0.44
1.41
0.45
1.50
0.46
1.63
0.46
1.64
0.47
1.75
0.48
1.88
0.49
2.00
0.50
2.13
0.51
2.25

Value of angle
Degree
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

sin
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.42
0.50
0.57
0.64
0.71
0.77
0.82
0.87
0.91

cos
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.87
0.82
0.77
0.71
0.64
0.57
0.50
0.42

tan
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.58
0.70
0.84
1.00
1.19
1.43
1.73
2.14

0.57
0.58
0.59
0.6
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.7
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.8
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08

0.31
0.31
0.31
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.32
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.4

1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37
1.38
1.39
1.40
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.44
1.45
1.46
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.54
1.55
1.56
1.57
1.58
1.59
1.60

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

1.61
1.62
1.63
1.64
1.65
1.66
1.67
1.68
1.69
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.79
1.80
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85
1.86
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.94
1.95
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.99
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.09
2.10
2.11
2.12

0.45
0.45
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49

2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27
2.28
2.29
2.30
2.31
2.32
2.33
2.34
2.35
2.36
2.37
2.38
2.39
2.40
2.41
2.42
2.43
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.47
2.48
2.49
2.50
2.51
2.52
2.53
2.54
2.55
2.56
2.57
2.58
2.59
2.60
2.61
2.62
2.63
2.64

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

2.65
2.66
2.67
2.68
2.69
2.70
2.71
2.72
2.73
2.74
2.75
2.76
2.77
2.78
2.79
2.80
2.81
2.82
2.83
2.84
2.85
2.86
2.87
2.88
2.89
2.90
2.91
2.92
2.93
2.94
2.95
2.96
2.97
2.98
2.99
3.00
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07
3.08
3.09
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15

0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

Table 3.1. Permissible shear stress Table tc in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


100As
bd
< 0.15
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75

Permissible shear stress in concrete


M-15
M-20
M-25
M-30
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.2
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.23
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.34
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.45
0.42
0.45
0.46
0.48
0.44
0.47
0.49
0.50
0.44
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.44
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.44
0.51
0.55
0.57
0.44
0.51
0.56
0.58
0.44
0.51
0.57
0.6

3.00 and above

tc N/mm2
M-35
M-40
0.2
0.2
0.23
0.23
0.31
0.32
0.37
0.38
0.42
0.42
0.45
0.46
0.49
0.49
0.52
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.60
0.60
0.62
0.62
0.63

Table 3.2. Facor k


Over all depth of slab

300 or more

1.00

275
1.05

250
1.10

225
1.15

200
1.20

175
1.25

150 or less
1.30

Table 3.3. Maximum shear stress tc.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Grade of concrete

M-15
1.6

tc.max

M-20
1.8

M-25
1.9

M-30
2.2

M-35
2.3

M-40
2.5

Table 3.4. Permissible Bond stress Table tbd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
Grade of concrete M10
-tbd (N / mm2)

15
0.6

20
0.8

25
0.9

30
1

35
1.1

40
1.2

Table 3.5. Development Length in tension


Plain M.S. Bars
Grade of
concrete tbd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld F

H.Y.S.D. Bars
tbd (N / mm2)

kd = Ld F

M 15

0.6

58

0.96

60

M 20

0.8

44

1.28

45

M 25

0.9

39

1.44

40

M 30

35

1.6

36

M 35

1.1

32

1.76

33

M 40

1.2

29

1.92

30

M 45

1.3

27

2.08

28

M 50

1.4

25

2.24

26

45
1.3

Value of angle
tan
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.58
0.70
0.84
1.00
1.19
1.43
1.73
2.14

Degree
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

sin
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.42
0.50
0.57
0.64
0.71
0.77
0.82
0.87
0.91

cos
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.87
0.82
0.77
0.71
0.64
0.57
0.50
0.42

: 456-2000)
50
1.4