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There are 7 lessons in this course: 1.

Introduction to Genetics o Plant cells o Animal cells o Cell division - mitosis (asexual reproduction); meiosis (sexual reproduction) o Genes - phenotype and genotype; homogenous and heterogonous o Terminology o The work of Mendel o Sex determination 2. Genetics o Gene mutations o Lethal genes o Effect of the environment o Hybrid vigour o Genetics in agriculture o Heritability 3. Selection o Animal breeding programs o Agriculture o Decide on your priorities o Dual purpose animals o Artificial selection o Gene groups o Regression o Domestic animals - Dogs, cats etc. 4. Pure Breeding o Inbreeding - close breeding and line breeding o Genetic effects of inbreeding o Advantages and disadvantages 5. Introduction to Cross Breeding o The effects of cross breeding in farm animals o Genetic effects, phenotype effects, heterosis, and genotype effect o Cross breeding in sheep o Cross breeding in domestic animals 6. Cross Breeding o Practical cross breeding o Two breed or single cross o Back cross or crisscrossing o Cyclical crossing o Rotational crossing o Advantages of cross breeding o Reciprocal recurrent selection o Breed societies o Grading up 7. Livestock Improvement

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Performance Testing Sib Testing Progeny testing Relative breeding Values (RBV) Artificial insemination Synchronized heats Ova transplants

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

Explain genetic influence on the characteristics exhibited by animals. Explain the factors that interact with genes to produce nonconformity in animals. Develop procedures to select animals for a breeding program. Develop an animal straight breeding program. Develop an animal cross breeding program. Explain the commercial methods used to breed farm animals.

What You Will Do


Explain how genes control the inheritance of characteristics, using two specific examples of animal breeding. Distinguish between the phenotype and the genotype, of a specified farm animal. Distinguish between dominant and recessive gene pairs. Explain the differences in the function of chromosomes, of a specified fowl, when compared with a specified mammalian farm animal. Describe the linkage of gender with the expression of non-sex character traits, in a specified farm animal. Explain the role of mutation in animal breeding, including both positive and negative aspects. Explain the role of the environment in all factors which determine genetic expression in animals. Explain the relevance of hybrid vigour to breeding different animals, including; *chickens *pigs *sheep Explain heritability in different classes of livestock, including: * dairy cattle *beef cattle *pigs *sheep. Develop a set of aims for a breeding program, for a chosen farm animal. Develop a checklist of criteria for selecting animals in a breeding program for a specified type of farm animal. Explain natural selection, by giving an example of its application in a farm animal breeding program.

Explain artificial selection in animal breeding programs, including: * its aims *the methods used. Explain genetic regression by giving an example of its possible occurrence in a farm breeding program. Design a checklist of factors to consider when purchasing breeding stock for a specified farm situation. Explain how an animal breeder in the learner's locality selects animals from which to breed, for a commercial breeding program. Distinguish between different types of straight breeding, including: *close breeding *line breeding. Explain how a specified pure breed (ie. straight breed) is maintained. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of line breeding in a breeding program for a specified type of farm animal. Explain where it would be appropriate to use line breeding methods in animal breeding programs. Explain where it would be appropriate to use close breeding methods in animal breeding programs. Write a procedure for straight breeding of a specified type of animal. Differentiate between different types of cross breeding, including: *terminal cross *two breed cross *back cross *three breed cross *rotational cross. Explain the concept of 'grading up', as it relates to commercial animal husbandry. Evaluate 'crossbreeding' in an animal breeding program investigated by the learner, to determine its relevance to the situation. Determine a commercial situation, in which crossbreeding may be justified. Explain the services provided by a specified Breed Society in cross breeding, on a specified farm. Write a procedure for cross breeding of a specified type of animal. Define breeding terminology including: *artificial insemination *synchronized heats *ova transplants. Describe the breeding programs which use artificial insemination, synchronized heats and ova transplants. Explain the importance of synchronized heats to breeding animals. Describe two different testing methods, observed by the learner that is used for animal breeding programs. Evaluate the relevance of breeding methods that are used on a specified property to the stated aims of the property owner. Describe the husbandry procedures which may be carried out during the pregnancy of a specified farm animal. Describe husbandry practices which may be carried out during the birth of a specified type of farm animal, including: *routine husbandry procedures *emergency husbandry procedures. Plan the management of a breeding program to maximize male breeding performance for either: *dairy *pigs *poultry *beef *sheep *horses Perform and record the birth of a specified animal.

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