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TERMS AND DEFINITIONS. Isochoric Process - a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant volume so that no work is done on or by the system. Isothermal Process - A thermodynamic process that takes place at constant temperature and in which the systems internal energy remains the same. Adiabatic Process- The thermodynamic process wherein energy is not transferred to or from a system by heat Isobaric Process - A process that takes place in a system is one wherein there is a change in the internal energy, the amount of heat flowing into the system, and the work done by the system, while the pressure remains constant. Heat Engine- is any device that converts heat energy into work. Heat Pump- is a device that transfers heat energy from a low-temperature reservoir to a hightemperature reservoir. Thermal Efficiency- a measure of how well an engine operates. It is the ratio of work done by the engine to the energy added to the system by heat during one cycle. Entropy- a term introduced by Clausius in 1865, is a measure of the disorder in a system. Waste heat- it is a certain amount of heat that is not converted into work Thermodynamics- is the branch of classical physics that is concerned with heat and its relation to temperature, work and energy.

LAWS/THEORIES/PRINCIPLES Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings. A thermodynamic system is the collection of objects on which attention is being focused, and the surroundings are everything else in the environment. The state of a system is the physical condition of the system, as described by values for physical parameters, often pressure, volume, and temperature. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. Two systems are in thermal equilibrium if there is no net flow of heat between them when they are brought into thermal contact. Temperature is the indicator of thermal equilibrium in the sense that there is no net flow of heat between two systems in thermal contact that have the same temperature. The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

If A and C are in thermal equilibrium with B, then A is in thermal equilibrium with C. Practically this means that all three are at the same temperature, and it forms the basis for comparison of temperatures. It is so named because it logically precedes the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics states that due to heat Q and work W, the internal energy of a system changes from its initial value of Ui to a final value of Uf according to Equation 15.1. In this equation Q is positive when the system gains heat and negative when it loses heat. W is positive when work is done by the system and negative when work is done on the system. The first law of thermodynamics is the conservation-of-energy principle applied to heat, work, and the change in the internal energy. The internal energy is called a function of state because it depends only on the state of the system and not on the method by which the system came to be in a given state. The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamic processes:

The first law makes use of the key concepts of internal energy, heat, and system work. It is used extensively in the discussion of heat engines. The standard unit for all these quantities would be the joule, although they are sometimes expressed in calories or BTU.

Heat Engines. A heat engine produces work from input heat that is extracted from a heat reservoir at a relatively high temperature. The engine rejects heat into a reservoir at a relatively low temperature. The efficiency e ofa heat engine is given by

A heat engine typically uses energy provided in the form of heat to do work and then exhausts the heat which cannot be used to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of the relationships between heat and work. The first law and second law of thermodynamics constrain the operation of a heat engine. The first law is the application of conservation of energy to the system, and the second sets limits on the possible efficiency of the machine and determines the direction of energy flow.

General heat engines can be described by the reservoir model (left) or by a PV diagram (right) The Second Law of Thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics can be stated in a number of equivalent forms. In terms of heat flow, the second law declares that heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the reverse direction. APPLICATIONS Refrigerators. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that heat will spontaneously always flow from a hot region to a cold region. By itself it never flows the other way, but can be made to do so under the influence of an external agency. The Second Law of Thermodynamics also states that this outside influence must do some work. In a kitchen refrigerator the inside of a closed box is to be kept cool by removing heat from the inside and depositing it on the outside. Because the heat will not move freely from the cold inside to the hot outside it must be made to do so using an intermediate fluid which absorbs heat on the inside, then carries outside of the box and releases the heat to the air This fluid circulates in a pipe which passes in and out of the back of the refrigerator, kept moving by a compressor driven by an electric motor. It is the work done by this compressor (using electrical energy from the household

electricity supply) that makes the refrigerator work without violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Any refrigerator takes in energy from the region to be cooled (or kept cold) and deposits heat energy into some region outside of the refrigerator, such as your kitchen. In order to work there has to be some work done by the compressor and its electric motor. Using the First Law of Thermodynamics we can write QC - QH = -W (Note: since work in done one the refrigerator by another device, the compressor, rather than by the refrigerator itself, according to the sign convention which is part of the first law, the work done is negative.) Suppose that 2.4 MJ of work is used to remove 5.2 MJ of heat from the inside of the refrigerator, then an amount of heat QH = QC + W = 5.2 MJ + 2.4 MJ = 7.6 MJ must be added to the kitchen. Air Conditioners. With the same concept as the principles in refrigerators, ir conditioners make us of special liquids which absorb heat as they change from a liquid to a gas and release the heat again as they change from a gas to a liquid. COLD region = house HOT region = outside HEAT PUMP = evaporator, compressor, condenser and liquid

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with each other: A. they cannot be moving B. they cannot be undergoing an elastic collision C. they cannot have different pressures D. they cannot be at different temperatures E. they cannot be falling in Earths gravitational field 2. The zeroth law of thermodynamics allows us to define: A. work B. pressure C. temperature D. thermal equilibrium E. internal energy 3. A constant-volume gas thermometer is used to measure the temperature of an object. When the thermometer is in contact with water at its triple point (273.16 K) the pressure in the thermometer is 8.500 104 Pa. When it is in contact with the object the pressure is 9.650 104 Pa. The temperature of the object is: A. 37.0K B. 241K C. 310K D. 314K E. 2020K 4. Heat has the same units as: A. temperature B. work C. energy/time D. heat capacity E. energy/volume 5. An ideal gas expands into a vacuum in a rigid vessel. As a result there is: A. a change in entropy B. an increase of pressure C. a change in temperature D. a decrease of internal energy E. a change in phase PROBLEMS. 1. If warm air rises, why is the temperature at the top of the mountains lower than down below? Answer: It is true that warm air rises, but as it gradually rises, it becomes thinner and expands, which possesses a cooling effect. On the high mountain ranges, the surrounding atmospheric air is very thin: so that there is also not much surrounding air to hold the heat in when the sun does warm the mountain, and much of the warming effect escapes.

2. An engine takes in 9000 J and does 1700 J of work each cycle while operating at the temperatures 650C and 370 C. (a) What is the engines actual efficiency? (b) What is the maximum theoretical efficiency of this system? Given: Solution:

Required: a. Efficiency = ? b. Maximum theoretical efficiency =?